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Latest & greatest articles for cardiovascular disease
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Targeting Postprandial Hyperglycemia With Physical Activity May Reduce CardiovascularDisease Risk. But What Should We Do, and When Is the Right Time to Move? 30073171 2018 11 14 2297-055X 5 2018 Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine Front Cardiovasc Med Targeting Postprandial Hyperglycemia With Physical Activity May Reduce CardiovascularDisease Risk. But What Should We Do, and When Is the Right Time to Move? 99 10.3389/fcvm.2018.00099 Physical inactivity and excessive postprandial (...) hyperglycemia are two major independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular-related mortality. Current health policy guidelines recommend at least 150 min of physical activity per week coupled with reduced daily sedentary behavior by interrupting prolonged sitting with bouts of light activity every 30-min. This evidence-based strategy promotes health and quality of life. Since modern lifestyle enforces physical inactivity through motorized transportation and seated office working
Omega-6 fats for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovasculardisease. BACKGROUND: Omega-6 fats are polyunsaturated fats vital for many physiological functions, but their effect on cardiovasculardisease (CVD) risk is debated. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing omega-6 fats (linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)) on CVD and all-cause mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to May (...) , 4019 randomised, 7 trials), coronary heart disease events (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.17, 1059 people with events of 3997 randomised, 7 trials), major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.20, 817 events, 2879 participants, 2 trials) or stroke (RR 1.36, 95% CI 0.45 to 4.11, 54 events, 3730 participants, 4 trials), as we assessed the evidence as being of very low quality. We found no evidence of dose-response or duration effects for any primary outcome
Polyunsaturated fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovasculardisease. BACKGROUND: Evidence on the health effects of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is equivocal. Fish oils are rich in omega-3 PUFA and plant oils in omega-6 PUFA. Evidence suggests that increasing PUFA-rich foods, supplements or supplemented foods can reduce serum cholesterol, but may increase body weight, so overall cardiovascular effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing (...) total PUFA intake on cardiovasculardisease and all-cause mortality, lipids and adiposity in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to April 2017 and clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to September 2016, without language restrictions. We checked trials included in relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing higher with lower PUFA intakes in adults
Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovasculardisease. BACKGROUND: Researchers have suggested that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from oily fish (long-chain omega-3 (LCn3), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), as well as from plants (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) benefit cardiovascular health. Guidelines recommend increasing omega-3-rich foods, and sometimes supplementation, but recent trials have not confirmed (...) participants; 8189 deaths in 39 trials, high-quality evidence), cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.03, 67,772 participants; 4544 CVD deaths in 25 RCTs), cardiovascular events (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.04, 90,378 participants; 14,737 people experienced events in 38 trials, high-quality evidence), coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.09, 73,491 participants; 1596 CHD deaths in 21 RCTs), stroke (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.16, 89,358 participants; 1822 strokes
Vitamin D Supplementation, Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations and CardiovascularDisease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 30050908 2018 11 14 2297-055X 5 2018 Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine Front Cardiovasc Med Vitamin D Supplementation, Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations and CardiovascularDisease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 87 10.3389/fcvm.2018.00087 Background: Cardiovasculardisease (CVD) risk factors are associated with low serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (...) (25(OH)D) concentrations in observational studies; however, clinical trial findings are inconsistent. Objective: We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation and increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations on CVD risk factors in a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Design: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched for RCTs that evaluated vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes [blood pressure, parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum
Scale development and psychometric properties of the Cardiac Self-Blame Attributions scale in patients with cardiovasculardisease 30083370 2018 11 14 2055-1029 5 2 2018 Jul-Dec Health psychology open Health Psychol Open Scale development and psychometric properties of the Cardiac Self-Blame Attributions scale in patients with cardiovasculardisease. 2055102918786865 10.1177/2055102918786865 Patients with cardiovasculardisease may attribute their cardiovasculardisease to their behaviors (...) (behavioral self-blame) or to their dispositions (characterological self-blame). However, findings are mixed on the effects of behavioral self-blame and characterological self-blame on health outcomes, possibly because there are no validated, multiple-item measures. This study developed and tested an 11-item Cardiac Self-Blame Attributions scale via questionnaire data from 121 patients with cardiovasculardisease. Results yielded a two-factor structure that explained 65 percent of the variance, with good
Prenatal biochemical screening and long term risk of maternal cardiovasculardisease: population based cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether abnormal prenatal biochemical screening results are associated with an increased risk of premature cardiovasculardisease after pregnancy. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: The entire province of Ontario, Canada, where healthcare is universally available. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 12-55 years, without pre-existing cardiovasculardisease (...) admission for heart failure or dysrhythmia at least 365 days after pregnancy. RESULTS: Among 855 536 pregnancies, and after a median of 11.4 (interquartile range 6.8-17.5) years of follow-up, 6209 women developed the main cardiovasculardisease outcome. Abnormal results for each of the five prenatal biochemical screening analytes, especially dimeric inhibin-A, were associated with a higher risk of cardiovasculardisease. Women with an abnormally high dimeric inhibin-A (≥95th centile) had the highest
Nontraditional Risk Factors in CardiovascularDisease Risk Assessment: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Importance: Incorporating nontraditional risk factors may improve the performance of traditional multivariable risk assessment for cardiovasculardisease (CVD). Objective: To systematically review evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force on the benefits and harms of 3 nontraditional risk factors in cardiovascular risk (...) assessment: the ankle-brachial index (ABI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies published through May 22, 2017. Surveillance continued through February 7, 2018. Study Selection: Studies of asymptomatic adults with no known cardiovasculardisease. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Independent critical appraisal and data abstraction by 2 reviewers. Main
Risk Assessment for CardiovascularDisease With Nontraditional Risk Factors: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Importance: Cardiovasculardisease (CVD) is the most common cause of death among adults in the United States. Treatment to prevent CVD events by modifying risk factors is currently informed by the Framingham Risk Score, the Pooled Cohort Equations, or similar CVD risk assessment models. If current CVD risk assessment models could be improved by adding more (...) risk factors, treatment might be better targeted, thereby maximizing the benefits and minimizing the harms. Objective: To update the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on using nontraditional risk factors in coronary heart disease risk assessment. Evidence Review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on using nontraditional risk factors in CVD risk assessment, focusing on the ankle-brachial index (ABI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, and coronary artery
Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and CardiovascularDisease Risk Assessment With the Ankle-Brachial Index: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Importance: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis in the lower limbs. It can impair walking and, in severe cases, can lead to tissue loss, infection, and amputation. In addition to morbidity directly caused by PAD, patients with PAD are at increased risk for cardiovasculardisease (CVD (...) ) events, because atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that also causes coronary and cerebrovascular events. Objective: To update the 2013 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for PAD and CVD risk with the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Evidence Review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on whether screening for PAD with the ABI in generally asymptomatic adults reduces morbidity or mortality from PAD or CVD. The current review expanded on the previous review to include
Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Maternal CardiovascularDisease Risk Factor Development: An Observational Cohort Study. Background: Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are nearly twice as likely to develop cardiovasculardisease (CVD) as those who are normotensive during pregnancy. However, the emergence of CVD risk factors after HDP is less well-understood. Objective: To identify associations between HDP and maternal CVD risk factors and chart
Deciphering Non-coding RNAs in Cardiovascular Health and Disease 30013975 2018 11 14 2297-055X 5 2018 Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine Front Cardiovasc Med Deciphering Non-coding RNAs in Cardiovascular Health and Disease. 73 10.3389/fcvm.2018.00073 After being long considered as "junk" in the human genome, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) currently represent one of the newest frontiers in cardiovasculardisease (CVD) since they have emerged in recent years as potential therapeutic targets (...) for utilization as potential therapeutic targets and/or diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in CVDs. This review will discuss our current knowledge concerning the roles of different types of ncRNAs in cardiovascular health and disease and provide some insight on the cardioprotective signaling pathways elicited by the non-coding genome. We will highlight important basic and clinical breakthroughs that support employing ncRNAs for treatment or early diagnosis of a variety of CVDs, and also depict the most relevant
The effect of community-based interventions for cardiovasculardisease secondary prevention on behavioural risk factors 29802876 2018 07 13 1096-0260 114 2018 May 24 Preventive medicine Prev Med The effect of community-based interventions for cardiovasculardisease secondary prevention on behavioural risk factors. 24-38 S0091-7435(18)30175-0 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.05.019 Cardiovasculardisease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing; with limited healthcare (...) , Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org. eng Journal Article Review 2018 05 24 United States Prev Med 0322116 0091-7435 Behavioural medicine Cardiovasculardiseases Review Risk reduction behaviour Secondary prevention 2017 10 26 2018 05 03 2018 05 20 2018 5 29 6 0 2018 5 29 6 0 2018 5 27 6 0 aheadofprint 29802876 S0091-7435(18)30175-0 10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.05.019
Cardiovascular (CV) Risk after Initiation of Abatacept versus TNF Inhibitors in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with and without Baseline CV Disease 29764964 2018 05 16 0315-162X 2018 May 15 The Journal of rheumatology J. Rheumatol. Cardiovascular (CV) Risk after Initiation of Abatacept versus TNF Inhibitors in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with and without Baseline CV Disease. jrheum.170926 10.3899/jrheum.170926 To evaluate the cardiovascular safety of abatacept (ABA) versus tumor necrosis (...) factor inhibitors (TNFi) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with and without underlying cardiovasculardisease (CVD). We identified RA patients with and without baseline CVD who initiated ABA or TNFi by using data from 2 large US insurance claims databases: Medicare (2008-2013) and Truven MarketScan (2006-2015). After stratifying by baseline CVD, ABA initiators were 1:1 propensity score (PS) matched to TNFi initiators to control for > 60 baseline covariates. Cox proportional hazards regression
CardiovascularDisease: Risk Assessment With Nontraditional Risk Factors Final Update Summary: CardiovascularDisease: Risk Assessment With Nontraditional Risk Factors - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 188.8.131.528 Last Build: 3/6/2018 4:20:40 PM You are here: Final Summary CardiovascularDisease: Risk Assessment With Nontraditional Risk Factors Release Date: July 2018 Recommendation Summary Population Recommendation Grade Adults The USPSTF (...) concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of adding the ankle-brachial index (ABI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, or coronary artery calcium (CAC) score to traditional risk assessment for cardiovasculardisease (CVD) in asymptomatic adults to prevent CVD events. See the for suggestions for practice regarding the I statement. To read the recommendation statement in JAMA , select . To read the evidence summary in JAMA , select
Peripheral Artery Disease and CardiovascularDisease: Screening and Risk Assessment With the Ankle-Brachial Index Final Update Summary: Peripheral Artery Disease and CardiovascularDisease: Screening and Risk Assessment With the Ankle-Brachial Index - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 184.108.40.2068 Last Build: 3/6/2018 4:20:40 PM You are here: Final Summary Peripheral Artery Disease and CardiovascularDisease: Screening and Risk Assessment (...) With the Ankle-Brachial Index Release Date: July 2018 Recommendation Summary Population Recommendation Grade Adults The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and cardiovasculardisease (CVD) risk with the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in asymptomatic adults. See the for suggestions for practice regarding the I statement. To read the recommendation statement in JAMA , select . To read the evidence
Annual Risk of Major Bleeding Among Persons Without CardiovascularDisease Not Receiving Antiplatelet Therapy. Importance: A decision to initiate aspirin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovasculardisease (CVD) requires consideration of both treatment benefits and harms. The most significant harm associated with aspirin is major bleeding, yet there is a paucity of data on bleeding risk in suitable community populations. Objective: To determine the risk of major bleeding among people
Mobile phone-based interventions for improving adherence to medication prescribed for the primary prevention of cardiovasculardisease in adults. BACKGROUND: Cardiovasculardisease (CVD) is a major cause of disability and mortality globally. Premature fatal and non-fatal CVD is considered to be largely preventable through the control of risk factors via lifestyle modifications and preventive medication. Lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drug therapies for primary prevention are cost-effective (...) phones to improve adherence to cardiovascular medications prescribed for the primary prevention of CVD. We only included trials with a minimum of one-year follow-up in order that the outcome measures related to longer-term, sustained medication adherence behaviours and outcomes. Eligible comparators were usual care or control groups receiving no mobile phone-delivered component of the intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. We
Primary Prevention of CardiovascularDisease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts. Background Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown inverse associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. Methods In a multicenter trial in Spain, we assigned 7447 participants (55 to 80 years of age, 57% women) who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovasculardisease at enrollment, to one (...) of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was a major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). After a median follow-up of 4.8