Latest & greatest articles for cardiovascular disease

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Top results for cardiovascular disease

1. Mendelian Randomization Study of <i>ACLY</i> and Cardiovascular Disease. (PubMed)

Mendelian Randomization Study of ACLY and Cardiovascular Disease. ATP citrate lyase is an enzyme in the cholesterol-biosynthesis pathway upstream of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), the target of statins. Whether the genetic inhibition of ATP citrate lyase is associated with deleterious outcomes and whether it has the same effect, per unit decrease in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, as the genetic inhibition of HMGCR is unclear.We constructed (...) lifelong genetic inhibition of HMGCR was associated with an increased risk of cancer.Genetic variants that mimic the effect of ATP citrate lyase inhibitors and statins appeared to lower plasma LDL cholesterol levels by the same mechanism of action and were associated with similar effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease per unit decrease in the LDL cholesterol level. (Funded by Esperion Therapeutics and others.).Copyright © 2019 Massachusetts Medical Society.

2019 NEJM

2. Mediterranean-style diet for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. (PubMed)

Mediterranean-style diet for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The Seven Countries study in the 1960s showed that populations in the Mediterranean region experienced lower coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality probably as a result of different dietary patterns. Later observational studies have confirmed the benefits of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors but clinical trial evidence is more limited.To determine

2019 Cochrane

3. Transition from metabolically benign to metabolically unhealthy obesity and 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence: the ATTICA cohort study

Transition from metabolically benign to metabolically unhealthy obesity and 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence: the ATTICA cohort study Metabolically benign obesity remains a scientific field of considerable debate. The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether metabolically healthy obese (MHO) status is a transient condition which propagates 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset.A prospective longitudinal study was conducted during 2001-2012, the ATTICA study studying 1514

2019 EvidenceUpdates

4. Predicting Bleeding Risk to Guide Aspirin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Cohort Study. (PubMed)

Predicting Bleeding Risk to Guide Aspirin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Cohort Study. Many prognostic models for cardiovascular risk can be used to estimate aspirin's absolute benefits, but few bleeding risk models are available to estimate its likely harms.To develop prognostic bleeding risk models among persons in whom aspirin might be considered for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).Prospective cohort study.New Zealand primary care.The study (...) models included the following predictors: demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic deprivation), clinical measurements (systolic blood pressure and ratio of total-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), family history of premature CVD, medical history (smoking, diabetes, bleeding, peptic ulcer disease, cancer, chronic liver disease, chronic pancreatitis, or alcohol-related conditions), and medication use (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, corticosteroids, and selective

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

5. Fish oil supplements do not reduce cardiovascular deaths in people with diabetes without existing vascular disease

Fish oil supplements do not reduce cardiovascular deaths in people with diabetes without existing vascular disease Fish oil supplements lack heart benefits in diabetes without existing vascular disease Discover Portal Discover Portal Fish oil supplements do not reduce cardiovascular deaths in people with diabetes without existing vascular disease Published on 4 December 2018 doi: Omega-3 fatty acid supplements make no difference to cardiovascular outcomes in people with diabetes but without (...) established cardiovascular disease. Serious vascular events like heart attack, stroke or deaths from these occurred in about 10% of people regardless of whether they took daily omega-3 or placebo capsules for seven years. The ASCEND study is a large UK trial assessing primary cardiovascular prevention for people with any type of diabetes. A companion publication assesses the use of aspirin. The results are consistent with a recent large Cochrane review assessing omega-3 fatty acids in any population

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

6. The effect of glycemic control on cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes with pre-existing cardiovascular disease - a systematic review and meta-analysis

The effect of glycemic control on cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes with pre-existing cardiovascular disease - a systematic review and meta-analysis The role of intensive glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes and pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is controversial. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine in a subset of people with type 2 diabetes and pre-existing CVD, the CV effect of intensive glucose control versus standard

2019 EvidenceUpdates

7. Association of Genetic Variants Related to Gluteofemoral vs Abdominal Fat Distribution With Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary Disease, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. (PubMed)

Association of Genetic Variants Related to Gluteofemoral vs Abdominal Fat Distribution With Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary Disease, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Body fat distribution, usually measured using waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), is an important contributor to cardiometabolic disease independent of body mass index (BMI). Whether mechanisms that increase WHR via lower gluteofemoral (hip) or via higher abdominal (waist) fat distribution affect cardiometabolic risk is unknown.To identify genetic (...) cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, type 2 diabetes, and coronary disease risk (follow-up analyses).Among 452 302 UK Biobank participants of European ancestry, the mean (SD) age was 57 (8) years and the mean (SD) WHR was 0.87 (0.09). In genome-wide analyses, 202 independent genetic variants were associated with higher BMI-adjusted WHR (n = 660 648) and unadjusted WHR (n = 663 598). In dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry analyses (n = 18 330), the hip- and waist-specific polygenic

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2018 JAMA

8. Finding the Balance Between Benefits and Harms When Using Statins for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Modeling Study. (PubMed)

Finding the Balance Between Benefits and Harms When Using Statins for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Modeling Study. Many guidelines use expected risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) during the next 10 years as a basis for recommendations on use of statins for primary prevention of CVD. However, how harms were considered and weighed against benefits is often unclear.To identify the expected risk above which statins provide net benefit.Quantitative benefit-harm balance modeling

2018 Annals of Internal Medicine

9. Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA): a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA): a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease often fails because of poor adherence among practitioners and individuals to prevention guidelines. We aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-based pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, targeting both primary care physicians and individuals, improves (...) prevention.Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention (VIPVIZA) is a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial that was integrated within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, an ongoing population-based cardiovascular disease prevention programme in northern Sweden. Individuals aged 40, 50, or 60 years with one or more conventional risk factors were eligible to participate. Participants underwent clinical examination, blood sampling, and ultrasound

2018 Lancet

10. Interim Guidance: Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer

Interim Guidance: Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer 1 Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer Interim Guidance from the Kaiser Permanente National Integrated Cardiovascular Health (ICVH) Work Group October 5, 2018 Three randomized clinical trials (ARRIVE 1 , ASCEND 2 , and ASPREE 3 ) recently published results on aspirin use in patients without known Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD). The studies looked at benefits (...) among blacks and Hispanics in the United States) to 100 mg aspirin or placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of death, dementia, or persistent physical disability. Secondary outcomes included major hemorrhage and cardiovascular disease (defined as fatal coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure). The rate of cardiovascular disease was 10.7 events per 1000 person-years in the aspirin group vs.11.3 events per 1000

2018 Kaiser Permanente National Guideline Program

11. Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. (PubMed)

Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Researchers have suggested that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from oily fish (long-chain omega-3 (LCn3), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), as well as from plants (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) benefit cardiovascular health. Guidelines recommend increasing omega-3-rich foods, and sometimes supplementation, but recent trials have not confirmed this.To assess effects (...) , high-quality evidence), cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.03, 67,772 participants; 4544 CVD deaths in 25 RCTs), cardiovascular events (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.04, 90,378 participants; 14,737 people experienced events in 38 trials, high-quality evidence), coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.09, 73,491 participants; 1596 CHD deaths in 21 RCTs), stroke (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.16, 89,358 participants; 1822 strokes in 28 trials) or arrhythmia (RR 0.97

2018 Cochrane

12. Omega-6 fats for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. (PubMed)

Omega-6 fats for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Omega-6 fats are polyunsaturated fats vital for many physiological functions, but their effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is debated.To assess effects of increasing omega-6 fats (linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)) on CVD and all-cause mortality.We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to May 2017 and clinicaltrials.gov and the World (...) make little or no difference to all-cause mortality (risk ratio (RR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 1.12, 740 deaths, 4506 randomised, 10 trials) or CVD events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.15, 1404 people experienced events of 4962 randomised, 7 trials). We are uncertain whether increasing omega-6 fats affects CVD mortality (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.55, 472 deaths, 4019 randomised, 7 trials), coronary heart disease events (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.17, 1059 people with events of 3997

2018 Cochrane

13. Polyunsaturated fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. (PubMed)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Evidence on the health effects of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is equivocal. Fish oils are rich in omega-3 PUFA and plant oils in omega-6 PUFA. Evidence suggests that increasing PUFA-rich foods, supplements or supplemented foods can reduce serum cholesterol, but may increase body weight, so overall cardiovascular effects are unclear.To assess effects of increasing total PUFA intake (...) on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, lipids and adiposity in adults.We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to April 2017 and clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to September 2016, without language restrictions. We checked trials included in relevant systematic reviews.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing higher with lower PUFA intakes in adults with or without cardiovascular disease that assessed effects over 12

2018 Cochrane

14. Ezetimibe for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality events. (PubMed)

Ezetimibe for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality events. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity, and high levels of blood cholesterol are thought to be the major modifiable risk factors for CVD. The use of statins is the preferred treatment strategy for the prevention of CVD, but some people at high-risk for CVD are intolerant to statin therapy or unable to achieve their treatment goals with the maximal recommended doses (...) for beneficial effects was mainly obtained from individuals with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD, predominantly with acute coronary syndrome) administered ezetimibe plus statins. However, there is limited evidence regarding the role of ezetimibe in primary prevention and the effects of ezetimibe monotherapy in the prevention of CVD, and these topics thus requires further investigation.

2018 Cochrane

15. The Role of Physical Activity Prescription in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Amongst South Asian Canadians (PubMed)

The Role of Physical Activity Prescription in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Amongst South Asian Canadians Unequivocal evidence suggests an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) amongst South Asian Canadians (SACs) compared to other ethnic cohorts, due to a combination of their unique cardiometabolic profile and environmental factors. This unfavorable CVD profile is characterized by an elevated risk of dyslipidemia, high apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, hypertension (...) environments, and their high prevalence of debilitating chronic diseases. Several strategies to improve PA participation rates in this high-risk population have been suggested, and include the implementation of culturally sensitive PA interventions, as well as clinician training in PA prescription through workshops that emphasize knowledge translation into clinical practice. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to highlight and discuss: (1) the burden of heart disease in SACs (2

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2018 Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine

16. Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease. (PubMed)

Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease. It is unclear whether supplementation with vitamin D reduces the risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease, and data from randomized trials are limited.We conducted a nationwide, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) at a dose of 2000 IU per day and marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids at a dose of 1 g per day for the prevention of cancer (...) and cardiovascular disease among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States. Primary end points were invasive cancer of any type and major cardiovascular events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). Secondary end points included site-specific cancers, death from cancer, and additional cardiovascular events. This article reports the results of the comparison of vitamin D with placebo.A total of 25,871 participants, including

2018 NEJM

17. Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. (PubMed)

Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. Higher intake of marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer in several observational studies. Whether supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has such effects in general populations at usual risk for these end points is unclear.We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (at a dose (...) of 2000 IU per day) and marine n-3 fatty acids (at a dose of 1 g per day) in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States. Primary end points were major cardiovascular events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and invasive cancer of any type. Secondary end points included individual components of the composite cardiovascular end point, the composite

2018 NEJM

18. Task-shifting for cardiovascular risk factor management: lessons from the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (PubMed)

Task-shifting for cardiovascular risk factor management: lessons from the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases Task-shifting to non-physician health workers (NPHWs) has been an effective model for managing infectious diseases and improving maternal and child health. There is inadequate evidence to show the effectiveness of NPHWs to manage cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In 2012, the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases funded eight studies which focused on task-shifting to NPHWs

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2018 BMJ global health

19. Association of Blood Pressure Classification in Korean Young Adults According to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines With Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease Events. (PubMed)

Association of Blood Pressure Classification in Korean Young Adults According to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines With Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease Events. Among young adults, the association of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) High Blood Pressure Clinical Practice Guidelines with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life is uncertain.To determine the association of blood pressure categories (...) person-years [95% CI, 11-18]; adjusted HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.08-1.25]), and stroke (incidence, 79 vs 51 per 100 000 person-years; difference, 28 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 24-32]; adjusted HR [1.37, 95% CI, 1.29-1.46]). Results for state 2 hypertension were consistent.Among Korean young adults, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension, compared with normal blood pressure, were associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease events. Young adults with hypertension, defined by the 2017

2018 JAMA

20. Evolocumab (Repatha) - In adults with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke or peripheral arterial disease)

Evolocumab (Repatha) - In adults with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke or peripheral arterial disease) Published 12 November 2018 Statement of advice SMC2133 evolocumab 140mg solution for injection in pre-filled syringe / 140mg solution for injection in pre-filled pen / 420mg solution of injection in cartridge (Repatha®) Amgen Ltd 5 October 2018 ADVICE: in the absence of a submission from the holder of the marketing authorisation evolocumab (...) (Repatha®) is not recommended for use within NHSScotland. Indication under review: In adults with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke or peripheral arterial disease) to reduce cardiovascular risk by lowering LDL-C levels, as an adjunct to correction of other risk factors: ? in combination with the maximum tolerated dose of a statin with or without other lipid- lowering therapies or, ? alone or in combination with other lipid-lowering therapies in patients

2018 Scottish Medicines Consortium