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Latest & greatest articles for calcium
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A randomized clinical study of a calcium-entry blocker (lidoflazine) in the treatment of comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Brain Resuscitation Clinical Trial II Study Group. Abnormalities of cellular calcium homeostasis have been implicated in the pathophysiology of postischemic encephalopathy. Calcium-entry-blocking drugs inhibit the influx of calcium into cells and have been shown to mitigate postischemic encephalopathy in animal models.Five hundred twenty patients with cardiac arrest who (...) remained comatose after the restoration of spontaneous circulation were randomly assigned to receive three doses of lidoflazine, an experimental calcium-entry blocker, or a placebo and were followed for six months. Four patients were lost to follow-up. Treated patients received an intravenous loading dose (1 mg per kilogram of body weight) of lidoflazine and two subsequent doses (0.25 mg per kilogram) 8 and 16 hours after resuscitation. The investigators were blinded to treatment assignment.There
Prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A comparative study of exercise, calcium supplementation, and hormone-replacement therapy. Osteoporosis among older women is a major public health problem. We studied the effects of three approaches to the prevention of osteoporosis in women with low bone density.One hundred twenty postmenopausal women (mean [+/- SD] age, 56 +/- 4) who were selected because they had low forearm bone density were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled (...) , randomized study comparing the effects of an exercise regimen (exercise group, n = 41), exercise plus dietary calcium supplementation (exercise-calcium group, n = 39), and exercise plus continuous replacement of estrogen and progesterone (exercise-estrogen group, n = 40). Periodically during the two-year study period, we measured the women's bone density at three forearm sites, measured indexes of calcium metabolism, and recorded symptom scores. A comparison group of 42 women (mean age, 55.5 +/- 3.1
Calcium supplementation to prevent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Calcium supplementation has been reported to reduce blood pressure in pregnant and nonpregnant women. We undertook this prospective study to determine the effect of calcium supplementation on the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) and to determine the value of urinary calcium levels as a predictor of the response.We studied 1194 nulliparous women who were in the 20th (...) week of gestation at the beginning of the study. The women were randomly assigned to receive 2 g per day of elemental calcium in the form of calcium carbonate (593 women) or placebo (601 women). Urinary excretion of calcium and creatinine was measured before calcium supplementation was begun. The women were followed to the end of their pregnancies, and the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was determined.The rates of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were lower in the calcium group
Effects of different calcium antagonists on proteinuria associated with diabetes mellitus. 2240922 1990 12 27 2013 11 21 0003-4819 113 12 1990 Dec 15 Annals of internal medicine Ann. Intern. Med. Effects of different calcium antagonists on proteinuria associated with diabetes mellitus. 987-8 Demarie B K BK Ochsner Clinic, New Orleans, Louisiana. Bakris G L GL eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't United States Ann
A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. Background. The effectiveness of calcium in retarding bone loss in older postmenopausal women is unclear. Earlier work suggested that the women who were most likely to benefit from calcium supplementation were those with low calcium intakes. Methods. We undertook a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to determine the effect of calcium on bone loss from the spine, femoral neck (...) , and radius in 301 healthy postmenopausal women, half of whom had a calcium intake lower than 400 mg per day and half an intake of 400 to 650 mg per day. The women received placebo or either calcium carbonate or calcium citrate malate (500 mg of calcium per day) for two years. Results. In women who had undergone menopause five or fewer years earlier, bone loss from the spine was rapid and was not affected by supplementation with calcium. Among the women who had been postmenopausal for six years or more
Calcium channel blockers in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina: an overview. To assess the effects of calcium channel blockers on development of infarcts, reinfarction, and mortality.A systematic overview of all randomised trials of calcium channel blockers in myocardial infarction and unstable angina.19,000 Patients in 28 randomised trials.In the trials of myocardial infarction 873 deaths occurred among 8870 patients randomised to active treatment compared with 825 deaths among (...) 8889 control patients (odds ratio of 1.06, 95% confidence interval of 0.96 to 1.18). There was no evidence of a beneficial effect on development and size of infarcts or rate of reinfarction. The results were similar in short term trials in which treatment was confined to the acute phase and those in which treatment was started some weeks later and continued for a year or two. There was no evidence of heterogeneity among different calcium channel blockers in their effects on any end point
Effect of the time of administration of calcium acetate on phosphorus binding. Phosphorus binders are given to patients with renal failure to increase gastrointestinal excretion of phosphorus. To determine the relative importance of the binding of dietary as compared with endogenous phosphorus and to determine the optimal dose schedule, we gave either 4.4 g of calcium acetate (25 mmol of calcium) or a placebo to six normal subjects on each of seven different schedules in a randomized sequence (...) . The net gastrointestinal balance of phosphorus and calcium was determined by a one-day lavage technique. After a meal containing approximately 12 mmol of phosphorus, the mean phosphorus absorption (+/- SE) measured 9.17 +/- 0.36 mmol (78 percent) with placebo but decreased to 3.81 +/- 0.58 mmol (31 percent) when calcium acetate was given immediately before the meal (representing binding of 5.36 +/- 0.77 mmol of phosphorus). Similar binding was observed when calcium acetate was given immediately after
Randomised controlled trial of subcutaneous calcium-heparin in acute myocardial infarction. The SCATI (Studio sulla Calciparina nell'Angina e nella Trombosi Ventricolare nell'Infarto) Group. In a multicentre study 711 patients were randomised to a group receiving calcium-heparin, 12,500 U, subcutaneously (360), or to a group receiving no heparin (351), beginning within 24 h of the onset of symptoms. 433 of these patients, admitted within 6 h, were given intravenous streptokinase (SK). Results (...) were analysed for the in-hospital period. Calcium-heparin had no significant effects on the frequency of electrocardiographically documented ischaemic episodes or non-fatal reinfarction in the whole series; in the subgroup receiving SK, transient ischaemic episodes recurred in 14.2% of those treated with heparin vs 19.6% of the controls (p = 0.08). Mortality was significantly lower in the calcium-heparin treated patients, both in the overall groups (21/360 vs 35/351, p = 0.03) and in the SK
Dietary intake of calcium and postmenopausal bone loss. The use of calcium supplements to prevent postmenopausal bone loss and hence osteoporosis is widespread, but the evidence for their efficacy, either alone or in combination with other treatments, is contradictory. Skeletal measurements and dietary intake of calcium were determined in 59 healthy postmenopausal women, most of whom were within five years of the menopause. No correlation was found between current intake of calcium and either (...) total calcium in the body or the density of trabecular or cortical bone in the forearm or vertebral trabecular bone. Dietary intake of calcium did not influence the rate of postmenopausal bone loss in the 54 women who completed 12 months of active or placebo treatment. Even when extremes of calcium intake were examined no difference was found in bone measurements between the women with the highest and lowest intakes. The results of this study suggest that the bone density of women in the early
Does calcium supplementation prevent postmenopausal bone loss? A double-blind, controlled clinical study. During a two-year study, we examined the effect of calcium supplementation on postmenopausal bone loss in 43 women in the early postmenopausal period who were assigned to one of three treatment groups: percutaneous 17 beta-estradiol (combined with progesterone during the second year), oral calcium (2000 mg daily), and placebo. All participants were examined every three months. Bone mineral (...) content in the forearm (measured by single-photon absorptiometry) and in the entire body and spine (measured by dual-photon absorptiometry) remained constant in the estrogen-treated group but decreased significantly in the groups receiving calcium and placebo. In the calcium-treated group, we observed a tendency toward a slowed loss of compact bone (in the proximal forearm and total skeleton) as compared with the placebo group, while the rate of loss of trabecular bone (the distal forearm and spine
Gastrointestinal absorption of calcium from milk and calcium salts. Whether ingested calcium is absorbed more efficiently from freely water-soluble calcium salts than from poorly soluble salts is unclear. It is also unknown whether calcium is absorbed better from dairy products than from calcium salts. Using a method by which the net absorption of calcium can be accurately measured after a single dose, we studied eight healthy fasting subjects after they took a 500-mg dose of calcium from each (...) of five calcium salts with various degrees of water solubility and from milk. The order of administration of the agents given was randomly determined. The mean (+/- SEM) net calcium absorption, in decreasing order of the solubility of the salts, was 32 +/- 4 percent from calcium acetate, 32 +/- 4 percent from calcium lactate, 27 +/- 3 percent from calcium gluconate, 30 +/- 3 percent from calcium citrate, and 39 +/- 3 percent from calcium carbonate. The differences in absorption were not statistically
Blood pressure and metabolic effects of calcium supplementation in normotensive white and black men. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to examine the effect of calcium supplementation on blood pressure in normotensive black (n = 21) and white (n = 54) men, aged 19 to 52 years. After a four-week baseline period of weekly blood pressure measurement, subjects were randomly assigned within racial groups to either a treatment (calcium, 1500 mg/d) or placebo group (...) for a 12-week period. During the experimental period, multiple blood pressure measurements were taken every two weeks in both the seated and supine positions, using a random baseline sphygmomanometer. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance yielded a modest but significantly lower seated mean arterial pressure in the treatment group compared with the control group, but no differences between the races. Results were similar for supine blood pressure. Calcium supplementation, in comparison
Randomized trial of allopurinol in the prevention of calcium oxalate calculi. In a double-blind study, we examined the efficacy of allopurinol in the prevention of recurrent calcium oxalate calculi of the kidney. Sixty patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria who had a history of calculi were randomly assigned to receive either allopurinol (100 mg three times daily) or a placebo. After the study, the placebo group had 63.4 percent fewer calculi (P less than 0.001), whereas (...) the allopurinol group had 81.2 percent fewer calculi (P less than 0.001). During the study period, the mean rate of calculous events was 0.26 per patient per year in the placebo group and 0.12 in the allopurinol group. When the treatment groups were compared by actuarial analysis, the allopurinol group was found to have a significantly longer time before recurrence of calculi (P less than 0.02). We conclude that allopurinol is effective in the prevention of calcium oxalate stones in patients
Effect of calcium supplementation on diastolic blood pressure in young people with mild hypertension. In a double-blind trial 90 mildly hypertensive subjects aged 16-29 years were randomly assigned to 1 g calcium per day or placebo. Calcium supplementation did not affect systolic blood pressure, but at six and twelve weeks diastolic blood pressure had fallen by 3.1 (p = 0.04) and 2.4 (p = 0.11) mm Hg, respectively, more in the calcium group than it had in the placebo group. Subjects (...) with a baseline plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) higher than the median showed a 6.1 mm Hg (p = 0.01) greater fall in diastolic blood pressure after six weeks and 5.4 mm Hg (p = 0.01) after twelve than in the placebo group. The fall in diastolic blood pressure was greater in the calcium group than in the placebo group in subjects with a lower than median serum total calcium and in those with a large bodyweight. Calcium supplementation may lower blood pressure in young people with mildly raised blood pressure
Ability of calcium bis acetyl homotaurine, a GABA agonist, to prevent relapse in weaned alcoholics. After they had been weaned off alcohol in hospital 85 severe alcoholics (above 200 g alcohol/day) were included in a double-blind study of calcium bis acetyl homotaurine (Ca AOTA, 25 mg/kg/day), a new gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist, versus placebo. Patients were treated as outpatients during the 3-month study. The only other treatment that patients received was meprobamate, 800 to 1200 mg/day
Phaeochromocytoma and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: apparent suppression of symptoms and noradrenaline secretion by calcium-channel blockade. A 44-year-old woman with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a noradrenaline-secreting phaeochromocytoma is described. She experienced as great improvement in cardiovascular symptoms during double-blind treatment with the calcium-channel blocker nifedipine compared with the placebo period. Symptom relief on nifedipine therapy was associated with a pronounced (...) decline in elevated urinary noradrenaline levels. This observation suggests that calcium-channel blockers interfere with the release of noradrenaline from phaeochromocytoma tissue and thus may be beneficial in patients with phaeochromocytoma.
Reduction of blood pressure with calcium supplementation in young adults. Epidemiologic and animal studies have suggested an inverse relationship between calcium intake and BP. Furthermore, calcium intake seems to be inversely correlated with the incidence of eclampsia in pregnancy. In a randomized clinical trial, young adults were allocated to a calcium-supplemented group receiving 1 g/day of elemental calcium (15 men and 15 women) or a placebo group (14 women and 13 men) for a period of 22 (...) weeks. The calcium-supplemented group showed a significant decrease in diastolic BP; this effect was stabilized after nine weeks in women and six weeks in men. The reduction in diastolic BP was 5.6% and 9% from the initial values for women and men, respectively. This study supports epidemiologic and animal evidence of the effect of calcium intake on BP and suggests the need for more research exploring the mechanisms involved in the observed effect.
Effects of dichloromethylene diphosphonate on skeletal mobilization of calcium in multiple myeloma. Dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP), an inhibitor of oestoclast activity, was evaluated for its ability to decrease the excessive mobilization of skeletal calcium that complicates multiple myeloma. Ten patients with active myeloma, wide-spread bone disease, and hypercalciuria were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-designed trial in which they took Cl2MDP for eight (...) weeks and placebos for eight weeks. Two patients died during the placebo phase; of eight patients who received Cl2MDP, seven had rapid, sustained, and highly significant (P less than 0.001) decreases in urinary excretion of calcium. Six also had significant decreases in hydroxyproline excretion, and five reported lessening of skeletal pain. On patient did not respond. Although the patients received concurrent chemotherapy during the study, concentrations of myeloma proteins actually increased
Multiple-myeloma bone disease. The comparative effect of sodium fluoride and calcium carbonate or placebo. A randomized double-blind study was carried out in 26 patients with multiple myeloma to compare the therapeutic effect of sodium fluoride (50 mg twice daily) plus calcium carbonate (1 g four times daily) and placebo. All patients also received melphalan and prednisone for one week every six weeks. Bone biopsies for microradiography and histology, and videodensitometry as well (...) as conventional roentgenograms, 99mTc-polyphosphate bone scans, and bone densitometry of the mid and distal radius, were done initially and one year after therapy. Microradiography and videodensitometry studies revealed significant increases in bone formation (P less than 0.01) and bone mass (P less than 0.005) in the fluoride-calcium group. Bone trabeculae appeared thickened on roentgenograms of six of 13 fluoride-calcium-treated patients (P less than 0.02). Technetium bone scans and bone densitometry