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Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of thyroid cancer in northwest China: A populationâ€based retrospective study of 2490 patients 30209893 2018 12 07 1759-7714 9 11 2018 Nov Thoracic cancer Thorac Cancer Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of thyroid cancer in northwest China: A population-based retrospective study of 2490 patients. 1453-1460 10.1111/1759-7714.12858 The specific clinical features of thyroid cancer patients in northwest China are unclear; therefore (...) , we analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of this population. Clinical characteristics including age, gender, blood type, histological type, and BRAF V600E gene mutation; and incidence; risk factors; surgical treatment; and prognosis were recorded. A total of 2490 thyroid cancer patients were included; 98% were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Weight, blood type, histological type, and BRAF V600E gene mutation rates were significantly different. Pediatric
Comparable immunoreactivity rates of PDâ€L1 in archival and recent specimens from nonâ€small cell lung cancer 30209885 2018 12 07 1759-7714 9 11 2018 Nov Thoracic cancer Thorac Cancer Comparable immunoreactivity rates of PD-L1 in archival and recent specimens from non-small cell lung cancer. 1476-1482 10.1111/1759-7714.12861 Molecular targeted therapy including the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against the immune checkpoints PD-L1 and PD-1 receptor have remarkably improved (...) the therapeutic response and survival of cancer patients. The tumor expression level of PD-L1 can predict the response rate to checkpoint inhibitors. We evaluated whether the time interval between tumor tissue sampling/paraffinization and immunohistochemistry affects the staining level of PD-L1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study comprised 137 patients with NSCLC. Tumors were stained with 22C3 or 28-8 antibodies. There was a significant correlation between the immunoreactivity rate of tumor
Use of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) contaminated valsartan products and risk of cancer: Danish nationwide cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To perform an expedited assessment of cancer risk associated with exposure to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) through contaminated valsartan products. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Danish health registries on individual level prescription drug use, cancer occurrence, and hospital diagnoses. PARTICIPANTS: 5150 Danish patients with no history of cancer (...) , aged 40 years or older, and using valsartan at 1 January 2012 or initiating use between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2017. Participants were followed from one year after cohort entry (lag time period) until experiencing a cancer outcome, death, migration, or end of study period (30 June 2018). Each participant's exposure to NDMA (ever exposure and predefined categories of cumulative valsartan exposure) was mapped out as a time varying variable while also applying a one year lag. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Immune checkpoint inhibitors for every patient with non-small cell lung cancer? Update on immunotherapy in patients with lung cancer 30345082 2018 10 22 2059-7029 3 6 2018 ESMO open ESMO Open Immune checkpoint inhibitors for every patient with non-small cell lung cancer? Update on immunotherapy in patients with lung cancer. e000429 10.1136/esmoopen-2018-000429 Vansteenkiste Johan F JF Respiratory Oncology Unit and Trial Unit, Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospitals KU Leuven
Patient Factors Associated With Delays in Obtaining Cancer Care in Botswana 30199305 2018 12 07 2378-9506 4 2018 Aug Journal of global oncology J Glob Oncol Patient Factors Associated With Delays in Obtaining Cancer Care in Botswana. 1-13 10.1200/JGO.18.00088 Purpose Delays in diagnosis and treatment of cancers can lead to poor survival. These delays represent a multifaceted problem attributable to patient, provider, and systemic factors. We aim to quantify intervals from symptom onset (...) to treatment start among patients with cancer in Botswana and to understand potential risk factors for delay. Patients and Methods From December 2015 to January 2017, we surveyed patients seen in an oncology clinic in Botswana. We calculated proportions of patients who experienced delays in appraisal (between detecting symptoms and perceiving a reason to discuss them with provider, defined as > 1 month), help seeking (between discussing symptoms and first consultation with provider, defined as > 1 month
Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations Among High-Risk Saudi Patients With Breast Cancer 30199306 2018 12 07 2378-9506 4 2018 Aug Journal of global oncology J Glob Oncol Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations Among High-Risk Saudi Patients With Breast Cancer. 1-9 10.1200/JGO.18.00066 Purpose Over the past three decades, the incidence rate of breast cancer (BC) among Arab women has continually increased. However, data on the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations are scarce. Although the population (...) in Saudi Arabia is at large homogeneous and consanguinity is common, especially in the central, eastern, and southern regions of the country, the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and the characteristics of BC are not well studied in the country. Methods This prospective observational study intended to determine the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and sought to examine the clinicopathologic features of BC associated with these mutations. Results Of 310 patients, 270 (87%) had no mutation
Efficacy of PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors and PD-L1 expression status in cancer: meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative efficacy of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors versus conventional drugs in patients with cancer that were PD-L1 positive and PD-L1 negative. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane database, and conference abstracts presented at the American Society of Clinical (...) Oncology and European Society of Medical Oncology up to March 2018. REVIEW METHODS: Studies of PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors (avelumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab) that had available hazard ratios for death based on PD-L1 positivity or negativity were included. The threshold for PD-L1 positivity or negativity was that PD-L1 stained cell accounted for 1% of tumour cells, or tumour and immune cells, assayed by immunohistochemistry staining methods. RESULTS: 4174 patients
Antigen-specific active immunotherapy for ovarian cancer. BACKGROUND: This is the second update of the review first published in the Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 2) and later updated (2014, Issue 9).Despite advances in chemotherapy, the prognosis of ovarian cancer remains poor. Antigen-specific active immunotherapy aims to induce tumour antigen-specific anti-tumour immune responses as an alternative treatment for ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective• To assess the clinical efficacy (...) of antigen-specific active immunotherapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer as evaluated by tumour response measured by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) and/or cancer antigen (CA)-125 levels, response to post-immunotherapy treatment, and survival differences◦ In addition, we recorded the numbers of observed antigen-specific humoral and cellular responsesSecondary objective• To establish which combinations of immunotherapeutic strategies with tumour antigens provide the best
Quantitative proteomic analysis of mitochondrial proteins differentially expressed between small cell lung cancer cells and normal human bronchial epithelial cells 30198174 2018 12 07 1759-7714 9 11 2018 Nov Thoracic cancer Thorac Cancer Quantitative proteomic analysis of mitochondrial proteins differentially expressed between small cell lung cancer cells and normal human bronchial epithelial cells. 1366-1375 10.1111/1759-7714.12839 Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is highly aggressive (...) and is associated with a dismal prognosis. However, there are no clinically recognized biomarkers for early diagnosis. In this study, we used quantitative proteomics to build differential mitochondrial protein profiles that may be used for early diagnosis and investigated the pathogenesis of lung cancer. We cultured SCLC cells (NCI-H446) and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE); mitochondria were extracted and purified using differential and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Subsequently, we
Cancer and the arts: a Pacifistâ€™s Guide to the War on Cancer 30233824 2018 09 20 2059-7029 3 6 2018 ESMO open ESMO Open Cancer and the arts: a Pacifist's Guide to the War on Cancer. e000430 10.1136/esmoopen-2018-000430 Wagner Wolfgang W Austria Press Agency - APA, Vienna, Austria. eng Journal Article 2018 09 08 England ESMO Open 101690685 2059-7029 cancer war Competing interests: None declared. 2018 08 07 2018 08 11 2018 9 21 6 0 2018 9 21 6 0 2018 9 21 6 1 epublish 30233824 10.1136/esmoopen
Extra cost of brain metastases (BM) in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a French national hospital database analysis 30233822 2018 11 14 2059-7029 3 6 2018 ESMO open ESMO Open Extra cost of brain metastases (BM) in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a French national hospital database analysis. e000414 10.1136/esmoopen-2018-000414 To assess the incremental cost associated with the management of patients with primary non-squamous non (...) -small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastases at the time of diagnosis. Data were extracted from the French Hospital medical information database (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d'Information (PMSI)). Patients with non-squamous NSCLC were identified through a diagnosis of lung cancer and a prescription of bevacizumab or pemetrexed. All such patients hospitalised with lung cancer for the first time in 2013 and with metastases identified at the first hospitalisation were eligible. Two
Temporal Trends and Geographic Patterns of Lung Cancer Incidence by Histology in Thailand, 1990 to 2014 30192698 2018 12 07 2378-9506 4 2018 Aug Journal of global oncology J Glob Oncol Temporal Trends and Geographic Patterns of Lung Cancer Incidence by Histology in Thailand, 1990 to 2014. 1-29 10.1200/JGO.18.00013 Purpose Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and in Thailand. We characterize and forecast region-specific patterns of lung cancer incidence by histology and sex (...) . Methods We analyzed lung cancer incidence trends in Thailand by histology (adenocarcinoma [AdC]; squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]; and large-cell, small-cell, and other carcinomas) from 1990 to 2014 in four cancer registries in three regions (north, Chiang Mai Province and Lampang Province; northeast: Khon Kaen Province; south: Songkhla Province). Annual percent change (APC) was calculated to quantify the incidence rate trends using joinpoint regression. Age-period-cohort models were used to examine
Genomic and expression profiling reveal molecular heterogeneity of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of early breast cancer 30211312 2018 11 14 2374-4677 4 2018 NPJ breast cancer NPJ Breast Cancer Genomic and expression profiling reveal molecular heterogeneity of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of early breast cancer. 31 10.1038/s41523-018-0083-5 Detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow is an established negative prognostic factor. We isolated small pools (...) of (~20) EPCAM-positive DTCs from early breast cancer patients for genomic profiling. Genome-wide copy number profiles of DTC pools ( n = 45) appeared less aberrant than the corresponding primary tumors (PT, n = 16). PIK3CA mutations were detected in 26% of DTC pools ( n = 53), none of them were shared with matched PTs. Expression profiling of DTC pools ( n = 30) confirmed the upregulation of EPCAM expression and certain oncogenes (e.g., MYC and CCNE1 ), as well as the absence of hematopoietic
Somatic cancer genetics in the UK: real-world data from phase I of the Cancer Research UK Stratified Medicine Programme 30233821 2018 11 14 2059-7029 3 6 2018 ESMO open ESMO Open Somatic cancer genetics in the UK: real-world data from phase I of the Cancer Research UK Stratified Medicine Programme. e000408 10.1136/esmoopen-2018-000408 Phase I of the Cancer Research UK Stratified Medicine Programme (SMP1) was designed to roll out molecular pathology testing nationwide at the point of cancer (...) diagnosis, as well as facilitate an infrastructure where surplus cancer tissue could be used for research. It offered a non-trial setting to examine common UK cancer genetics in a real-world context. A total of 26 sites in England, Wales and Scotland, recruited samples from 7814 patients for genetic examination between 2011 and 2013. Tumour types involved were breast, colorectal, lung, prostate, ovarian cancer and malignant melanoma. Centralised molecular testing of surplus material from resections
Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: a systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing to screen for prostate cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Electronic search of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, OpenGrey, LILACS, and Medline, and search of scientific meeting abstracts and trial registers to April 2018 (...) . ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials comparing PSA screening with usual care in men without a diagnosis of prostate cancer. DATA EXTRACTION: At least two reviewers screened studies, extracted data, and assessed the quality of eligible studies. A parallel guideline committee (BMJ Rapid Recommendation) provided input on the design and interpretation of the systematic review, including selection of outcomes important to patients. We used a random effects model to obtain
Correlating nuclear morphometric patterns with estrogen receptor status in breast cancer pathologic specimens 30211313 2018 11 14 2374-4677 4 2018 NPJ breast cancer NPJ Breast Cancer Correlating nuclear morphometric patterns with estrogen receptor status in breast cancer pathologic specimens. 32 10.1038/s41523-018-0084-4 In this pilot study, we introduce a machine learning framework to identify relationships between cancer tissue morphology and hormone receptor pathway activation in breast (...) cancer pathology hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained samples. As a proof-of-concept, we focus on predicting clinical estrogen receptor (ER) status-defined as greater than one percent of cells positive for estrogen receptor by immunohistochemistry staining-from spatial arrangement of nuclear features. Our learning pipeline segments nuclei from H&E images, extracts their position, shape and orientation descriptors, and then passes them to a deep neural network to predict ER status. After training on 57
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) as biomarkers for gastricÂ cancer: A review 30276362 2018 11 14 2589-0514 4 3 2018 Sep Chronic diseases and translational medicine Chronic Dis Transl Med Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) as biomarkers for gastric cancer: A review. 156-163 10.1016/j.cdtm.2018.07.001 Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide, with an incidence of a million new cases annually. In addition to having a high mortality rate due to often delayed (...) detection and its poor response to cancer therapy, it also spreads aggressively. Inflammation has been shown to play a role in carcinogenesis. Consequently, macrophages are important in phagocytosis, antigen presenting and producing cytokines and growth factors. As a response to microenvironmental signals, they may polarize into tumor resisting M1 or tumor promoting M2 macrophages. Recently, studies have indicated that M2-type macrophage resembling tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) might be used
Image analysis with deep learning to predict breast cancer grade, ER status, histologic subtype, and intrinsic subtype 30182055 2018 11 14 2374-4677 4 2018 NPJ breast cancer NPJ Breast Cancer Image analysis with deep learning to predict breast cancer grade, ER status, histologic subtype, and intrinsic subtype. 30 10.1038/s41523-018-0079-1 RNA-based, multi-gene molecular assays are available and widely used for patients with ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancers. However, RNA-based genomic (...) tests can be costly and are not available in many countries. Methods for inferring molecular subtype from histologic images may identify patients most likely to benefit from further genomic testing. To identify patients who could benefit from molecular testing based on H&E stained histologic images, we developed an image analysis approach using deep learning. A training set of 571 breast tumors was used to create image-based classifiers for tumor grade, ER status, PAM50 intrinsic subtype, histologic
New drugs in thoracic oncology: needs and knowledge â€“ an online ERS Lung Cancer Assembly survey 30186846 2018 11 14 2312-0541 4 3 2018 Jul ERJ open research ERJ Open Res New drugs in thoracic oncology: needs and knowledge - an online ERS Lung Cancer Assembly survey. 00040-2018 10.1183/23120541.00040-2018 In the last decade, systemic therapy for advanced lung cancer has become diverse, complex and personalised. These new therapies (monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs (...) of the respondents were male (59.1%), were above 40 years of age (52.9%) and were working in university/academic hospitals (74.8%), the majority as pulmonologists (90%). Only 55% of the participants were aware of the legal processes for drug recognition. Except for epidermal growth factor receptor TKI, up to 38% did not know about the specific toxicities of anaplastic lymphoma kinase/ROS proto-oncogene 1 TKIs, monoclonal antibodies and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Of the respondents, 92% showed an interest
Elevated Serum Megakaryocyte Potentiating Factor as a Predictor of Poor Survival in Patients with Mesothelioma and Primary Lung Cancer 30370398 2018 11 14 2475-7241 3 2 2018 Sep The journal of applied laboratory medicine J Appl Lab Med Elevated Serum Megakaryocyte Potentiating Factor as a Predictor of Poor Survival in Patients with Mesothelioma and Primary Lung Cancer. 166-177 10.1373/jalm.2017.025015 There is an urgent need for a companion assay to work with mesothelin-targeted therapeutic (...) agents and for noninvasive and accurate prognostication of malignant mesothelioma (MM) patients. We report the development and validation of a blood-based assay for megakaryocyte potentiating factor (MPF) and the evaluation of its effectiveness for prognosis in MM and lung cancer patients. Using electrochemiluminescence technology, we developed a sensitive MPF assay and performed both analytical and clinical validations. Further, the effectiveness of the MPF assay in predicting prognosis