Latest & greatest articles for children

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Top results for children

1. Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children

Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children Signal - Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children Published on 13 February 2018 Children who eat takeaways once or more each week have more body fat and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) “bad” cholesterol levels than those who never (...) or hardly ever eat them. Their diets were also higher in fat and lower in protein and calcium. This cross-sectional study looked in depth at eating habits and risk markers for coronary heart disease, obesity and diabetes in 2,529 children in England. Though this type of study can only show an association between takeaways and risk markers, it is one of the first of its type, and the results do give cause for concern. Increasing numbers of people are eating takeaways in the UK. Local authorities

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

2. A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain

A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain Signal - A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain Published on 13 February 2018 The Healthy Lifestyle Programme delivered to 9-10-year-old school children did not reduce their weight over the course of two years. Around (...) a third remained overweight or obese, the same as in schools that followed the standard syllabus. This trial, funded by the NIHR, assigned schools across Devon to follow a lifestyle programme in Year five. The comprehensive curriculum included drama and activity workshops, personal goal setting and parental involvement. Children made better food choices, but this did not affect weight outcomes. It was almost certain the programme wouldn’t give value for money. Programmes addressing the wider school

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

3. Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia

Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia Signal - Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia Published on 27 February 2018 Post-operative vomiting is common in children (...) . One strategy is to use an intravenous anaesthetic, which is known to cause lower rates of sickness than inhaled anaesthetics. There are disadvantages to this though, such as the need for injections before a child is asleep, slowing of the heart and difficulty in monitoring depth of the anaesthetic. This review of four trials included 558 children who had an operation to correct a squint. A third of children in each anaesthetic group had post-operative vomiting. There was no difference in time

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

4. Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs

Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs Signal - Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs Published on 27 March 2018 Helping children and parents to manage long-term conditions like asthma may reduce their need for emergency care, and is unlikely to reduce children’s (...) quality of life. This NIHR review found that structured professional help with self-care, including online support, provision of care plans, case management and face-to-face education, was linked to small increases in quality of life scores and fewer emergency department visits. However, there was no clear evidence that supported self-care reduced hospital admissions or overall costs. Most of the 97 studies reviewed included children with asthma (66 studies) or mental health conditions (18 studies

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

5. Vaccination likely to reduce flu in healthy children

Vaccination likely to reduce flu in healthy children Vaccination likely to reduce flu in healthy children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Vaccination likely to reduce influenza in healthy children Published on 22 May 2018 doi: In healthy children aged two to 16, vaccines are likely to reduce laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza and may reduce the risk of influenza-like illness compared to placebo. Seven children need to receive the live vaccine to prevent one case (...) of confirmed influenza. Twenty children need to be vaccinated to prevent one case of influenza-like illness. This updated Cochrane review included 41 trials of either live attenuated (weakened) or inactivated influenza vaccines, with over 200,000 participants. The evidence gave a moderate to high level of certainty about their effects on influenza, but only a low certainty about the effect on influenza-like illness due to problems in reporting and data capture. The finding supports the benefits

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

6. Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children

Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Lorazepam confirmed as first-line treatment for stopping prolonged seizures in children Published on 17 April 2018 Intravenous lorazepam is as effective as intravenous diazepam for stopping children’s tonic-clonic seizures in hospital. Lorazepam also results in fewer (...) breathing problems than diazepam. Giving antiepileptic drugs intravenously generally stops seizures more quickly than giving the drugs buccally (in the cheek), intranasally (in the nose) or rectally. However, this effect can be cancelled out if administering the drug into the veins takes too long. Two of the 18 included trials were carried out in the UK, but they were all carried out in large children’s hospitals or departments similar to the UK. The new evidence confirms advice in the existing NICE

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

7. Early exposure to peanut snacks can lead to sustained protection in high-risk children

Early exposure to peanut snacks can lead to sustained protection in high-risk children Signal - Early exposure to peanut snacks can lead to sustained protection in high-risk children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Early exposure to peanut snacks can lead to sustained protection in high-risk children Published on 10 May 2016 Early exposure, up to age five, to peanut products in children with severe eczema or egg allergy appears to induce tolerance that is sustained when (...) peanut products are later avoided, suggesting it is not necessary to keep eating peanuts long term. This trial and its follow up study examined the effect of giving peanut products to very young children (aged four to 11 months) who were at high risk of peanut allergy. Children given regular peanut butter snacks until five years of age were much less likely to have a peanut allergy than those avoiding peanuts. There was a benefit even if they had an initial positive skin prick test suggesting allergy

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

8. Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children

Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children Signal - Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children Published on 10 May 2016 Children in intensive care had lower rates of infection when using antibiotic coated central lines (also called central venous catheters) compared to standard central (...) lines or those coated with heparin – an anti-clotting agent. Antibiotic or heparin coated central lines have long been used in adults to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infections, but evidence for benefits in children was lacking. This NIHR funded trial provides evidence that use of antibiotic coated central lines could reduce bloodstream infections in paediatric intensive care units. The researchers say cost-effectiveness, based on six-month hospital resource data, will be reported

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

9. “Triptans” can relieve migraines in children and adolescents

“Triptans” can relieve migraines in children and adolescents Signal - “Triptans” can relieve migraines in children and adolescents Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover “Triptans” can relieve migraines in children and adolescents Published on 13 September 2016 Triptans, a migraine medication, relieve migraine headache completely within two hours compared to placebo. Ibuprofen was also effective but less well studied. This review was also reassuring in that any side effects (...) of treatment were mild. Most evidence identified in this Cochrane review was for sumatriptan, a commonly prescribed treatment for adults, compared to placebo or dummy pills. A few studies examined other triptans or other painkillers, such as ibuprofen or paracetamol against placebo in children and adults. The findings support current guideline recommendations to prescribe nasal triptans for migraine in adolescents. Only nasal preparations are currently licensed for adolescents, whereas oral administration

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

10. Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures

Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures Signal - Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Vomiting is the most common adverse effect among children and young people sedated for emergency procedures Published on 27 September 2016 Vomiting is the most common adverse event when sedating a child or young person (...) undergoing a procedure in the emergency department, occurring in 55.5 out of 1,000 cases. Agitation occurred in 17.9/1,000 cases, and hypoxia – lack of oxygen – in 14.8 out of 1,000 cases. Serious breathing problems needing intervention to provide ventilation were rare, but highlight the need for experienced staff when giving sedation to children. This systematic review included 41 studies, six of which were UK-based. It pooled the frequency of adverse events when using different sedation drugs, alone

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

11. Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work

Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work Signal - Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Simple approaches to weight management of children and adolescents in primary care may not work Published on 8 November 2016 Brief education and motivational interventions delivered by primary care professionals in several short consultations (...) had only a marginal effect on weight loss among overweight or mildly obese children and young people. Obesity can cause immediate health and wellbeing issues in children but also has significant implications for their long term health. Given that many of these health problems will present in a primary care setting, commissioners have been interested in primary care based programmes to tackle obesity and the “intensity” of the intervention required to make a difference. The findings that a few

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

12. Regular use of fluoride mouthrinse is an option to reduce tooth decay in school children

Regular use of fluoride mouthrinse is an option to reduce tooth decay in school children Signal - Regular use of fluoride mouthrinse is an option to reduce tooth decay in school children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Regular use of fluoride mouthrinse is an option to reduce tooth decay in school children Published on 8 November 2016 A reduction in tooth decay of about 27% can be expected from the supervised regular use of fluoride mouthrinsing by school children (...) . Tooth decay has a significant impact on health and wellbeing. It is more common in disadvantaged communities and can be prevented by good oral hygiene and diet with reduced sugar intake. Children and young people are encouraged to brush their teeth regularly with fluoride toothpaste and some schools in the UK have supervised programmes to encourage this. This review included 37 trials where children received supervised mouthrinsing in schools, but did not compare this with supervised toothbrushing

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

13. Young children from deprived areas are more at risk of serious burns and scalds

Young children from deprived areas are more at risk of serious burns and scalds Signal - Young children from deprived areas are more at risk of serious burns and scalds Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Young children from deprived areas are more at risk of serious burns and scalds Published on 24 January 2017 Five in every 1,000 children under four are injured by burns and scalds each year in England, although these injuries are becoming less common. Serious injuries (...) needing hospital treatment happen more often to children from deprived areas than wealthy areas. The study looked at general practice data from 1998 to 2013. It showed a steady decline in children having burns and scalds over the 15 year period, and the gap between least- and most-deprived areas has narrowed. However, children from the most deprived areas are more than twice as likely to need hospital treatment. Children aged 15 to 17 months are most at risk. Most burns and scalds are preventable

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

14. Risks and benefits of ondansetron for children with acute gastroenteritis

Risks and benefits of ondansetron for children with acute gastroenteritis Signal - Risks and benefits of ondansetron for children with acute gastroenteritis Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Risks and benefits of ondansetron for children with acute gastroenteritis Published on 7 February 2017 Giving ondansetron to children with acute gastroenteritis can stop vomiting, reduce the risk of oral rehydration treatment failing, and reduce the chances of needing intravenous (...) rehydration. But the drug can worsen diarrhoea symptoms. This systematic review looked for evidence about ondansetron’s effectiveness in stopping vomiting and for any impact on diarrhoea or other side effects. Only five out of the 10 included trials reported on diarrhoea related outcomes and they all used different outcome measures so the results could not be combined. This means that although diarrhoea is a recognised side-effect, it is still not known to what extent children given ondansetron may

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

15. Corticosteroids given early reduce risk of heart problems in children with Kawasaki disease

Corticosteroids given early reduce risk of heart problems in children with Kawasaki disease Signal - Corticosteroids given early reduce risk of heart problems in children with Kawasaki disease Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Corticosteroids given early reduce risk of heart problems in children with Kawasaki disease Published on 14 February 2017 Early treatment with corticosteroids on top of standard therapy reduces the risk of serious heart problems in children under five (...) with the rare vascular disease, Kawasaki disease. The disease needs to be recognised early, but can be hard to spot outside specialist care because it is so rare. It is now the commonest cause of acquired heart disease in children and delayed diagnosis can have serious consequences. Blood vessels supplying the heart become inflamed, increasing the risk of heart attack and death in later life. The disease is about 20 times more common in people of Japanese origin. This summary of the evidence found

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

16. Parent-focused therapy has some long-term benefits for children with autism

Parent-focused therapy has some long-term benefits for children with autism Signal - Parent-focused therapy has some long-term benefits for children with autism Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Parent-focused therapy has some long-term benefits for children with autism Published on 14 February 2017 A parent-focused therapy for young children with autism continues to have beneficial effects on symptoms and communication almost six years after the end of treatment. This UK (...) randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of a one-year social communication therapy in 152 UK children aged two to four years with severe autism. The therapy, partly delivered by parents, aimed to help them adapt their style of interacting with their child. Children who received the intervention had less severe symptoms at the end of the initial one-year intervention period than those who received treatment as usual. When these children were followed up nearly six years later at age seven

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

17. Fluoride-based treatments alone are not enough to stop tooth decay in young children

Fluoride-based treatments alone are not enough to stop tooth decay in young children Signal - Fluoride-based treatments alone are not enough to stop tooth decay in young children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Fluoride-based treatments alone are not enough to stop tooth decay in young children Published on 22 November 2016 Providing a set of additional fluoride-based treatments at dental appointments for children aged two to three years was no better than health education (...) at preventing tooth decay. A range of public health measures to reduce sugar consumption are also needed. The treatment involved providing fluoride toothpaste and applying a fluoride varnish to the teeth at each six-monthly appointment for three years. This large NIHR-funded trial in Northern Ireland found no difference in the number of children developing tooth decay, though children in the treatment arm had fewer teeth showing signs of decay. The estimated cost was £2,093 per child who avoided tooth decay

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

18. Intermittent inhaled steroids reduce asthma attacks in wheezing preschool children

Intermittent inhaled steroids reduce asthma attacks in wheezing preschool children Signal - Intermittent inhaled steroids reduce asthma attacks in wheezing preschool children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Intermittent inhaled steroids reduce asthma attacks in wheezing preschool children Published on 22 November 2016 Regular daily steroid inhalers reduce the number of severe asthma exacerbations requiring soluble tablets or injections in wheezing preschool children (...) by about a third. Intermittent high-dose steroid inhalers, given only when symptoms of a cold begin, were also effective for children with occasional asthma or wheezing triggered by a virus. This strategy may reduce the overall dose of steroids given to these children, though adverse effects may still occur. Wheezing is initially treated with a β2 agonist inhaler which opens up the airways. UK guidelines recommend adding in a daily low-dose steroid inhaler if symptoms are persistent, which

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

19. Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children

Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Signal - Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Published on 30 August 2016 Interventions aimed at improving communication between GPs and parents could reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for childhood upper (...) , one in the UK. It could be used to improve the training and information provided to help tackle inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Perhaps most importantly it highlights the need to ensure parental involvement in the process. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Upper respiratory infections include the common cold, tonsillitis and flu. Children tend to get these infections more often than adults because they have yet to build up immunity to them. The majority of upper

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019

20. Nurses lack confidence in escalating or identifying children at risk of abuse and neglect

Nurses lack confidence in escalating or identifying children at risk of abuse and neglect Signal - Nurses lack confidence in escalating or identifying children at risk of abuse and neglect Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Nurses lack confidence in escalating or identifying children at risk of abuse and neglect Published on 6 December 2016 On the face of it, nurses are well placed to safeguard children, but asking them about their experiences reveals barriers which hinder (...) safeguarding action. There is also a tension between being seen as caring, compassionate and trustworthy, and watching for abuse and neglect in vulnerable families. Current training is not enough to equip nurses with the necessary skills to confidently and effectively safeguard children. Instead, education could be tailored to specific situations. These findings were based on international studies where child protection policies and services and the training and expectations of nurses differ. Therefore

NIHR Dissemination Centre2019