Latest & greatest articles for bronchiolitis

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Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is mainly caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The virus travels down to the bronchioles in the lungs causing them to become inflamed making it difficult to breath.

Almost every child will be infected with RSV by the time they reach two years. Adults can also contract the virus, typically during winter months.

In mild cases bronchiolitis will clear up without treatment. The virus that causes bronchiolitis travels through tiny droplets of liquid and can be passed through the air or contracted by touching infected surfaces.

Symptoms include: Sore throat, dry cough, blocked nose and aches and pains throughout the body.

Although there is no cure for chronic bronchiolitis research and clinical studies on bronchiolitis suggest that some lifestyle changes can ease symptoms: avoid smoking, eat a healthy diet and maintain regular exercise. In extreme cases steroids can be prescribed to help minimise inflammation.

Read more on medications used to treat bronchiolitis and the causes of the virus.

Top results for bronchiolitis

161. Helium-oxygen therapy for infants with bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial

Helium-oxygen therapy for infants with bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2012 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

162. Sputum colour and bacteria in chronic bronchitis exacerbations: a pooled analysis. (Full text)

Sputum colour and bacteria in chronic bronchitis exacerbations: a pooled analysis. We examined the correlation between sputum colour and the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs). Data were pooled from six multicentre studies comparing moxifloxacin with other antimicrobials in patients with an AECB. Sputum was collected before antimicrobial therapy, and bacteria were identified by culture and Gram staining. Association between sputum

2012 The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology PubMed abstract

163. Chinese medicinal herbs for acute bronchitis. (Abstract)

Chinese medicinal herbs for acute bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diagnoses made by primary care physicians. It is traditionally treated with antibiotics (although the evidence for their effectiveness is weak, and modest at best) and other even less effective treatments. Chinese medicinal herbs have also been used as a treatment.This review aimed to summarise the existing evidence on the comparative effectiveness and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for treating (...) herbs for acute bronchitis. Trial design limitations of the individual studies meant that we could not draw any conclusions about the benefits of Chinese herbs for acute bronchitis. In addition, the safety of Chinese herbs is unknown due to the lack of toxicological evidence for these herbs, although adverse events were reported in some case reports.

2012 Cochrane

164. Antibiotics for Acute Bronchitis

Antibiotics for Acute Bronchitis Antibiotics for Acute Bronchitis – TheNNTTheNNT Antibiotics for the Treatment of Acute Bronchitis in Adults 37 for side effects In Summary, for those who received the antibiotics: Benefits in NNT 100% saw no benefit 18% were helped by a reduction in symptoms, including cough None were helped (overall) 1 in 6 were helped (no cough at follow up) Harms in NNT 2.6% were harmed by medication side effects 1 in 37 were harmed (minor adverse effects at follow up) View (...) As: NNT % Source: Efficacy Endpoints: Clinical improvement or cure Harm Endpoints: Reduction in cough Narrative: Acute bronchitis is defined as a cough-related illness lasting 1-3 weeks with or without sputum in an individual without chronic lung disease and a normal chest radiograph. It is one of the most common conditions for which patients consult a physician and the most common reasons for seeking care are symptom severity, duration, and interference with daily activities. Less than 10% of cases

2012 theNNT

165. n Infants Younger Than 24 Months Old and With Bronchiolitis, Does Nebulized Epinephrine Improve Clinical Status?

n Infants Younger Than 24 Months Old and With Bronchiolitis, Does Nebulized Epinephrine Improve Clinical Status? SystematicReviewSnapshot TAKE-HOME MESSAGE Nebulized epinephrine decreases the risk of hospitalization of infants younger than 24 months and with bronchiolitis when presenting within the ?rst 24 hours of illness. METHODS DATA SOURCE The authors searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Regis- ter of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, PubMed, Lilacs, Iran MedEx, the Cochrane (...) Library, and Global Health, inclu- sive through September 2010; key references from included articles were reviewed. STUDY SELECTION The studies included were ran- domized controlled trials involv- ing children younger than 24 months, with bronchiolitis (de- ?ned as a ?rst episode of wheezing, respiratory distress, and clinical evidence of respira- tory infection), and receiving nebulized epinephrine compared with placebo or other therapy. Critically ill and arti?cially venti- lated patients were

2012 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

166. Do Febrile Infants Aged 60 to 90 Days With Bronchiolitis Require a Septic Evaluation?

Do Febrile Infants Aged 60 to 90 Days With Bronchiolitis Require a Septic Evaluation? SystematicReviewSnapshot TAKE-HOME MESSAGE Febrile infants younger than 90 days and with bronchiolitis have very low rates of serious bacterial infection. METHODS DATA SOURCE The authors searched the Na- tional Library of Medicine Medline database (to December 2010). In addition, the bibliographies of these studies were searched for studies not otherwise identi?ed. STUDY SELECTION Studies were selected (...) if they re- ported the incidence of site-spe- ci?c, concomitant serious bacterial infection in the setting of fever and clinical bronchiolitis or documented respiratory syncytial virus infection. Studies also had to report the type of culture collected and contain age-speci?c data for infants younger than 60 to 90 days. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS The authors extracted the event rates for bacteremia, meningitis, and urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infections were diagnosed by urine culture. Two

2012 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

167. Systematic review and meta-analysis: Epinephrine for acute bronchiolitis, but not steroids alone, reduces hospital admissions

Systematic review and meta-analysis: Epinephrine for acute bronchiolitis, but not steroids alone, reduces hospital admissions Epinephrine for acute bronchiolitis, but not steroids alone, reduces hospital admissions | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password (...) For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Epinephrine for acute bronchiolitis, but not steroids alone, reduces hospital admissions Article Text Therapeutics Systematic review and meta-analysis Epinephrine for acute

2012 Evidence-Based Medicine

168. Gemifloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (Abstract)

Gemifloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Gemifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of gemifloxacin for the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB).We performed a meta-analysis

2012 Chinese medical journal

169. Surfactant therapy for bronchiolitis in critically ill infants. (Abstract)

Surfactant therapy for bronchiolitis in critically ill infants. Bronchiolitis is one of the most frequent causes of respiratory failure in infants; some infants will require intensive care and mechanical ventilation. There is lack of evidence regarding effective treatment for bronchiolitis other than supportive care. Abnormalities of surfactant quantity or quality (or both) have been observed in severe cases of bronchiolitis. Exogenous surfactant administration appears to favourably change (...) the haemodynamics of the lungs and may be a potentially promising therapy for severe bronchiolitis. To evaluate the efficacy of exogenous surfactant administration (i.e. intratracheal administration of surfactant of any type (whether animal-derived or synthetic), at any dose and at any time after start of ventilation) compared to placebo, no intervention or standard care in reducing mortality and the duration of ventilation in infants and children with bronchiolitis requiring mechanical ventilation.We searched

2012 Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)

170. Chest physiotherapy for acute bronchiolitis in paediatric patients between 0 and 24 months old. (Full text)

Chest physiotherapy for acute bronchiolitis in paediatric patients between 0 and 24 months old. This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in 2005 and updated in 2007. Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of medical emergencies during winter in children younger than two years of age. Chest physiotherapy is thought to assist infants in the clearance of secretions and to decrease ventilatory effort.The main objective was to determine the efficacy of chest physiotherapy (...) in infants aged less than 24 months old with acute bronchiolitis. A secondary objective was to determine the efficacy of different techniques of chest physiotherapy (for example, vibration and percussion and passive forced exhalation).We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4) which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to November week 3, 2011), MEDLINE in-process and other non

2012 Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) PubMed abstract

171. Nebulised deoxyribonuclease for viral bronchiolitis in children younger than 24 months. (Abstract)

Nebulised deoxyribonuclease for viral bronchiolitis in children younger than 24 months. Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory problems in the first year of life. The sputum of infants with bronchiolitis has increased deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content, leading to mucous plugging and airway obstruction. Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), an enzyme that digests extracellular DNA, might aid the clearance of mucus and relieve peripheral airway obstruction.To determine (...) the effect of nebulised rhDNase on the severity and duration of viral bronchiolitis in children younger than 24 months of age in the hospital setting.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2012, Issue 7 which includes the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to July Week 4, 2012), EMBASE (1974 to August 2012) and LILACS (1982 to August 2012).Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using nebulised rhDNase alone or with concomitant therapy

2012 Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)

172. Care of infants and children with bronchiolitis: a systematic review. (Abstract)

Care of infants and children with bronchiolitis: a systematic review. Bronchiolitis is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in the infant population. Management varies widely, and the efficacy of many routinely implemented therapies is not supported by evidence. The purpose of the systematic review was to identify the best evidence available regarding the care of infants and children with bronchiolitis. A two-phase literature search was performed, and 20 publications were appraised (...) . An abundance of evidence regarding management of bronchiolitis was revealed resulting in numerous recommendations. Use of a clinical pathway is proposed as a possible solution for moving this evidence into practice.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2011 Journal of pediatric nursing

173. Non-invasive ventilation as primary ventilatory support for infants with severe bronchiolitis

Non-invasive ventilation as primary ventilatory support for infants with severe bronchiolitis PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2011 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

174. Occult serious bacterial infection in infants younger than 60 to 90 days with bronchiolitis: a systematic review. (Full text)

Occult serious bacterial infection in infants younger than 60 to 90 days with bronchiolitis: a systematic review. To summarize the risk of occult serious bacterial infection in the youngest febrile infants presenting with either clinical bronchiolitis or respiratory syncytial virus infection.We performed a systematic search of the Medline database for studies reporting rates of serious bacterial infection in infants younger than 90 days with clinical bronchiolitis and/or respiratory syncytial (...) . No case of meningitis was reported in any of the studies. Summary statistics for meningitis and bacteremia are not provided because of an excess of zero events in these samples.A screening approach to culturing for serious bacterial infections in febrile infants presenting with bronchiolitis or respiratory syncytial virus infection is very low yield. The rate of urine cultures positive for bacteria remains significant, though asymptomatic bacteriuria may confound these results.

2011 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine PubMed abstract

175. Constrictive bronchiolitis in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. (Full text)

Constrictive bronchiolitis in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. In this descriptive case series, 80 soldiers from Fort Campbell, Kentucky, with inhalational exposures during service in Iraq and Afghanistan were evaluated for dyspnea on exertion that prevented them from meeting the U.S. Army's standards for physical fitness.The soldiers underwent extensive evaluation of their medical and exposure history, physical examination, pulmonary-function testing, and high-resolution computed (...) samples were abnormal, with 38 soldiers having changes that were diagnostic of constrictive bronchiolitis. In the remaining 11 soldiers, diagnoses other than constrictive bronchiolitis that could explain the presenting dyspnea were established. All soldiers with constrictive bronchiolitis had normal results on chest radiography, but about one quarter were found to have mosaic air trapping or centrilobular nodules on chest CT. The results of pulmonary-function and cardiopulmonary-exercise testing were

2011 NEJM PubMed abstract

176. Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence relating smoking to COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. (Full text)

Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence relating smoking to COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Smoking is a known cause of the outcomes COPD, chronic bronchitis (CB) and emphysema, but no previous systematic review exists. We summarize evidence for various smoking indices.Based on MEDLINE searches and other sources we obtained papers published to 2006 describing epidemiological studies relating incidence or prevalence of these outcomes to smoking. Studies

2011 BMC pulmonary medicine PubMed abstract

177. Inhaled Epinephrine, Steroids for Bronchiolitis

Inhaled Epinephrine, Steroids for Bronchiolitis Inhaled Epinephrine, Steroids for Bronchiolitis – TheNNTTheNNT Inhaled Epinephrine with or without Steroids for Bronchiolitis 15 for admission In Summary, for those who received the epinephrine with/without the steroids: Benefits in NNT 94.1% saw no benefit 5.9% were helped (epinephrine alone) by preventing hospital admission (day 1) 1 in 17 were helped (epinephrine alone) (hospitalization prevented, day 1) Harms in NNT None were harmed (...) by medication side effects None were harmed (medication side effects) View As: NNT % Source: Efficacy Endpoints: Admission Rate (Day 1) Harm Endpoints: None Narrative: Bronchiolitis, a viral respiratory infection in the first 2 years of life (most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus) often leads to significant use of healthcare resources. Optimal management strategies remain unclear, including pharmacotherapy for wheezing and shortness of breath. This Cochrane review identified and assessed six

2011 theNNT

178. Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis

Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2011 DARE.

179. Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Bronchiolitis

Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Bronchiolitis Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Bronchiolitis – TheNNTTheNNT Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Bronchiolitis in Infants 1 less hospital day IMPORTANT! In Summary, for those who received the nebulized hypertonic saline: Benefits in NNT Hospitalized infants were helped by a 1-day decrease in their hospital stay Harms in NNT None were harmed View As: NNT % Source: Efficacy Endpoints: Duration of Hospital Stay, Decrease in Clinical Severity Scores (...) , Decrease in Admission Rates Harm Endpoints: Tachycardia, Hypertension, Pallor, Tremor, Nausea, and Vomiting Narrative: Acute bronchiolitis is the one of the most common respiratory infections in infants. It affects the lower respiratory tract and is usually caused by a virus, with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) being the most common pathogen. It is estimated that nearly all infants are infected with RSV and that between 1 and 2% of these develop symptoms severe enough to warrant admission. While

2011 theNNT

180. WITHDRAWN: Inhaled corticosteroids during acute bronchiolitis in the prevention of post-bronchiolitic wheezing. (Abstract)

WITHDRAWN: Inhaled corticosteroids during acute bronchiolitis in the prevention of post-bronchiolitic wheezing. Acute bronchiolitis in infants and young children is associated with long-term airway disease also known as post-bronchiolitic wheezing. Two major hypotheses have been proposed to explain the association between bronchiolitis and PBW. The first hypothesis considers bronchiolitis to be the first manifestation of recurrent wheezing in infants and children who are susceptible (...) to obstructive airway disease. The second hypothesis suggests that the infection and concomitant inflammatory reaction in the acute phase leads to airway epithelium injury resulting in long-term obstructive airway disease. In line with the latter hypothesis, corticosteroids may have a beneficial effect on the prevention of post-bronchiolitic wheezing.The objective of this review was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroids, started during the acute phase of bronchiolitis, on the prevention of post

2011 Cochrane