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Latest & greatest articles for autism
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Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder (a type of mental disorder) characterised by difficult social interaction, impaired communication (both verbal and non-verbal), and restricted and repetitive behaviours. It forms part of the broader autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a range of similar conditions, including Asperger syndrome.
Autism is a condition that begins from early childhood and is often suspected and diagnosed by ages 1-3. It is a lifelong disability that affects how people interact with others.
Autism causes and treatment
There have been many misconceptions as to what causes autism in the past such as the MMR vaccine and diet. Extensive research and clinical trials have concluded that none of these factors cause autism or ASD. However, the real cause is little understood but research is starting to unpick potential factors such as genetics, pollution and other environmental factors. A current favoured idea is that genes inherited from a child’s parents can make them more vulnerable to developing autism, some researchers suggest that the disorder will only develop when triggered by environmental factors.
The exact cause of autism spectrum disorder is unknown, however research into the disorder suggest that it is caused by several genetic and environmental factors. Genes inherited from a child’s parents can make them more vulnerable to developing autism, some researchers suggest that the disorder will only develop when triggered by environmental factors. Read more in clinical papers on autism.
Autism can be managed with a combination of prescribed medicines and behavioural treatment, depending on the severity of the disorder. Read about clinical trials and medical advancements for the treatment of autism on Trip.
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Users of Trip frequently look at topics around adolescents, therapies, behaviour and screening. They also explore such topics as omega-3 fatty acids, SSRIs and aripiprazole. All these topics, and more, can be easily searched for within Trip.
. The National Autistic Society ( ) — the is aimed at all health professionals who may come into contact with a child or adult with autism for reasons other than autism. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE, ): The guideline on covers interventions and support for children, young people, and adults with a learning disability and behaviour that challenges. It also covers support and intervention for family members and/or carers. The guideline on covers services for children, young (...) pattern. Physical illness or discomfort, for example, abdominal pain, earache, or eczema. Levels of activity and exercise during the day. Emotional upset. The National Autistic Society website ( ) has information on . Give advice on good sleep hygiene. See the section on in the CKS topic on for more information. If the problem persists, consider referral to a paediatric sleep specialist or an autism team if available (or if not, to a paediatrician or a child and adolescent psychiatrist). Be aware
A microcosting and cost-consequence analysis of genomic testing strategies (including trios) in autism spectrum disorder: An update The Hospital for Sick Children Technology Assessment at SickKids (TASK) FULL REPORT A MICROCOSTING AND COST-CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC TESTING STRATEGIES (INCLUDING TRIOS) IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: AN UPDATE Authors: Jathishinie Jegathisawaran, MHEcon Clinical Research Project Coordinator, Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children (...) with quality checks. i List of Abbreviations aCGH Array-based comparative genomic hybridization ACMG American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics ASD Autism spectrum disorder CAD Canadian dollar CGES Clinical genome and exome sequencing CIHI Canadian Institute for Health Information CMA Chromosomal microarray analysis CNV Copy number variant DD Developmental delay DPLM Department of pediatric laboratory medicine DSA Deterministic sensitivity analysis FISH Fluorescence in situ hybridization GATK Genome
Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently present with inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, which are the cardinal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The effectiveness of methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD treatment, is therefore of interest in these children.To assess the effects of methylphenidate for symptoms of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity
Disorder-Specific and Shared Brain Abnormalities During Vigilance in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and share similarities across some cognitive phenotypes, including certain aspects of attention. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have compared the underlying neural mechanisms contributing to these shared phenotypes.Age- and IQ-matched boys (11-17 years old) with ASD (n
Autism spectrum disorder and Li-Fraumeni syndrome: purely coincidental or mechanistically associated? Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders with impaired social interactions and communication and restrictive, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, and activities. A recent epidemiological study suggests that children with ASD might have an increased cancer risk.The 14.5-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with ASD, was referred with persistent bone pain (...) cancer.Some of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes causing cancer susceptibility syndromes overlap with those involved in autism. This functional overlap between autism and cancer is novel and particularly compelling. The surprising coincidence of LFS and ASD in our patient raises the question whether this is purely coincidental or mechanistically associated.
Antenatal nutritional supplementation and autism spectrum disorders in the Stockholm youth cohort: population based cohort study. Objective To determine whether nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with and without intellectual disability in offspring.Design Observational prospective cohort study using multivariable logistic regression, sibling controls, and propensity score matching.Setting Stockholm County (...) nutrition and its role in the cause of autism is recommended.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Atypical autism in a boy with double duplication of 22q11.2: implications of increasing dosage Duplication of chromosome 22q11.2 (LCR A-D) has been reported at higher frequencies in clinical samples than the general population, but phenotypes vary widely. Triplication (4 copies) is rare, but studying the associated phenotype may provide insight into dosage-sensitivity of the genes in this chromosomal interval. We describe a proband with a triplication, specifically a "double duplication" (two
The Heritability of Autism Spectrum Disorder 28973605 2017 10 19 2018 11 13 1538-3598 318 12 2017 09 26 JAMA JAMA The Heritability of Autism Spectrum Disorder. 1182-1184 10.1001/jama.2017.12141 Sandin Sven S Department of Psychiatry, Ichan School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Lichtenstein Paul P Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Kuja-Halkola Ralf R Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska (...) Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Hultman Christina C Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Larsson Henrik H School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. Reichenberg Abraham A Department of Psychiatry, Ichan School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. eng Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 AIM IM Autism Spectrum Disorder genetics Child Cohort Studies Genetic
and to make a phenotype-genotype correlation for the autistic patients.This case-control study was carried out from 2013 through 2015. The study included 31 children with autism and 39 children in a normal control group, the mean age of patients and control was comparable (4.5 years± 2) with males predominant in both groups. We used DSM-V-TR criteria, Stanford-Binet intelligence scale V and childhood autism rating scale (CARS) for assessments. Genotyping for MTHFR gene polymorphic loci C677T and 1298AC (...) Study of the C677T and 1298AC polymorphic genotypes of MTHFR Gene in autism spectrum disorder Autism is currently known as "a behaviorally defined syndrome" manifested as impairment in social communication, repetitive routines and restricted interests. There is an increased risk of ASDs associated with common mutations affecting the folate/methylation cycle.The aim of this study was to identify C677T and 1298AC polymorphic genotypes of MTHFR gene among a sample of Egyptian children with autism
The Default Mode Network in AutismAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction. Since its discovery as a major functional brain system, the default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, including ASD. Here we review converging multimodal evidence for DMN dysfunction in the context of specific components of social cognitive dysfunction in ASD: 'self-referential processing' - the ability to process
Autism, Attention, and Alpha Oscillations: An Electrophysiological Study of Attentional Capture Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with deficits in adaptively orienting attention to behaviorally-relevant information. Neural oscillatory activity plays a key role in brain function and provides a high-resolution temporal marker of attention dynamics. Alpha band (8-12 Hz) activity is associated with both selecting task-relevant stimuli and filtering task-irrelevant information.The present
Psychotropic medication use in autism spectrum disorders may affect functional brain connectivity Prescription of psychotropic medications is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), either off-label or to treat comorbid conditions such as ADHD or depression. Psychotropic medications are intended to alter brain function. Yet, studies investigating the functional brain organization in ASDs rarely take medication usage into account. This could explain some of the inconsistent findings (...) of atypical brain network connectivity reported in the autism literature.The current study tested whether functional connectivity patterns, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), differed in a cohort of 49 children and adolescents with ASDs based on psychotropic medication status, and in comparison with 50 matched typically developing (TD) participants. Twenty-five participants in the ASD group (51%) reported current psychotropic medication usage, including stimulants
An altered scaffold for information processing: Cognitive control development in adolescents with autism We investigated how cognitive neuroscientific studies during the last decade have advanced understanding of cognitive control from adolescence to young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To do so, we conducted a selective review of the larger structural, resting state, and diffusion imaging studies of brain regions and networks related to cognitive control
is the clinical effectiveness on the use of virtual reality to diagnose autism? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of virtual reality to diagnose autism? Key Message No relevant literature was identified regarding virtual reality for the diagnosis of autism. Tags asperger syndrome, autistic disorder, medical devices, Autism, Autistic, kanner syndrome, virtual reality, virtual environment, VR therapy, VRE, virtual therapy, augmented reality, Oculus, immersive technology Files Rapid (...) Virtual Reality for the Diagnosis of Autism: Clinical Effectiveness Virtual Reality for the Diagnosis of Autism: Clinical Effectiveness | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Virtual Reality for the Diagnosis of Autism: Clinical Effectiveness Virtual Reality for the Diagnosis of Autism: Clinical Effectiveness Published on: August 23, 2017 Project Number: RB1129-000 Product Line: Research Type: Devices and Systems Report Type: Summary of Abstracts Result type: Report Question What
Subcortical Brain and Behavior Phenotypes Differentiate Infants with Autism versus Language Delay Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are themselves at increased risk for ASD and other developmental concerns. It is unclear if infants who display developmental concerns, but are unaffected by ASD, share similar or dissimilar behavioral and brain phenotypes to infants with ASD. Most individuals with ASD exhibit heterogeneous difficulties with language
Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy vs Enhanced Standard Care on Symptom Severity Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The TIME-A Randomized Clinical Trial. Music therapy may facilitate skills in areas affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as social interaction and communication.To evaluate effects of improvisational music therapy on generalized social communication skills of children with ASD.Assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial, conducted in 9 countries (...) sang or played music with each child, attuned and adapted to the child's focus of attention, to help children develop affect sharing and joint attention.The primary outcome was symptom severity over 5 months, based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), social affect domain (range, 0-27; higher scores indicate greater severity; minimal clinically important difference, 1). Prespecified secondary outcomes included parent-rated social responsiveness. All outcomes were also assessed at 2
Antidepressants during pregnancy and autism in offspring: population based cohort study. Objectives To study the association between maternal use of antidepressants during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring.Design Observational prospective cohort study with regression methods, propensity score matching, sibling controls, and negative control comparison.Setting Stockholm County, Sweden.Participants 254 610 individuals aged 4-17, including 5378 with autism, living (...) in Stockholm County in 2001-11 who were born to mothers who did not take antidepressants and did not have any psychiatric disorder, mothers who took antidepressants during pregnancy, or mothers with psychiatric disorders who did not take antidepressants during pregnancy. Maternal antidepressant use was recorded during first antenatal interview or determined from prescription records.Main outcome measure Offspring diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, with and without intellectual disability.Results
. The clinical practice guidelines consulted do not mention the use of this technology in autism spectrum disorders and no coverage policies considering its use were found. Final publication URL www.iecs.org.ar Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Analgesics; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Autistic Disorder; Cannabinoids; Humans Language Published Spanish Country of organisation Argentina English summary There is no English language summary available. Address for correspondence Institute (...) [Cannabinoids in patients with autism spectrum disorders] [Cannabinoids in patients with autism spectrum disorders] [Cannabinoids in patients with autism spectrum disorders] Virgilio S, Alcaraz A, Pichon-Riviere A, Augustovski F, García Martí S, Bardach A, Ciapponi A Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Virgilio S, Alcaraz