Latest & greatest articles for calcium

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Top results for calcium

261. An updated meta-analysis of calcium-channel blockers in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty

An updated meta-analysis of calcium-channel blockers in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty An updated meta-analysis of calcium-channel blockers in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty An updated meta-analysis of calcium-channel blockers in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty Dens J, Desmet W, Piessens J CRD summary This review found that treatment with calcium-channel blockers after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty can (...) be considered a safe and probably cost-effective strategy for reducing the need for revascularisations. Quality assessment of included studies was not reported, and its unclear whether appropriate steps were taken to avoid bias in the review process. The conclusions are not supported by the analysis presented. Authors' objectives To update a previous meta-analysis (see Other Publications of Related Interest no.1) that investigated the effect of calcium-channel blockers (CCBs) on the risk of restenosis after

DARE.2003

262. Calcium antagonists reduce cardiovascular complications after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis

Calcium antagonists reduce cardiovascular complications after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis Calcium antagonists reduce cardiovascular complications after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis Calcium antagonists reduce cardiovascular complications after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis Wijeysundera D N, Beattie W S, Rao V, Karski J CRD summary This review assessed the efficacy of calcium antagonists for reducing mortality and complications following coronary artery bypass graft or valve surgery (...) . The authors concluded that treatment reduced complications but not mortality. The review had some methodological and reporting limitations (participant characteristics were not reported), but the authors' conclusions were conservative and appear likely to be reliable Authors' objectives To determine the efficacy of calcium antagonists (CAs) in reducing death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemia and supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) after cardiac surgery. In the review, the authors also investigated

DARE.2003

264. A calcium antagonist vs a non-calcium antagonist hypertension treatment strategy for patients with coronary artery disease. The International Verapamil-Trandolapril Study (INVEST): a randomized controlled trial.

A calcium antagonist vs a non-calcium antagonist hypertension treatment strategy for patients with coronary artery disease. The International Verapamil-Trandolapril Study (INVEST): a randomized controlled trial. 14657064 2003 12 05 2003 12 11 2016 10 17 1538-3598 290 21 2003 Dec 03 JAMA JAMA A calcium antagonist vs a non-calcium antagonist hypertension treatment strategy for patients with coronary artery disease. The International Verapamil-Trandolapril Study (INVEST): a randomized controlled (...) trial. 2805-16 Despite evidence of efficacy of antihypertensive agents in treating hypertensive patients, safety and efficacy of antihypertensive agents for coronary artery disease (CAD) have been discerned only from subgroup analyses in large trials. To compare mortality and morbidity outcomes in patients with hypertension and CAD treated with a calcium antagonist strategy (CAS) or a non-calcium antagonist strategy (NCAS). Randomized, open label, blinded end point study of 22 576 hypertensive CAD

JAMA2003

265. Calcium channel blockers for acute traumatic brain injury.

Calcium channel blockers for acute traumatic brain injury. BACKGROUND: Acute traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability. Calcium channel blockers (calcium antagonists) have been used in an attempt to prevent cerebral vasospasm after injury, maintain blood flow to the brain, and so prevent further damage. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of calcium channel blockers in patients with acute traumatic brain injury, and in a subgroup of brain injury patients with traumatic (...) for inclusion in the systematic review. The effect of calcium channel blockers on the risk of death was reported in five of the RCTs. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the five studies was 0.91 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.70-1.17). For the four RCTs that reported death and severe disability (unfavourable outcome), the pooled odds ratio was 0.85 (95%CI 0.68-1.07). In the two RCTs which reported the risk of death in a subgroup of traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage patients, the pooled odds ratio was 0.59

Cochrane2003

266. Calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women.

Calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women. BACKGROUND: Although calcium is one the simplest and least expensive strategies for preventing osteoporotic fractures calcium supplementation is nevertheless not without controversy (Kanis 1989; Nordin 1990). The Food and Drug Administration in the US has permitted a bone health claim for calcium-rich foods, and the NIH in its Consensus Development Process approved a statement that high calcium intake reduces the risk of osteoporosis (...) . OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of calcium on bone density and fractures in postmenopausal women. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Cochrane Controlled Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 2001, and examined citations of relevant articles and proceedings of international meetings. SELECTION CRITERIA: Trials that randomized postmenopausal women to calcium supplementation or usual calcium intake in the diet and reported bone mineral density of the total body, vertebral spine, hip, or forearm or recorded

Cochrane2003

267. Calcium channel blockers for inhibiting preterm labour.

Calcium channel blockers for inhibiting preterm labour. BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a major contributor to perinatal mortality and morbidity and affects approximately six to seven per cent of births in developed countries. Tocolytics are drugs used to suppress uterine contractions. The most widely tested tocolytics are betamimetics. Although they have been shown to delay delivery, betamimetics have not been shown to improve perinatal outcome, and they have a high frequency of unpleasant (...) and even fatal maternal side effects. There is growing interest in calcium channel blockers as a potentially effective and well tolerated form of tocolysis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes of calcium channel blockers, administered as a tocolytic agent, to women in preterm labour. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's specialised register of controlled trials (June 2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane

Cochrane2003

268. Association between activating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor and Bartter's syndrome.

Association between activating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor and Bartter's syndrome. Bartter's syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder characterised by deficient renal reabsorption of sodium and chloride, and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis with hyper-reninaemia and hyperaldosteronaemia. Mutations in several ion transporters and channels have been associated with the pathogenesis of Bartter's syndrome. We describe two hypocalcaemic patients with deficient parathyroid hormone secretion who (...) also showed characteristics of Bartter's syndrome. We found activating mutations of the gene for the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) in both patients. Activation of this calcium-sensing receptor inhibits the activity of a renal outer-medullary potassium channel that is mutated in type 2 Bartter's syndrome. We therefore suggest that some activating mutations of CASR could provide new mechanisms for the development of Bartter's syndrome.

Lancet2002

269. HMG CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) and aortic valve calcium.

HMG CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) and aortic valve calcium. There is no known pharmacological therapy for calcific aortic valvular sclerosis or stenosis. Because leaflet calcification occurs in areas of lipoprotein deposition, we hypothesised that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG COA) reductase inhibitors (statins) might slow aortic valve calcium (AVC) accumulation. We retrospectively identified 65 patients who had undergone two electron-beam computed tomography scans at a mean (SD

Lancet2002

270. The effects of calcium channel blockers on cardiovascular outcomes: a review of randomised controlled trials

The effects of calcium channel blockers on cardiovascular outcomes: a review of randomised controlled trials The effects of calcium channel blockers on cardiovascular outcomes: a review of randomised controlled trials The effects of calcium channel blockers on cardiovascular outcomes: a review of randomised controlled trials De Leeuw P W, Birkenhager W H Authors' objectives To review studies that have evaluated the effects of calcium-channel blockers (CCBs) on cardiovascular (CV) morbidity (...) and mortality in hypertensive patients. Searching MEDLINE (via PubMed) was searched using the search terms 'calcium channel blockers', 'calcium antagonists', 'hypertension', 'randomised', 'morbidity' and 'mortality'. The Cochrane Library was also searched. The searches were conducted up to September 2001, but no start date was given. The authors also searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. Studies were also identified from the authors' personal knowledge of the literature and from the authors

DARE.2002

271. The health economics of calcium and vitamin D3 for the prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures in Sweden

The health economics of calcium and vitamin D3 for the prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures in Sweden The health economics of calcium and vitamin D3 for the prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures in Sweden The health economics of calcium and vitamin D3 for the prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures in Sweden Willis M S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The study examined the combination of calcium and vitamin D3 ("500 g calcium and 10 microg vitamin D3", twice daily), administered to postmenopausal women to prevent osteoporotic hip fractures. Type of intervention Primary and secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis. Study population

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.2002

272. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). 12479763 2002 12 13 2002 12 24 2016 10 17 0098-7484 288 23 2002 Dec 18 JAMA JAMA Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering (...) Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). 2981-97 Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first-step therapy is unknown. To determine whether treatment with a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events vs treatment with a diuretic. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent

JAMA2002

273. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems.

Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. BACKGROUND: Calcium supplementation may prevent high blood pressure through a number of mechanisms and may help to prevent preterm labour. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and related maternal and child adverse outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy (...) and Childbirth Group trials register (October 2001) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Issue 3, 2001) and we contacted study authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing at least one gram daily of calcium during pregnancy with placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Eligibility and trial quality were assessed. Data extraction was carried out and double entered. MAIN RESULTS: Eleven studies were included, all of good quality. There was a modest reduction in high blood pressure

Cochrane2002

274. Calcium channel blockers for inhibiting preterm labour.

Calcium channel blockers for inhibiting preterm labour. BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a major contributor to perinatal mortality and morbidity and affects approximately six to seven per cent of births in developed countries. Tocolytics are drugs used to suppress uterine contractions. The most widely tested tocolytics are betamimetics. Although they have been shown to delay delivery, betamimetics have not been shown to improve perinatal outcome, and they have a high frequency of unpleasant (...) and even fatal maternal side effects. There is growing interest in calcium channel blockers as a potentially effective and well tolerated form of tocolysis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes of calcium channel blockers, administered as a tocolytic agent, to women in preterm labour. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's specialised register of controlled trials, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (February 2002), MEDLINE

Cochrane2002

275. Human epilepsy associated with dysfunction of the brain P/Q-type calcium channel.

Human epilepsy associated with dysfunction of the brain P/Q-type calcium channel. BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of most common forms of human paroxysmal disorders of the central nervous system, such as epilepsy, remains unidentified. Several animal models of absence epilepsy, commonly accompanied by ataxia, are caused by mutations in the brain P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca(2+)) channel. We aimed to determine whether the P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel is associated with both epilepsy and episodic

Lancet2001

276. Calcium-channel blockers for Raynaud's phenomenon in systemic sclerosis

Calcium-channel blockers for Raynaud's phenomenon in systemic sclerosis Calcium-channel blockers for Raynaud's phenomenon in systemic sclerosis Calcium-channel blockers for Raynaud's phenomenon in systemic sclerosis Thompson A E, Shea B, Welch V, Fenlon D, Pope J E Authors' objectives To assess the efficacy of calcium-channel blockers for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in people with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to July 2000; the keywords were stated (...) . The reference lists in review articles were also searched. Studies published in languages other than English appear to have been eligible. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible if they lasted more than 2 days and had drop-out rates of less than 35%. The review included both parallel and crossover RCTs. Specific interventions included in the review Comparisons of calcium-channel blockers with either placebo or another treatment

DARE.2001

277. Gain in bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls 3.5 years after discontinuation of calcium supplementation: a follow-up study.

Gain in bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls 3.5 years after discontinuation of calcium supplementation: a follow-up study. 11675056 2001 10 24 2001 11 01 2015 06 16 0140-6736 358 9289 2001 Oct 13 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Gain in bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls 3.5 years after discontinuation of calcium supplementation: a follow-up study. 1208-12 Calcium supplementation during childhood and adolescence increases bone-mass accrual. Whether or not this benefit persists after (...) discontinuation of supplementation is not known. We previously showed a favourable effect of milk-extracted calcium phosphate incorporated in various foods on accumulation of bone mineral mass in 8-year-old girls. We now report the results of a follow-up study undertaken more than 3 years after the end of calcium supplementation. Anthropometric and bone variables were measured in 116 of the 144 girls whose data had been studied at the end of the supplementation period. The mean time elapsed between the end

Lancet2001

278. Calcium channel blockers for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia.

Calcium channel blockers for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially disfiguring movement disorder of the orofacial region often caused by use of neuroleptic drugs. A wide range of strategies has been used to help manage TD and, for those who are unable to have their antipsychotic medication stopped or substantially changed, the calcium-channel blocking group of drugs (diltiazem, nifedipine, nimodipine, verapamil) has been suggested (...) as a useful adjunctive treatment. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of calcium-channel blocker drugs (diltiazem, nifedipine, nimodipine, verapamil) for treatment of neuroleptic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or other chronic mental illnesses. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic searches of Biological Abstracts (1982-2000), Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2000), Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register of trials (November 2000), EMBASE (1980-2000), LILACS (1982-2000), MEDLINE (1966

Cochrane2001

279. Calcium antagonists as an add-on therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy.

Calcium antagonists as an add-on therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. BACKGROUND: As up to 30% of patients with epilepsy do not have their seizures controlled with current treatments, there have been continuous attempts to find new antiepileptic drugs based on increasing knowledge of cellular and molecular biology involved in the genesis of epilepsy and seizures. Calcium has been established to play a major role in seizure occurrence, thus, calcium antagonists that can alter the effects (...) of calcium on brain cells have been investigated for effect on epileptic seizures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of calcium antagonists on seizures, side effects, quality of life and cognition, when used as an add-on therapy for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE from 1966 to 2000 and the Cochrane Epilepsy Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2001). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized placebo-controlled add

Cochrane2001

280. Calcium and phosphorus supplementation of human milk for preterm infants.

Calcium and phosphorus supplementation of human milk for preterm infants. BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are born with low skeletal stores of calcium and phosphorus. Preterm human milk provides insufficient calcium and phosphorus to meet their estimated needs. OBJECTIVES: To determine if addition of calcium and phosphorus supplements to human milk leads to improved growth and bone metabolism without significant adverse effects in preterm infants. SEARCH STRATEGY: The standard search strategy (...) of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (NRG) was used. This includes searches of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conferences and symposia proceedings, expert informants, journal handsearching mainly in the English language. SELECTION CRITERIA: All trials utilizing random or quasi-random allocation to supplementation of human milk with calcium and/or phosphorus or no supplementation in preterm infants within a hospital were eligible. DATA

Cochrane2001