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Latest & greatest articles for cardiovascular disease
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on cardiovascular disease or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Fish oil supplements do not reduce cardiovascular deaths in people with diabetes without existing vascular disease Fish oil supplements lack heart benefits in diabetes without existing vascular disease Dissemination Centre Discover Portal NIHR DC Discover Fish oil supplements do not reduce cardiovascular deaths in people with diabetes without existing vascular disease Published on 4 December 2018 doi: Omega-3 fatty acid supplements make no difference to cardiovascular outcomes in people (...) with diabetes but without established cardiovasculardisease. Serious vascular events like heart attack, stroke or deaths from these occurred in about 10% of people regardless of whether they took daily omega-3 or placebo capsules for seven years. The ASCEND study is a large UK trial assessing primary cardiovascular prevention for people with any type of diabetes. A companion publication assesses the use of aspirin. The results are consistent with a recent large Cochrane review assessing omega-3 fatty acids
Omega-6 fats for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovasculardisease. BACKGROUND: Omega-6 fats are polyunsaturated fats vital for many physiological functions, but their effect on cardiovasculardisease (CVD) risk is debated. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing omega-6 fats (linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)) on CVD and all-cause mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to May (...) , 4019 randomised, 7 trials), coronary heart disease events (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.17, 1059 people with events of 3997 randomised, 7 trials), major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.20, 817 events, 2879 participants, 2 trials) or stroke (RR 1.36, 95% CI 0.45 to 4.11, 54 events, 3730 participants, 4 trials), as we assessed the evidence as being of very low quality. We found no evidence of dose-response or duration effects for any primary outcome
Polyunsaturated fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovasculardisease. BACKGROUND: Evidence on the health effects of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is equivocal. Fish oils are rich in omega-3 PUFA and plant oils in omega-6 PUFA. Evidence suggests that increasing PUFA-rich foods, supplements or supplemented foods can reduce serum cholesterol, but may increase body weight, so overall cardiovascular effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing (...) total PUFA intake on cardiovasculardisease and all-cause mortality, lipids and adiposity in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to April 2017 and clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to September 2016, without language restrictions. We checked trials included in relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing higher with lower PUFA intakes in adults
The Role of Physical Activity Prescription in CardiovascularDisease Prevention Amongst South Asian Canadians 30488037 2018 11 29 2297-055X 5 2018 Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine Front Cardiovasc Med The Role of Physical Activity Prescription in CardiovascularDisease Prevention Amongst South Asian Canadians. 165 10.3389/fcvm.2018.00165 Unequivocal evidence suggests an increased prevalence of cardiovasculardisease (CVD) amongst South Asian Canadians (SACs) compared to other ethnic cohorts (...) training in PA prescription through workshops that emphasize knowledge translation into clinical practice. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to highlight and discuss: (1) the burden of heart disease in SACs (2) the cardiovascular benefits of PA for SACs; (3) factors affecting PA participation among SACs and how they can be addressed; (4) the impact of culturally sensitive PA prescription on CVD prevention; (5) barriers to culture-specific PA prescription by clinicians, and strategies
Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and CardiovascularDisease. BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether supplementation with vitamin D reduces the risk of cancer or cardiovasculardisease, and data from randomized trials are limited. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol) at a dose of 2000 IU per day and marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids at a dose of 1 g per day (...) for the prevention of cancer and cardiovasculardisease among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States. Primary end points were invasive cancer of any type and major cardiovascular events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). Secondary end points included site-specific cancers, death from cancer, and additional cardiovascular events. This article reports the results of the comparison of vitamin D with placebo. RESULTS
Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Prevention of CardiovascularDisease and Cancer. BACKGROUND: Higher intake of marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovasculardisease and cancer in several observational studies. Whether supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has such effects in general populations at usual risk for these end points is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design (...) , of vitamin D 3 (at a dose of 2000 IU per day) and marine n-3 fatty acids (at a dose of 1 g per day) in the primary prevention of cardiovasculardisease and cancer among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States. Primary end points were major cardiovascular events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and invasive cancer of any type. Secondary end points included individual components of the composite cardiovascular
Task-shifting for cardiovascular risk factor management: lessons from the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases 30483414 2018 11 28 2059-7908 3 Suppl 3 2018 BMJ global health BMJ Glob Health Task-shifting for cardiovascular risk factor management: lessons from the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases. e001092 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001092 Task-shifting to non-physician health workers (NPHWs) has been an effective model for managing infectious diseases and improving maternal and child health (...) . There is inadequate evidence to show the effectiveness of NPHWs to manage cardiovasculardiseases (CVDs). In 2012, the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases funded eight studies which focused on task-shifting to NPHWs for the management of hypertension. We report the lessons learnt from the field. From each of the studies, we obtained information on the types of tasks shifted, the professional level from which the task was shifted, the training provided and the challenges faced. Additionally, we collected more
Association of Blood Pressure Classification in Korean Young Adults According to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines With Subsequent CardiovascularDisease Events. Importance: Among young adults, the association of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) High Blood Pressure Clinical Practice Guidelines with risk of cardiovasculardisease (CVD) later in life is uncertain. Objective: To determine the association (...) pressure, were associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovasculardisease events. Young adults with hypertension, defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA criteria, may be at increased risk of cardiovasculardisease.
Blood Sugar Regulation for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Prevention: JACC Health Promotion Series 30286928 2018 10 05 1558-3597 72 15 2018 Oct 09 Journal of the American College of Cardiology J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. Blood Sugar Regulation for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Prevention: JACC Health Promotion Series. 1829-1844 S0735-1097(18)36953-5 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.07.081 The primary objective of this study was to analyze the most up-to-date evidence regarding whether (...) and how blood sugar regulation influences cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention by carrying out an umbrella review. Three separate, systematic literature searches identified 2,343 papers in total. Overall, 44 studies were included for data extraction and analysis. The included systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, were of good to very good quality (median Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire score = 17). Identified evidence
Astronaut Cardiovascular Health and Risk Modification (Astro-CHARM) Coronary Calcium Atherosclerotic CardiovascularDisease Risk Calculator 30354651 2018 10 25 1524-4539 138 17 2018 Oct 23 Circulation Circulation Astronaut Cardiovascular Health and Risk Modification (Astro-CHARM) Coronary Calcium Atherosclerotic CardiovascularDisease Risk Calculator. 1819-1827 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.033505 Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a powerful novel risk indicator for atherosclerotic cardiovascular (...) disease (ASCVD). Currently, there is no available ASCVD risk prediction tool that integrates traditional risk factors and CAC. To develop a CAC ASCVD risk tool for younger individuals in the general population, subjects aged 40 to 65 without prior cardiovasculardisease from 3 population-based cohorts were included. Cox proportional hazards models were developed incorporating age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension
Evolocumab (Repatha) - In adults with established atherosclerotic cardiovasculardisease (myocardial infarction, stroke or peripheral arterial disease) Published 12 November 2018 Statement of advice SMC2133 evolocumab 140mg solution for injection in pre-filled syringe / 140mg solution for injection in pre-filled pen / 420mg solution of injection in cartridge (Repatha®) Amgen Ltd 5 October 2018 ADVICE: in the absence of a submission from the holder of the marketing authorisation evolocumab (...) (Repatha®) is not recommended for use within NHSScotland. Indication under review: In adults with established atherosclerotic cardiovasculardisease (myocardial infarction, stroke or peripheral arterial disease) to reduce cardiovascular risk by lowering LDL-C levels, as an adjunct to correction of other risk factors: ? in combination with the maximum tolerated dose of a statin with or without other lipid- lowering therapies or, ? alone or in combination with other lipid-lowering therapies in patients
Long term adjuvant endocrine therapy and risk of cardiovasculardisease in female breast cancer survivors: systematic review. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of endocrine therapies on a wide range of specific clinical cardiovasculardisease outcomes in women with a history of non-metastatic breast cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Embase up until June 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA (...) FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Studies were included if they investigated the risk of a specific cardiovasculardisease outcome associated with use of either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor, or compared the two treatments, in women with a history of non-metastatic breast cancer. APPRAISAL AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant studies were originally identified and results extracted by one researcher, with a full replication of the study identification process by a combination of two other researchers. The Cochrane
Tai Chi exercise is more effective than brisk walking in reducing cardiovasculardisease risk factors among adults with hypertension: A randomised controlled trial 30195124 2018 10 10 1873-491X 88 2018 Aug 24 International journal of nursing studies Int J Nurs Stud Tai Chi exercise is more effective than brisk walking in reducing cardiovasculardisease risk factors among adults with hypertension: A randomised controlled trial. 44-52 S0020-7489(18)30201-3 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.08.009 Physical (...) inactivity is a major modifiable lifestyle risk factor associated with cardiovasculardisease. Tai Chi is a safe and popular form of physical activity among older adults, yet direct comparisons are lacking between Tai Chi and brisk walking in their ability to reduce cardiovasculardisease risk factors and improve psychosocial well-being. 246 adults (mean age = 64.4 ± 9.8 years, age range = 30-91 years, 45.5% men) with hypertension and at least two but not more than three modifiable cardiovasculardisease
Canadian Cardiovascular Harmonized National Guidelines Endeavour (C-CHANGE) guideline for the prevention and management of cardiovasculardisease in primary care Canadian Cardiovascular Harmonized National Guidelines Endeavour (C-CHANGE) guideline for the prevention and management of cardiovasculardisease in primary care: 2018 update | CMAJ Main menu User menu Search Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Guideline Canadian Cardiovascular Harmonized National Guidelines Endeavour (C (...) -CHANGE) guideline for the prevention and management of cardiovasculardisease in primary care: 2018 update Sheldon W. Tobe , James A. Stone , Todd Anderson , Simon Bacon , Alice Y.Y. Cheng , Stella S. Daskalopoulou , Justin A. Ezekowitz , Jean C. Gregoire , Gord Gubitz , Rahul Jain , Karim Keshavjee , Patty Lindsay , Mary L’Abbe , David C.W. Lau , Lawrence A. Leiter , Eileen O’Meara , Glen J. Pearson , Doreen M. Rabi , Diana Sherifali , Peter Selby , Jack V. Tu , Sean Wharton , Kimberly M. Walker
Albiglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovasculardisease (Harmony Outcomes): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists differ in chemical structure, duration of action, and in their effects on clinical outcomes. The cardiovascular effects of once-weekly albiglutide in type 2 diabetes are unknown. We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of albiglutide in preventing cardiovascular (...) death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 610 sites across 28 countries. We randomly assigned patients aged 40 years and older with type 2 diabetes and cardiovasculardisease (at a 1:1 ratio) to groups that either received a subcutaneous injection of albiglutide (30-50 mg, based on glycaemic response and tolerability) or of a matched volume of placebo once a week, in addition to their standard care. Investigators used
Association of dairy intake with cardiovasculardisease and mortality in 21 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study. BACKGROUND: Dietary guidelines recommend minimising consumption of whole-fat dairy products, as they are a source of saturated fats and presumed to adversely affect blood lipids and increase cardiovasculardisease and mortality. Evidence for this contention is sparse and few data for the effects of dairy consumption on health are available from (...) low-income and middle-income countries. Therefore, we aimed to assess the associations between total dairy and specific types of dairy products with mortality and major cardiovasculardisease. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large multinational cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years enrolled from 21 countries in five continents. Dietary intakes of dairy products for 136 384 individuals were recorded using country-specific validated food frequency questionnaires
Environmental toxic metal contaminants and risk of cardiovasculardisease: systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and copper with cardiovasculardisease. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science searched up to December 2017. REVIEW METHODS: Studies reporting risk estimates for total (...) cardiovasculardisease, coronary heart disease, and stroke for levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, or copper were included. Two investigators independently extracted information on study characteristics and outcomes in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Relative risks were standardised to a common scale and pooled across studies for each marker using random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: The review identified 37 unique studies comprising 348 259 non-overlapping participants, with 13 033
Use of aspirin to reduce risk of initial vascular events in patients at moderate risk of cardiovasculardisease (ARRIVE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BACKGROUND: The use of aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events remains controversial. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of aspirin versus placebo in patients with a moderate estimated risk of a first cardiovascular event. METHODS: ARRIVE is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled (...) , multicentre study done in seven countries. Eligible patients were aged 55 years (men) or 60 years (women) and older and had an average cardiovascular risk, deemed to be moderate on the basis of the number of specific risk factors. We excluded patients at high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding or other bleeding, or diabetes. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation code to receive enteric-coated aspirin tablets (100 mg) or placebo tablets, once daily. Patients