Latest & greatest articles for bronchiolitis

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Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is mainly caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The virus travels down to the bronchioles in the lungs causing them to become inflamed making it difficult to breath.

Almost every child will be infected with RSV by the time they reach two years. Adults can also contract the virus, typically during winter months.

In mild cases bronchiolitis will clear up without treatment. The virus that causes bronchiolitis travels through tiny droplets of liquid and can be passed through the air or contracted by touching infected surfaces.

Symptoms include: Sore throat, dry cough, blocked nose and aches and pains throughout the body.

Although there is no cure for chronic bronchiolitis research and clinical studies on bronchiolitis suggest that some lifestyle changes can ease symptoms: avoid smoking, eat a healthy diet and maintain regular exercise. In extreme cases steroids can be prescribed to help minimise inflammation.

Read more on medications used to treat bronchiolitis and the causes of the virus.

Top results for bronchiolitis

81. Bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. With improvements in supportive care, both long-term survival following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) and the indications for this procedure have increased. As a result, the number of patients living with long-term toxic effects due to HSCT has increased. A once rare condition of the donor immune cells attacking healthy host tissues, termed chronic graft-vs-host disease, has become (...) a more common phenomenon. When chronic graft-vs-host disease affects the lung tissue, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome ensues. Recent data suggest that bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome may affect up to 6% of HSCT recipients and dramatically alters survival, with overall survival of only 13% at 5 years. These statistics have not improved since the first presentation of this disease over 20 years ago. Challenges to the progress of medical management of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome include

JAMA2009

82. Nebulised hypertonic saline significantly decreases length of hospital stay and reduces symptoms in children with bronchiolitis

Nebulised hypertonic saline significantly decreases length of hospital stay and reduces symptoms in children with bronchiolitis BestBets: Nebulised hypertonic saline significantly decreases length of hospital stay and reduces symptoms in children with bronchiolitis Nebulised hypertonic saline significantly decreases length of hospital stay and reduces symptoms in children with bronchiolitis Report By: Daniel Horner - ST3 Emergency Medicine / Critical Care Search checked by Rachel Jenner (...) - Paediatric Emergency Medicine Consultant Institution: Booth Hall Childrens Hospital Date Submitted: 31st January 2007 Date Completed: 3rd July 2009 Last Modified: 3rd July 2009 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [children Clinical Scenario A 3 month old books in to the Emergency Department with a 4 day history of a coryzal illness followed by breathing difficulties and decreased oral intake. It is December. Inwardly you sigh heavily, berating the fact that bronchiolitis season is upon you

BestBETS2009

83. Is continuous positive airway pressure effective in bronchiolitis?

Is continuous positive airway pressure effective in bronchiolitis? BestBets: Is continuous positive airway pressure effective in bronchiolitis? Is continuous positive airway pressure effective in bronchiolitis? Report By: V Palanivel, M A Anjay - Paediatric Registrars Institution: Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge and James Paget University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Gorleston, Great Yarmouth Date Submitted: 27th February 2004 Date Completed: 5th May 2009 Last Modified: 5th May 2009 Status (...) : Green (complete) Three Part Question In [infants with worsening bronchiolitis] does [nasal continuous positive airway pressure compared with the standard management of oxygen and supportive care] improve [clinical status and/or avoid mechanical ventilation]? Clinical Scenario A 3-month-old boy is admitted to the paediatric ward with bronchiolitis. He is initially managed with oxygen, nursing care and intravenous fluids. However, his respiratory distress worsens a few hours after admission

BestBETS2009

84. Nebulised hypertonic saline effective for acute bronchiolitis in infants

Nebulised hypertonic saline effective for acute bronchiolitis in infants PEARLS Practical Evidence About Real Life Situations PEARLS are succinct summaries of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for primary care practitioners. They Nebulised hypertonic saline effective for acute bronchiolitis in infants Clinical question How effective is nebulised hypertonic saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis? Bottom line Compared to treatment with nebulised 0.9% saline, nebulised 3% saline (...) produced a 25.9% reduction (0.94 days) in the mean length of hospital stay among infants hospitalised with viral bronchiolitis. The 3% saline group also had a significantly lower post-inhalation clinical score than the 0.9% saline group in the first 3 days of treatment. The effect of nebulised hypertonic saline in improving clinical score was greater among outpatients than inpatients. No adverse events related to the 3% saline inhalations were reported. Caveat Three trials did not use analysis

Cochrane PEARLS2009

85. Is nebulised salbutamol indicated in bronchiolitis?

Is nebulised salbutamol indicated in bronchiolitis? BestBets: Is nebulised salbutamol indicated in bronchiolitis? Is nebulised salbutamol indicated in bronchiolitis? Report By: Jayachandran Panickar - Consultant Respiratory Paediatrician Search checked by Michael Eisenhut - Consultant Paediatrician Institution: Central Manchester and Manchester Children's University Hospital Original institution: Luton and Dunstable Hospital Date Submitted: 18th December 2002 Date Completed: 14th January 2009 (...) Last Modified: 14th January 2009 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [infants with bronchiolitis] will a [treatment with nebulised salbutamol] reduce [the length of hospitalisation and clinical severity]. Clinical Scenario A 6 month old baby is admitted to hospital with a 4 day history of coryzal symptoms, cough, wheeze and poor feeding. Your clinical diagnosis is bronchiolitis. You wonder whether treatment with nebulised salbutamol would improve the clinical condition. Search Strategy

BestBETS2009

86. Oral steroids are not indicated in bronchiolitis.

Oral steroids are not indicated in bronchiolitis. BestBets: Oral steroids are not indicated in bronchiolitis. Oral steroids are not indicated in bronchiolitis. Report By: Jayachandran Panickar - Consultant Respiratory Paediatrician Search checked by Michael Eisenhut - Consultant Paediatrician Institution: Central Manchester and Manchester Children's University Hospital Original institution: Luton and Dunstable Hospital Date Submitted: 23rd December 2002 Date Completed: 14th January 2009 Last (...) Modified: 14th January 2009 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [infants with bronchiolitis] do [oral steroids] reduce [clinical severity or length of hospital stay]. Clinical Scenario A 6 month old baby is admitted to hospital with a 4 day history of coryzal symptoms, cough, wheeze and decrease in feeds. Respiratory syncytial virus is detected in nasopharyngeal secretion. She is needing oxygen and is on a nasogastric feed. You wonder whether starting oral steroids will improve her clinical

BestBETS2009

87. Descriptive epidemiological features of bronchiolitis in a population-based cohort

Descriptive epidemiological features of bronchiolitis in a population-based cohort 19047234 2008 12 02 2009 01 15 2008 12 02 1098-4275 122 6 2008 Dec Pediatrics Pediatrics Descriptive epidemiological features of bronchiolitis in a population-based cohort. 1196-203 10.1542/peds.2007-2231 The goal was to investigate the epidemiological features of incident bronchiolitis by using a population-based infant cohort. Outpatient and inpatient health records were used to identify incident bronchiolitis (...) cases among 93,058 singleton infants born in the Georgia Air Basin between 1999 and 2002. Additional health-related databases were linked to provide data on sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and birth outcome measures. From 1999 to 2002, bronchiolitis accounted for 12,474 incident health care encounters (inpatient or outpatient contacts) during the first year of life (134.2 cases per 1000 person-years). A total of 1588 hospitalized bronchiolitis cases were identified (17.1 cases

EvidenceUpdates2009

88. Epinephrine and dexamethasone in children with bronchiolitis.

Epinephrine and dexamethasone in children with bronchiolitis. 19439742 2009 05 14 2009 05 19 2013 11 21 1533-4406 360 20 2009 May 14 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Epinephrine and dexamethasone in children with bronchiolitis. 2079-89 10.1056/NEJMoa0900544 Although numerous studies have explored the benefit of using nebulized epinephrine or corticosteroids alone to treat infants with bronchiolitis, the effectiveness of combining these medications is not well established. We (...) conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which 800 infants (6 weeks to 12 months of age) with bronchiolitis who were seen in the pediatric emergency department were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. One group received two treatments of nebulized epinephrine (3 ml of epinephrine in a 1:1000 solution per treatment) and a total of six oral doses of dexamethasone (1.0 mg per kilogram of body weight in the emergency department and 0.6 mg per kilogram for an additional 5

NEJM2009

89. A randomized, controlled trial of nasal phenylephrine in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis

A randomized, controlled trial of nasal phenylephrine in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis 18657831 2008 11 18 2008 12 01 2013 11 21 1097-6833 153 6 2008 Dec The Journal of pediatrics J. Pediatr. A randomized, controlled trial of nasal phenylephrine in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis. 795-8 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.06.003 To examine the hypothesis that pharmacologic treatment of nasal obstruction, specifically alpha-adrenergic nose drops, will decrease objective signs of respiratory (...) distress in infants with bronchiolitis. Forty-one infants aged 3 weeks to 12 months hospitalized for viral bronchiolitis were enrolled in this double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of topical 0.5% phenylephrine drops. The primary outcome measure was change in oxygen saturation. Secondary outcomes were changes in respiratory scores and vital signs. There were no statistical differences in any of the outcome measures between groups. No adverse events were observed. Overall, participants showed

EvidenceUpdates2008

90. Nebulized hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants.

Nebulized hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants. BACKGROUND: Airway edema and mucus plugging are the predominant pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulized hypertonic saline solution may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of nebulized hypertonic saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled (...) Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, issue 4), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialized Register; OLDMEDLINE (1951 to 1965); MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007); EMBASE (1974 to November 2007); and LILACS (November 2007). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs using nebulized hypertonic saline alone or in conjunction with bronchodilators as an active intervention in infants up to 24 months of age with acute bronchiolitis. DATA

Cochrane2008

91. Chest physiotherapy is not useful in bronchiolitis.

Chest physiotherapy is not useful in bronchiolitis. BestBets: Chest physiotherapy is not useful in bronchiolitis. Chest physiotherapy is not useful in bronchiolitis. Report By: Jayachandran Panickar - Consultant Respiratory Paediatrician Search checked by Michael Eisenhut - Consultant Paediatrician Institution: Central Manchester & Manchester Children's University Hospital and Luton and Dunstable Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Date Submitted: 15th May 2008 Last Modified: 19th September 2008 (...) Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [infants with bronchiolitis] does [physiotherapy] reduce [duration of illness, clinical severity or length of hospital stay] Clinical Scenario A 6 month old baby is admitted to hospital with a 4 day history of coryzal symptoms, increasing cough, wheeze and decreased feeding. Respiratory syncytial virus was detected in nasopharyngeal secretions. She is needing oxygen and is on nasogastric feed. You wonder whether starting physiotherapy will improve her

BestBETS2008

92. Increasing burden and risk factors for bronchiolitis-related medical visits in infants enrolled in a state health care insurance plan

Increasing burden and risk factors for bronchiolitis-related medical visits in infants enrolled in a state health care insurance plan 18595987 2008 07 03 2008 07 31 2016 11 22 1098-4275 122 1 2008 Jul Pediatrics Pediatrics Increasing burden and risk factors for bronchiolitis-related medical visits in infants enrolled in a state health care insurance plan. 58-64 10.1542/peds.2007-2087 The goals were to estimate the year-round burden of health care visits attributable to bronchiolitis (...) and to identify risk factors for bronchiolitis in term healthy infants. We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of 103 670 term, non-low birth weight infants enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid in 1995-2003. We monitored infants through the first year of life. Risk factors for bronchiolitis during infancy and rates of inpatient, emergency department, and outpatient visits during the study period were calculated by using claims data. Over the 9 study years, rates of bronchiolitis visits were 238

EvidenceUpdates2008 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

93. Nebulized hypertonic saline in the treatment of viral bronchiolitis in infants

Nebulized hypertonic saline in the treatment of viral bronchiolitis in infants PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club2008

94. Randomised controlled trial of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) in bronchiolitis

Randomised controlled trial of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) in bronchiolitis 17344251 2007 12 24 2008 02 05 2013 11 21 1468-2044 93 1 2008 Jan Archives of disease in childhood Arch. Dis. Child. Randomised controlled trial of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) in bronchiolitis. 45-7 To compare continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) with standard treatment (ST) in the management of bronchiolitis. Children <1 year of age with bronchiolitis and capillary (...) with a rise of 0.04 kPa in those on ST (p<0.015). If CPAP was used first, there was a significantly better reduction in PCO2 than if it was used second. There were no differences in secondary outcome measures. CPAP was well tolerated with no complications identified. This study suggests that CPAP compared with ST improves ventilation in children with bronchiolitis and hypercapnoea. Thia Lena P LP Department of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel Road, London, UK

EvidenceUpdates2008

95. WITHDRAWN: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children.

WITHDRAWN: Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children. BACKGROUND: Systemic glucocorticoids have been widely prescribed for use in infants and young children with acute viral bronchiolitis but the actual benefit of this intervention requires clarification. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence on the effectiveness of systemic glucocorticoids for the treatment of infants and young children with acute viral bronchiolitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: Multiple (...) for inclusion. Studies were included if participants were diagnosed with acute viral bronchiolitis and treated with systemic (oral, intramuscular or intravenous) corticosteroids. Three reviewers independently selected potentially relevant articles. Four reviewers evaluated these studies, determined eligibility and assessed the methodological quality of each RCT. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The primary outcome of interest was length of hospital stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes were: respiratory rate

Cochrane2008

97. Dexamethasone and placebo did not differ for respiratory status change or hospital admission in infants with acute bronchiolitis

Dexamethasone and placebo did not differ for respiratory status change or hospital admission in infants with acute bronchiolitis Dexamethasone and placebo did not differ for respiratory status change or hospital admission in infants with acute bronchiolitis | Evidence-Based Medicine This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username (...) * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Dexamethasone and placebo did not differ for respiratory status change or hospital admission in infants with acute bronchiolitis Article Text Therapeutics Dexamethasone and placebo did not differ for respiratory status change or hospital admission

Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)2008

98. Chest physiotherapy for acute bronchiolitis in paediatric patients between 0 and 24 months old.

Chest physiotherapy for acute bronchiolitis in paediatric patients between 0 and 24 months old. BACKGROUND: Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of medical emergencies during winter in children younger than two years of age. Chest physiotherapy is thought to assist infants in the clearance of secretions and to decrease ventilatory effort. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of chest physiotherapy in infants aged less than 24 months old with acute bronchiolitis. SEARCH STRATEGY (...) bronchiolitis, although one study included only infants who required nasogastric tube feeding or intravenous fluids. None of the other included trails observed any differences in the severity of the clinical score at day five, during each of the five days of the trial, or until discharge; length of hospital stay; or oxygen requirements between paediatric patients receiving chest physiotherapy and control. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of three RCTs, chest physiotherapy using vibration

Cochrane2007

99. Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children.

Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children. BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a serious, potentially life-threatening respiratory illness commonly affecting young babies. It is most often caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). The diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds (especially tachypnoea and wheezing in a child less than two years of age). Antibiotics are not recommended for bronchiolitis unless there is concern about complications such as secondary bacterial pneumonia. Despite (...) this, they are used at rates of 34 to 99% in uncomplicated cases. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of antibiotics for bronchiolitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) which includes the Acute Respiratory Infection Groups' specialised register, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2006); MEDLINE (January 1966 to August Week 2, 2006); EMBASE (1990 to March 2006); and Current

Cochrane2007

100. Efficacy of interventions for bronchiolitis in critically ill infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Efficacy of interventions for bronchiolitis in critically ill infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club2007