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Latest & greatest articles for bronchiolitis
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Bronchiolitis is mainly caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The virus travels down to the bronchioles in the lungs causing them to become inflamed making it difficult to breath.
Almost every child will be infected with RSV by the time they reach two years. Adults can also contract the virus, typically during winter months.
In mild cases bronchiolitis will clear up without treatment. The virus that causes bronchiolitis travels through tiny droplets of liquid and can be passed through the air or contracted by touching infected surfaces.
Symptoms include: Sore throat, dry cough, blocked nose and aches and pains throughout the body.
Although there is no cure for chronic bronchiolitis research and clinical studies on bronchiolitis suggest that some lifestyle changes can ease symptoms: avoid smoking, eat a healthy diet and maintain regular exercise. In extreme cases steroids can be prescribed to help minimise inflammation.
Read more on medications used to treat bronchiolitis and the causes of the virus.
Chest physiotherapy for acute bronchiolitis in paediatric patients between 0 and 24 months old. This Cochrane review was first published in 2005 and updated in 2007, 2012 and now 2015. Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of medical emergencies during winter in children younger than two years of age. Chest physiotherapy is sometimes used to assist infants in the clearance of secretions in order to decrease ventilatory effort.To determine the efficacy of chest physiotherapy in infants aged (...) less than 24 months old with acute bronchiolitis. A secondary objective was to determine the efficacy of different techniques of chest physiotherapy (for example, vibration and percussion and passive forced exhalation).We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 9) (accessed 8 July 2015), MEDLINE (1966 to July 2015), MEDLINE in-process and other non-indexed citations (July 2015), EMBASE (1990 to July 2015), CINAHL (1982 to July 2015), LILACS (1985 to July 2015), Web of Science (1985 to July 2015) and Pedro
Do ß-2 Agonists for Acute Bronchitis Provide Any Benefit? TAKE-HOME MESSAGE Although there is no evidence to support the use of b-2 agonists in children with acute cough without air?ow restriction, limited evidence suggests that they may bene?t adults with an acute cough and wheezing but their use must be weighed against any adverse effects. Do b-2 Agonists for Acute Bronchitis Provide Any Bene?t? EBEM Commentators Daniel C. Kolinsky, MD Evan S. Schwarz, MD Washington University in St. Louis (...) School of Medicine Division of Emergency Medicine St. Louis, MO Results Therewereatotalof7studiesthat met inclusion criteria, with a total of 552 patients treated in a pri- mary care setting. The overall quality of the included studies per the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations criteria was low to moderate for ef?cacy of b-2 ago- nists in acute cough or acute bronchitis. Because of signi?cant clinical heterogeneity among the trials, there was no overall com- parison
Hypertonic saline (HS) for acute bronchiolitis: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Acute bronchiolitis is the commonest cause of hospitalisation in infancy. Currently management consists of supportive care and oxygen. A Cochrane review concluded that, "nebulised 3 % saline may significantly reduce the length of hospital stay". We conducted a systematic review of controlled trials of nebulised hypertonic saline (HS) for infants hospitalised with primary acute bronchiolitis.Searches to January (...) hospitalised due to the first episode of acute bronchiolitis. Two reviewers extracted data to calculate mean differences (MD) and 95 % Confidence Intervals (CIs) for length of hospital stay (LoS-primary outcome), Clinical Severity Score (CSS) and Serious Adverse Events (SAEs). Meta-analysis was undertaken using a fixed effect model, supplemented with additional sensitivity analyses. We investigated statistical heterogeneity using I(2). Risk of bias, within and between studies, was assessed using
Viral quantity and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected by IRFIBV32 isolate of infectious bronchitis virus An Iranian isolate of avian infectious bronchitis virus IRFIBV32 was quantified in experimentally infected broilers using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and histopathological changes was investigated. Thirty-six 3-week-old commercial broilers were inoculated by 10(5) ELD50/0.1 ml of the virus. On the various days post inoculation (dpi
Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Acute Bronchiolitis: A Systematic Review. The mainstay of treatment for acute bronchiolitis remains supportive care. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis.Data sources included PubMed and the Virtual Health Library of the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information up to May 2015. Studies selected were randomized or quasi-randomized
Heliox inhalation therapy for bronchiolitis in infants. Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalisation among infants in high-income countries. Acute viral bronchiolitis is associated with airway obstruction and turbulent gas flow. Heliox, a mixture of oxygen and the inert gas helium, may improve gas flow through high-resistance airways and decrease the work of breathing. In this review, we selected trials that objectively assessed the effect of the addition of heliox to standard medical (...) care for acute bronchiolitis.To assess heliox inhalation therapy in addition to standard medical care for acute bronchiolitis in infants with respiratory distress, as measured by clinical endpoints (in particular the rate of endotracheal intubation, the rate of emergency department discharge, the length of treatment for respiratory distress) and pulmonary function testing (mainly clinical respiratory scores).We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to March week 3, 2015), EMBASE (1974
Beta2-agonists for acute cough or a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis. The diagnosis of acute bronchitis is made on clinical grounds and a variety of clinical definitions have been used. There are no clearly effective treatments for the cough of acute bronchitis. Beta2-agonists are often prescribed, perhaps because clinicians suspect many patients also have reversible airflow restriction (as seen in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) contributing to the symptoms.To (...) determine whether beta2-agonists improve acute bronchitis symptoms in people with no underlying pulmonary disease (such as asthma, COPD or pulmonary fibrosis).We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2015, Issue 5, MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2015), EMBASE (1974 to May 2015), Web of Science (2011 to May 2015) and LILACS (1982 to May 2015).Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which allocated people (adults, or children over two years of age) with acute bronchitis or acute
Influence of N-acetylcysteine on chronic bronchitis or COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis. In order to clarify the possible role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we have carried out a meta-analysis testing the available evidence that NAC treatment may be effective in preventing exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD and evaluating whether there is a substantial difference between the responses (...) induced by low (≤ 600 mg per day) and high (> 600 mg per day) doses of NAC. The results of the present meta-analysis (13 studies, 4155 COPD patients, NAC n = 1933; placebo or controls n = 2222) showed that patients treated with NAC had significantly and consistently fewer exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD (relative risk 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.84; p < 0.01), although this protective effect was more apparent in patients without evidence of airway obstruction. However, high doses of NAC were also
Surfactant therapy for bronchiolitis in critically ill infants. Bronchiolitis is one of the most frequent causes of respiratory failure in infants; some infants will require intensive care and mechanical ventilation. There is lack of evidence regarding effective treatment for bronchiolitis other than supportive care. Abnormalities of surfactant quantity or quality (or both) have been observed in severe cases of bronchiolitis. Exogenous surfactant administration appears to favourably change (...) the haemodynamics of the lungs and may be a potentially promising therapy for severe bronchiolitis. This is an update of a review published in Issue 9, 2012. We did not identify any new studies for inclusion, and our conclusions remain unchanged.To evaluate the efficacy of exogenous surfactant administration (i.e. intratracheal administration of surfactant of any type (whether animal-derived or synthetic), at any dose and at any time after start of ventilation) compared to placebo, no intervention or standard
Saline in Acute Bronchiolitis RCT and Economic evaluation: hypertonic saline in acute bronchiolitis - randomised controlled trial and systematic review. Acute bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalisation in infancy. Supportive care and oxygen are the cornerstones of management. A Cochrane review concluded that the use of nebulised 3% hypertonic saline (HS) may significantly reduce the duration of hospitalisation.To test the hypothesis that HS reduces the time to when infants were (...) assessed as being fit for discharge, defined as in air with saturations of > 92% for 6 hours, by 25%.Parallel-group, pragmatic randomised controlled trial, cost-utility analysis and systematic review.Ten UK hospitals.Infants with acute bronchiolitis requiring oxygen therapy were allocated within 4 hours of admission.Supportive care with oxygen as required, minimal handling and fluid administration as appropriate to the severity of the disease, 3% nebulised HS every ± 6 hours.The trial primary outcome
Budesonide/Formoterol for bronchiolitis obliterans after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Systemic steroids are the standard treatment for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) despite their poor efficacy and disabling side effects.To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of budesonide/formoterol as an alternative treatment for BOS after HSCT.In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly
A Living Systematic Review of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Acute Bronchiolitis in Infants. 26099054 2015 10 19 2018 12 02 2168-6211 169 8 2015 Aug JAMA pediatrics JAMA Pediatr A Living Systematic Review of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Acute Bronchiolitis in Infants. 788-9 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0681 Badgett Robert G RG Department of Internal Medicine, Kansas University School of Medicine, Wichita2Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Kansas University School (...) Division, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. eng Journal Article Comment United States JAMA Pediatr 101589544 2168-6203 0 Bronchodilator Agents 0 Saline Solution, Hypertonic QF8SVZ843E Albuterol AIM IM JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Jul;168(7):607-9 24862208 Albuterol therapeutic use Bronchiolitis drug therapy Bronchiolitis, Viral drug therapy Bronchodilator Agents therapeutic use Female Humans Length of Stay statistics & numerical data Male
Indoor mildew odour in old housing was associated with adult allergic symptoms, asthma, chronic bronchitis, vision, sleep and self-rated health: USA NHANES, 2005-2006. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis has shown the effect of indoor mildew odour on allergic rhinitis risk, but its relation to other common chronic health outcomes in adults has not been investigated. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationship of indoor mildew odour and common health outcomes in adults (...) in their households. People who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also reported poorer self-rated health, sleep complaints, chronic bronchitis, asthma attack, itchy rash, sneezing and poor vision. In addition, people who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also tended to reside in older housing that were built 20 years earlier. However, there were no significant statistical associations found between indoor mildew odour or musty smell and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals, which
Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis: a meta-analysis of 16 studies. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis (CB) are common respiratory diseases globally. The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the risk of these two diseases being associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.A literature search was performed to identify studies published before 5 June 2014 for relevant risk estimates
Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Are antibiotics associated with improved outcomes in patients with acute bronchitis?Prescribing antibiotics for acute bronchitis was associated with reduced overall and nighttime cough and with an approximately half-day reduction in duration of cough, in days feeling ill, and in days with impaired activities. However, at follow-up, there were no significant differences in patients receiving antibiotics compared with those receiving placebo in overall clinical