Latest & greatest articles for cancer

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Top results for cancer

161. Overall Survival with Palbociclib and Fulvestrant in Advanced Breast Cancer.

Overall Survival with Palbociclib and Fulvestrant in Advanced Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor palbociclib, in combination with fulvestrant therapy, prolongs progression-free survival among patients with hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer. We report the results of a prespecified analysis of overall survival. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with hormone-receptor (...) -positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer who had progression or relapse during previous endocrine therapy to receive palbociclib plus fulvestrant or placebo plus fulvestrant. We analyzed overall survival; the effect of palbociclib according to the prespecified stratification factors of presence or absence of sensitivity to endocrine therapy, presence or absence of visceral metastatic disease, and menopausal status; the efficacy of subsequent therapies after disease progression; and safety

NEJM2018

162. Atezolizumab and Nab-Paclitaxel in Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Atezolizumab and Nab-Paclitaxel in Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: Unresectable locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative (hormone-receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]-negative) breast cancer is an aggressive disease with poor outcomes. Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel may enhance the anticancer activity of atezolizumab. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) patients with untreated metastatic (...) triple-negative breast cancer to receive atezolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel or placebo plus nab-paclitaxel; patients continued the intervention until disease progression or an unacceptable level of toxic effects occurred. Stratification factors were the receipt or nonreceipt of neoadjuvant or adjuvant taxane therapy, the presence or absence of liver metastases at baseline, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression at baseline (positive vs. negative). The two primary end points were progression

NEJM2018

163. ESMO 2018 presidential symposium—IMpassion130: atezolizumab+nab-paclitaxel in triple-negative breast cancer

ESMO 2018 presidential symposium—IMpassion130: atezolizumab+nab-paclitaxel in triple-negative breast cancer 30425847 2018 11 14 2059-7029 3 6 2018 ESMO open ESMO Open ESMO 2018 presidential symposium-IMpassion130: atezolizumab+nab-paclitaxel in triple-negative breast cancer. e000453 10.1136/esmoopen-2018-000453 Schmid Peter P Centre for Experimental Cancer Medicine, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, England. eng Journal Article 2018 10 20 England ESMO Open

ESMO open2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

164. Radiotherapy to the primary tumour for newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a randomised controlled phase 3 trial.

Radiotherapy to the primary tumour for newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a randomised controlled phase 3 trial. BACKGROUND: Based on previous findings, we hypothesised that radiotherapy to the prostate would improve overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer, and that the benefit would be greatest in patients with a low metastatic burden. We aimed to compare standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer, with and without radiotherapy. METHODS: We did (...) a randomised controlled phase 3 trial at 117 hospitals in Switzerland and the UK. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. We randomly allocated patients open-label in a 1:1 ratio to standard of care (control group) or standard of care and radiotherapy (radiotherapy group). Randomisation was stratified by hospital, age at randomisation, nodal involvement, WHO performance status, planned androgen deprivation therapy, planned docetaxel use (from December, 2015), and regular aspirin

Lancet2018

165. Epidermal growth factor receptor blockers for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Epidermal growth factor receptor blockers for the treatment of ovarian cancer. BACKGROUND: This is an update of a previously published version of the review (Issue 10, 2011).Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the seventh most common cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Treatment consists of a combination of surgical debulking and platinum-based chemotherapy. Between 55% and 75% of women who respond to first-line therapy experience relapse within two years. Second-line chemotherapy (...) is palliative and aims to reduce symptoms and prolong survival. Improved understanding about the molecular basis of EOC has led to the development of novel agents, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and anti-EGFR antibodies. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and harmful effects of interventions that target the epidermal growth factor receptor in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer

Cochrane2018

166. Integrative care of the patient with head and neck cancer

Integrative care of the patient with head and neck cancer 30410990 2018 11 14 2378-8038 3 5 2018 Oct Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol Integrative care of the patient with head and neck cancer. 364-371 10.1002/lio2.184 To review the literature on integrative care of the patient with head and neck cancer. A review of the English language literature for articles relating to integrative care of patients with head and neck cancer, focusing on treatment (...) of sequelae of surgery and chemoradiation. Many studies show a significant utilization of nontraditional (complementary/integrative) treatments by patients in dealing with head and neck cancer. Treatment of head and neck cancer entails potentially debilitating consequences of surgery and/or chemoradiation on cosmesis, speech, swallowing, breathing, and quality of life. While complementary/integrative treatments for head and neck cancer are not established as effective therapies, their use for relieving

Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

167. Exercise for reducing falls in people living with and beyond cancer.

Exercise for reducing falls in people living with and beyond cancer. BACKGROUND: Current treatment modalities for cancer have been successful in achieving improved survivorship; however, they come with a number of long-term adverse effects. Accidental falls are a common and clinically significant adverse event in people living with and beyond cancer and rates are higher than in the rest of the population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prescribed or provided exercise for reducing (...) accidental falls, and falls risk factors of strength, flexibility and balance, in people living with and beyond cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases from inception to 10 July 2018, with no restrictions: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and seven other databases. We searched clinicaltrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing trials, and reference lists of reviews and retrieved articles for additional studies

Cochrane2018

168. Taxane-based chemohormonal therapy for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

Taxane-based chemohormonal therapy for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. BACKGROUND: There has been considerable development in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer over the last decade. A number of agents, including docetaxel, cabazitaxel, abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide and sipuleucel-T, have been reported to improve outcomes in men with castration-resistant disease and their use is being explored in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (...) of early taxane-based chemohormonal therapy for newly diagnosed, metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search using multiple databases (the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science), trials registries, other sources of grey literature, and conference proceedings, up to 10 August 2018. We applied no restrictions on publication language or status. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized or quasi-randomized

Cochrane2018

169. Sonographic Volumetric Assessment Is a More Accurate Measure Than Maximum Diameter Alone in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

Sonographic Volumetric Assessment Is a More Accurate Measure Than Maximum Diameter Alone in Papillary Thyroid Cancer 30430142 2018 12 07 2472-1972 2 11 2018 Nov 01 Journal of the Endocrine Society J Endocr Soc Sonographic Volumetric Assessment Is a More Accurate Measure Than Maximum Diameter Alone in Papillary Thyroid Cancer. 1284-1292 10.1210/js.2018-00233 Tumor size is an important prognostic factor in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Management guidelines, staging systems, and pathological (...) definitions use maximum diameter (Dmax) as a surrogate marker of tumor size. However, PTC nodules are three-dimensional (3D) structures, with behavior reflective of tumor cell count, which is directly proportional to volume. We explored the relationship between sonographically determined Dmax, volume, and lymph node status (LNS) in a cohort of patients with PTC. All patients treated for PTC between 2003 and 2015 in our institution who had sonographic 3D nodule measurements available were evaluated. We

Journal of the Endocrine Society2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

170. Type II or type III radical hysterectomy compared to chemoradiotherapy as a primary intervention for stage IB2 cervical cancer.

Type II or type III radical hysterectomy compared to chemoradiotherapy as a primary intervention for stage IB2 cervical cancer. BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, with 528,000 estimated new cases globally in 2012. A large majority (around 85%) of the disease burden occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where it accounts for almost 12% of all female cancers. Treatment of stage IB2 cervical cancers, which sit between early and advanced disease (...) , is controversial. Some centres prefer to treat these cancers by radical hysterectomy, with chemoradiotherapy reserved for those at high risk of recurrence. In the UK, we treat stage IB2 cervical cancers mainly with chemoradiotherapy, based on the rationale that a high percentage will have risk factors necessitating chemoradiotherapy postsurgery. There has been no systematic review to determine the best possible evidence in managing these cancers. OBJECTIVES: To determine if primary surgery for stage IB2

Cochrane2018

171. Molecular determinants of post-mastectomy breast cancer recurrence

Molecular determinants of post-mastectomy breast cancer recurrence 30345349 2018 11 14 2374-4677 4 2018 NPJ breast cancer NPJ Breast Cancer Molecular determinants of post-mastectomy breast cancer recurrence. 34 10.1038/s41523-018-0089-z Breast cancer (BC) adjuvant therapy after mastectomy in the setting of 1-3 positive lymph nodes has been controversial. This retrospective Translational Breast Cancer Research Consortium study evaluated molecular aberrations in primary cancers associated (...) with locoregional recurrence (LRR) or distant metastasis (DM) compared to non-recurrent controls. We identified 115 HER2 negative, therapy naïve, T 1-3 and N 0-1 BC patients treated with mastectomy but no post-mastectomy radiotherapy. This included 32 LRR, 34 DM, and 49 controls. RNAseq was performed on primary tumors in 110 patients; with no difference in RNA profiles between patients with LRR, DM, or controls. DNA analysis on 57 primary tumors (17 LRR, 15 DM, and 25 controls) identified significantly more NF1

NPJ breast cancer2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

172. ETV4: an emerging target in pancreatic cancer

ETV4: an emerging target in pancreatic cancer 30460327 2018 12 07 2331-4737 5 9-10 2018 Sep Oncoscience Oncoscience ETV4: an emerging target in pancreatic cancer. 260-261 10.18632/oncoscience.471 Deshmukh Sachin Kumar SK Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36604-1405, USA. Singh Ajay P AP Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36604-1405, USA. Singh Seema S Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36604-1405 (...) , USA. eng R01 CA175772 CA NCI NIH HHS United States R01 CA224306 CA NCI NIH HHS United States R03 CA169829 CA NCI NIH HHS United States Journal Article 2018 10 11 United States Oncoscience 101636666 2331-4737 ETV4 cyclin D1 pancreatic cancer CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest. 2018 05 31 2018 06 01 2018 11 22 6 0 2018 11 22 6 0 2018 11 22 6 1 epublish 30460327 10.18632/oncoscience.471 471 PMC6231443 CA Cancer J Clin. 2018 Jan;68(1):7-30 29313949 Nucleic

Oncoscience2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

173. Smoking and Lung Cancer Mortality in the United States From 2015 to 2065: A Comparative Modeling Approach.

Smoking and Lung Cancer Mortality in the United States From 2015 to 2065: A Comparative Modeling Approach. Background: Tobacco control efforts implemented in the United States since the 1960s have led to considerable reductions in smoking and smoking-related diseases, including lung cancer. Objective: To project reductions in tobacco use and lung cancer mortality from 2015 to 2065 due to existing tobacco control efforts. Design: Comparative modeling approach using 4 simulation models (...) of the natural history of lung cancer that explicitly relate temporal smoking patterns to lung cancer rates. Setting: U.S. population, 1964 to 2065. Participants: Adults aged 30 to 84 years. Measurements: Models were developed using U.S. data on smoking (1964 to 2015) and lung cancer mortality (1969 to 2010). Each model projected lung cancer mortality by smoking status under the assumption that current decreases in smoking would continue into the future (status quo trends). Sensitivity analyses examined

Annals of Internal Medicine2018

174. Long term adjuvant endocrine therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease in female breast cancer survivors: systematic review.

Long term adjuvant endocrine therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease in female breast cancer survivors: systematic review. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of endocrine therapies on a wide range of specific clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes in women with a history of non-metastatic breast cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. DATA SOURCES: Medline and Embase up until June 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA (...) FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Studies were included if they investigated the risk of a specific cardiovascular disease outcome associated with use of either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor, or compared the two treatments, in women with a history of non-metastatic breast cancer. APPRAISAL AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant studies were originally identified and results extracted by one researcher, with a full replication of the study identification process by a combination of two other researchers. The Cochrane

BMJ2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

175. Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing tumour resectability in advanced epithelial ovarian/fallopian tube/primary peritoneal cancer.

Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing tumour resectability in advanced epithelial ovarian/fallopian tube/primary peritoneal cancer. BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Surgery and chemotherapy are considered its mainstay of treatment and the completeness of surgery is a major prognostic factor for survival in these women. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used (...) to preoperatively assess tumour resectability. If considered feasible, women will be scheduled for primary debulking surgery (i.e. surgical efforts to remove the bulk of tumour with the aim of leaving no visible (macroscopic) tumour). If primary debulking is not considered feasible (i.e. the tumour load is too extensive), women will receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy to reduce tumour load and subsequently undergo (interval) surgery. However, CT is imperfect in assessing tumour resectability, so additional imaging

Cochrane2018

176. Updated 5-year survival and exploratory T x N subset analyses of ACTS-CC trial: a randomised controlled trial of S-1 versus tegafur-uracil/leucovorin as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer

Updated 5-year survival and exploratory T x N subset analyses of ACTS-CC trial: a randomised controlled trial of S-1 versus tegafur-uracil/leucovorin as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer 30425843 2018 12 07 2059-7029 3 6 2018 ESMO open ESMO Open Updated 5-year survival and exploratory T x N subset analyses of ACTS-CC trial: a randomised controlled trial of S-1 versus tegafur-uracil/leucovorin as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer. e000428 10.1136/esmoopen-2018 (...) -000428 Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of TS-1 for Colon Cancer (ACTS-CC), a randomised phase III trial, demonstrated that adjuvant therapy with S-1 for stage III colon cancer was non-inferior in 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) to that of tegafur-uracil plus leucovorin (UFT/LV). We updated DFS and overall survival (OS) and performed T x N subset analysis. A total of 1518 patients with curatively resected stage III colon cancer were randomly assigned to receive S-1 (80-120 mg/day on days 1-28 every 42

ESMO open2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

177. Axillary Lymph Node Dissection for Breast Cancer: Efficacy and Complication in Developing Countries

Axillary Lymph Node Dissection for Breast Cancer: Efficacy and Complication in Developing Countries 30281378 2018 12 07 2378-9506 4 2018 Oct Journal of global oncology J Glob Oncol Axillary Lymph Node Dissection for Breast Cancer: Efficacy and Complication in Developing Countries. 1-8 10.1200/JGO.18.00080 Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) frequently is performed as part of the surgical management of breast cancer as a therapeutic and prognostic index, but increasingly has been perceived (...) as associated with significant complications. Data on efficacy and complications of ALND in Sudan are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and complications of ALND in patients with breast cancer treated with mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery. We performed a prospective, hospital-based study in women with invasive breast cancer who underwent modified radical mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery with ALND between September 2014 and August 2015. The efficacy of ALND was defined

Journal of global oncology2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

178. Oral L‐thyroxine liquid versus tablet in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer (without malabsorption): A prospective study

Oral L‐thyroxine liquid versus tablet in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer (without malabsorption): A prospective study 30410995 2018 11 14 2378-8038 3 5 2018 Oct Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol Oral L-thyroxine liquid versus tablet in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer (without malabsorption): A prospective study. 405-408 10.1002/lio2.186 No consistent data are present in literature about (...) the effectiveness of Levothyroxine (L-T4) liquid formulation in patients without malabsorption after thyroidectomy. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of L-T4 liquid formulation, with L-T4 tablets, in thyroid cancer patients after thyroidectomy (without malabsorption or drug interference). One hundred five patients were recruited; 52 patients were treated with liquid L-T4 formulation, while 53 with L-T4 tablets, at the same dosage (1.5 mcg/kg/day). Patients started to assume the drug the day

Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

179. Tobacco carcinogen research to aid understanding of cancer risk and influence policy

Tobacco carcinogen research to aid understanding of cancer risk and influence policy 30450409 2018 12 07 2378-8038 3 5 2018 Oct Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol Tobacco carcinogen research to aid understanding of cancer risk and influence policy. 372-376 10.1002/lio2.204 Education regarding the health effects associated with tobacco use has made important progress worldwide over the last few decades. Still, tobacco remains a significant cause of cancer (...) and other diseases. As a result, significant worldwide morbidity and mortality is still attributable to tobacco use in modern times. Research into tobacco products, the carcinogens they contain, and how users metabolize them is an important benefit to the advancement of research aimed at reducing harm associated with tobacco use. This review summarizes the use of this type of research to study tobacco users' risk of developing cancer, especially head and neck cancer. In addition, we discuss the use

Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

180. Should This Woman With Dense Breasts Receive Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Should This Woman With Dense Breasts Receive Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Breast cancer will develop in 12% of women during their lifetime and is the second leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. Mammography is the most commonly used tool to screen for breast cancer. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the age at which to begin screening and the optimal screening interval. Breast density is a risk factor (...) for breast cancer. In addition, for women with dense breasts, small tumors may be missed on mammography and the sensitivity of screening is diminished. At the time of publication, 35 states had passed laws mandating that breast density be reported in the letters that radiologists send to women with their mammogram results. The mandated language may be challenging for patients to understand, and such reporting may increase worry for women who are told that their risk for breast cancer is higher than

Annals of Internal Medicine2018