Latest & greatest articles for cancer

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Top results for cancer

1. Early and late adverse renal effects after potentially nephrotoxic treatment for childhood cancer. (PubMed)

Early and late adverse renal effects after potentially nephrotoxic treatment for childhood cancer. Improvements in diagnostics and treatment for paediatric malignancies resulted in a major increase in survival. However, childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at risk of developing adverse effects caused by multimodal treatment for their malignancy. Nephrotoxicity is a known side effect of several treatments, including cisplatin, carboplatin, ifosfamide, radiotherapy and nephrectomy, and can cause (...) modalities on the prevalence of renal dysfunction in survivors treated for childhood cancer with a median or mean survival of at least one year after cessation of treatment, where possible in comparison with the general population or CCS treated without potentially nephrotoxic treatment. In addition, to evaluate evidence on associated risk factors, such as follow-up duration, age at time of diagnosis and treatment combinations, as well as the effect of doses.On 31 March 2017 we searched the following

2019 Cochrane

2. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for prevention of complications after pulmonary resection in lung cancer patients. (PubMed)

Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for prevention of complications after pulmonary resection in lung cancer patients. Pulmonary complications are often seen during the postoperative period following lung resection for patients with lung cancer. Some situations such as intubation, a long stay in the intensive care unit, the high cost of antibiotics and mortality may be avoided with the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV

2019 Cochrane

3. Use of Low-Dose Aspirin and Mortality After Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: A Nationwide Cohort Study. (PubMed)

Use of Low-Dose Aspirin and Mortality After Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: A Nationwide Cohort Study. Recent studies suggest that aspirin use may improve survival in patients with prostate cancer.To assess the association between postdiagnosis use of low-dose aspirin and prostate cancer mortality.Nationwide cohort study.Denmark.Men with incident prostate adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2011.Nationwide registry data on tumor characteristics, drug use, primary prostate cancer therapy, comorbidity (...) , and socioeconomic parameters. Postdiagnosis use of low-dose aspirin (75 to 150 mg) was defined as 2 or more prescriptions filled within 1 year after prostate cancer diagnosis. Follow-up started 1 year after prostate cancer diagnosis. In secondary analyses, low-dose aspirin use was assessed within exposure periods of 5 or 7.5 years after prostate cancer diagnosis.Of 29 136 patients (median age, 70 years), 7633 died of prostate cancer and 5575 died of other causes during a median follow-up of 4.9 years

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

4. Performance Characteristics of Fecal Immunochemical Tests for Colorectal Cancer and Advanced Adenomatous Polyps: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Performance Characteristics of Fecal Immunochemical Tests for Colorectal Cancer and Advanced Adenomatous Polyps: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Studies report inconsistent performance of fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) for colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced adenomas.To summarize performance characteristics of FITs for CRC and advanced adenomas in average-risk persons undergoing screening colonoscopy (reference standard) and to identify factors affecting these characteristics.Ovid

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

5. Rivaroxaban for Thromboprophylaxis in High-Risk Ambulatory Patients with Cancer. (PubMed)

Rivaroxaban for Thromboprophylaxis in High-Risk Ambulatory Patients with Cancer. Ambulatory patients receiving systemic cancer therapy are at varying risk for venous thromboembolism. However, the benefit of thromboprophylaxis in these patients is uncertain.In this double-blind, randomized trial involving high-risk ambulatory patients with cancer (Khorana score of ≥2, on a scale from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of venous thromboembolism), we randomly assigned patients (...) % confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 1.09; P = 0.10) in the period up to day 180. In the prespecified intervention-period analysis, the primary end point occurred in 11 patients (2.6%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 27 (6.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.80). Major bleeding occurred in 8 of 405 patients (2.0%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 4 of 404 (1.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% CI, 0.59 to 6.49).In high-risk ambulatory patients with cancer, treatment

2019 NEJM

6. Sacituzumab Govitecan-hziy in Refractory Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. (PubMed)

Sacituzumab Govitecan-hziy in Refractory Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Standard chemotherapy is associated with low response rates and short progression-free survival among patients with pretreated metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Sacituzumab govitecan-hziy is an antibody-drug conjugate that combines a humanized monoclonal antibody, which targets the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen 2 (Trop-2), with SN-38, which is conjugated to the antibody by a cleavable linker (...) . Sacituzumab govitecan-hziy enables delivery of high concentrations of SN-38 to tumors.We conducted a phase 1/2 single-group, multicenter trial involving patients with advanced epithelial cancers who received sacituzumab govitecan-hziy intravenously on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. A total of 108 patients received sacituzumab govitecan-hziy at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight after receiving at least two previous anticancer therapies

2019 NEJM

7. Systemic corticosteroids for the management of cancer-related breathlessness (dyspnoea) in adults. (PubMed)

Systemic corticosteroids for the management of cancer-related breathlessness (dyspnoea) in adults. Dyspnoea is a common symptom in advanced cancer, with a prevalence of up to 70% among patients at end of life. The cause of dyspnoea is often multifactorial, and may cause considerable psychological distress and suffering. Dyspnoea is often undertreated and good symptom control is less frequently achieved in people with dyspnoea than in people with other symptoms of advanced cancer, such as pain (...) and nausea. The exact mechanism of action of corticosteroids in managing dyspnoea is unclear, yet corticosteroids are commonly used in palliative care for a variety of non-specific indications, including pain, nausea, anorexia, fatigue and low mood, despite being associated with a wide range of adverse effects. In view of their widespread use, it is important to seek evidence of the effects of corticosteroids for the management of cancer-related dyspnoea.To assess the effects of systemic corticosteroids

2019 Cochrane

8. Laryngeal cancer

Laryngeal cancer Laryngeal cancer - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Laryngeal cancer Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Eleventh most common form of cancer and second most common malignancy of the upper aerodigestive tract in men. Smoking and alcohol use frequently associated with development of the disease. Hoarseness, dysphonia, sore throat, difficulty swallowing (...) , referred otalgia, vocal cord lesions on indirect laryngoscopy, and neck mass/adenopathy that persists for >3 weeks are sentinel signs that should be evaluated by an otolaryngologist. Treatment is dictated by TNM stage. Modalities include surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or any combination of these. Goals of therapy are eradication of cancer with organ preservation. Speech therapy is appropriate after surgery, radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, or any combination of these modalities

2019 BMJ Best Practice

9. Surgical interventions for the prevention or treatment of lymphoedema after breast cancer treatment. (PubMed)

Surgical interventions for the prevention or treatment of lymphoedema after breast cancer treatment. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer amongst women worldwide, and one distressing complication of breast cancer treatment is breast and upper-limb lymphoedema. There is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of surgical interventions in both the prevention and management of lymphoedema affecting the arm after breast cancer treatment.1. To assess and compare the efficacy of surgical (...) interventions for the prevention of the development of lymphoedema (LE) in the arm after breast cancer treatment.2. To assess and compare the efficacy of surgical interventions for the treatment of established LE in the arm after breast cancer treatment.We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry

2019 Cochrane

10. Sequencing of anthracyclines and taxanes in neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. (PubMed)

Sequencing of anthracyclines and taxanes in neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. Anthracyclines and taxanes are chemotherapeutic agents widely used in a sequential regimen in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment of early breast cancer to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. Standard practice is to administer anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by a taxane. Anthracyclines tend to be administered first as they were established before taxanes for treatment of early (...) breast cancer.To assess whether the sequence in which anthracyclines and taxanes are administered affects outcomes for people with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy.We searched Cochrane Breast Cancer's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov on 1 February 2018.Randomised controlled trials comparing administering a taxane prior to an anthracycline

2019 Cochrane

11. Darolutamide in Nonmetastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. (PubMed)

Darolutamide in Nonmetastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Darolutamide is a structurally unique androgen-receptor antagonist that is under development for the treatment of prostate cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of darolutamide for delaying metastasis and death in men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial involving men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (...) with a higher incidence of seizures, falls, fractures, cognitive disorder, or hypertension than placebo.Among men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, metastasis-free survival was significantly longer with darolutamide than with placebo. The incidence of adverse events was similar for darolutamide and placebo. (Funded by Bayer HealthCare and Orion Pharma; ARAMIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02200614.).Copyright © 2019 Massachusetts Medical Society.

2019 NEJM

12. Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy compared to standard radical hysterectomy for women with early stage cervical cancer (stage Ia2 to IIa). (PubMed)

Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy compared to standard radical hysterectomy for women with early stage cervical cancer (stage Ia2 to IIa). Radical hysterectomy is one of the standard treatments for stage Ia2 to IIa cervical cancer. Bladder dysfunction caused by disruption of the pelvic autonomic nerves is a common complication following standard radical hysterectomy and can affect quality of life significantly. Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy is a modified radical hysterectomy, developed (...) of conferences, citation lists of included studies, and key textbooks for potentially relevant studies.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy compared to standard radical hysterectomy for women with early stage cervical cancer (stage Ia2 to IIa).We applied standard Cochrane methodology for data collection and analysis. Two review authors independently selected potentially relevant RCTs, extracted data, evaluated risk of bias

2019 Cochrane

13. Exercise training for advanced lung cancer. (PubMed)

Exercise training for advanced lung cancer. Patients with advanced lung cancer have a high symptom burden, which is often complicated by coexisting conditions. These issues, combined with the indirect effects of cancer treatment, can cumulatively lead patients to continued deconditioning and low exercise capacity. This is a concern as exercise capacity is considered a measure of whole body health, and is critical in a patient's ability to participate in life activities and tolerate difficult (...) treatments. There is evidence that exercise training improves exercise capacity and other outcomes, such as muscle force and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in cancer survivors. However, the effectiveness of exercise training on these outcomes in people with advanced lung cancer is currently unclear.The primary aim of this review was to investigate the effects of exercise training on exercise capacity in adults with advanced lung cancer. Exercise capacity was defined as the six-minute walk

2019 Cochrane

14. Increasing the dose intensity of chemotherapy by more frequent administration or sequential scheduling: a patient-level meta-analysis of 37 298 women with early breast cancer in 26 randomised trials. (PubMed)

Increasing the dose intensity of chemotherapy by more frequent administration or sequential scheduling: a patient-level meta-analysis of 37 298 women with early breast cancer in 26 randomised trials. Increasing the dose intensity of cytotoxic therapy by shortening the intervals between cycles, or by giving individual drugs sequentially at full dose rather than in lower-dose concurrent treatment schedules, might enhance efficacy.To clarify the relative benefits and risks of dose-intense (...) and standard-schedule chemotherapy in early breast cancer, we did an individual patient-level meta-analysis of trials comparing 2-weekly versus standard 3-weekly schedules, and of trials comparing sequential versus concurrent administration of anthracycline and taxane chemotherapy. The primary outcomes were recurrence and breast cancer mortality. Standard intention-to-treat log-rank analyses, stratified by age, nodal status, and trial, yielded dose-intense versus standard-schedule first-event rate ratios

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2019 Lancet

15. Electrically stimulated intravesical chemotherapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

Electrically stimulated intravesical chemotherapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer Electrically stimulated intr Electrically stimulated intra av vesical chemother esical chemotherap apy y for non-muscle-in for non-muscle-invasiv vasive bladder cancer e bladder cancer Interventional procedures guidance Published: 30 January 2019 nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg638 Y Y our responsibility our responsibility This guidance represents the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration (...) 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 1 of 41 1 Recommendations Recommendations 1.1 Current evidence on electrically stimulated intravesical chemotherapy for non- muscle-invasive bladder cancer shows there are no major safety concerns. Evidence on efficacy is limited in quantity and quality. Therefore, this procedure should only be used in the context of research. 1.2 Further research should include randomised

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Interventional Procedures

16. Axumin for functional imaging of prostate cancer recurrence

Axumin for functional imaging of prostate cancer recurrence Axumin for functional imaging of prostate cancer Axumin for functional imaging of prostate cancer recurrence recurrence Medtech innovation briefing Published: 8 February 2019 nice.org.uk/guidance/mib172 pathways Summary Summary The technology technology described in this briefing is Axumin, a radiopharmaceutical agent. It is intended for use in positron emission tomography (PET) to detect suspected prostate cancer recurrence in people (...) who have elevated prostate-specific antigen levels after primary curative treatment. It is currently the only licensed PET tracer indicated for use in recurrent prostate cancer. The inno innovativ vative aspects e aspects are that it is a prostate cancer-specific PET tracer with a novel mechanism of action based on amino acid transport. Its longer half-life and shorter uptake period may allow use in more people with suspected prostate cancer recurrence compared with other PET tracers. The intended

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

17. Fluorine- or gallium- prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers in the investigation of recurrent prostate cancer

Fluorine- or gallium- prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers in the investigation of recurrent prostate cancer Fluorine- or gallium- prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography radiotracers - Health Technology Wales > Fluorine- or gallium- prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography radiotracers Fluorine- or gallium- prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography radiotracers Topic Status (...) Incomplete Fluorine- or gallium- prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers in the investigation of recurrent prostate cancer. Outcome of the appraisal The adoption of 68 Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) for the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer is partially supported by the evidence. The use of 68 Ga PSMA PET provides a high degree of diagnostic accuracy on which to base management decisions as compared

2019 Health Technology Wales

18. Prehabilitation before cancer treatment

Prehabilitation before cancer treatment Prehabilitation before cancer treatments - Health Technology Wales > Prehabilitation before cancer treatments Prehabilitation before cancer treatments Topic Status Incomplete Prehabilitation before cancer treatment. Summary Health Technology Wales researchers searched for evidence on the effectiveness of prehabilitation of patients before cancer treatment. HTW’s Assessment Group concluded not to progress this topic further until ongoing research

2019 Health Technology Wales

19. Remote monitoring or self-management for surveillance or follow up of prostate cancer

Remote monitoring or self-management for surveillance or follow up of prostate cancer Remote monitoring of prostate cancer - Health Technology Wales > Remote monitoring of prostate cancer Remote monitoring of prostate cancer Topic Status Incomplete Remote monitoring or self-management for surveillance or follow up of prostate cancer. Summary Health Technology Wales researchers searched for evidence on different methods of prostate remote monitoring/self-management. Although a range of evidence

2019 Health Technology Wales

20. Crizotinib (Alunbrig) - for the treatment of adult patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

Crizotinib (Alunbrig) - for the treatment of adult patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) Search Page - Drug and Health Product Register Language selection Search and menus Search Search website Search Topics menu You are here: Summary Basis of Decision - - Health Canada Expand all Summary Basis of Decision (SBD) for Contact: Summary Basis of Decision (SBD) documents provide information related to the original authorization

2019 Health Canada - Drug and Health Product Register