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Latest & greatest articles for autism
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on autism or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder (a type of mental disorder) characterised by difficult social interaction, impaired communication (both verbal and non-verbal), and restricted and repetitive behaviours. It forms part of the broader autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a range of similar conditions, including Asperger syndrome.
Autism is a condition that begins from early childhood and is often suspected and diagnosed by ages 1-3. It is a lifelong disability that affects how people interact with others.
Autism causes and treatment
There have been many misconceptions as to what causes autism in the past such as the MMR vaccine and diet. Extensive research and clinical trials have concluded that none of these factors cause autism or ASD. However, the real cause is little understood but research is starting to unpick potential factors such as genetics, pollution and other environmental factors. A current favoured idea is that genes inherited from a child’s parents can make them more vulnerable to developing autism, some researchers suggest that the disorder will only develop when triggered by environmental factors.
The exact cause of autism spectrum disorder is unknown, however research into the disorder suggest that it is caused by several genetic and environmental factors. Genes inherited from a child’s parents can make them more vulnerable to developing autism, some researchers suggest that the disorder will only develop when triggered by environmental factors. Read more in clinical papers on autism.
Autism can be managed with a combination of prescribed medicines and behavioural treatment, depending on the severity of the disorder. Read about clinical trials and medical advancements for the treatment of autism on Trip.
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Users of Trip frequently look at topics around adolescents, therapies, behaviour and screening. They also explore such topics as omega-3 fatty acids, SSRIs and aripiprazole. All these topics, and more, can be easily searched for within Trip.
screening and abstracting records at multiple medical and educational sources, with case status determined by expert review.Autism prevalence by demographic factors, levels of cognitive functioning, previous autism diagnoses, special education eligibility categories, and sources of identification.A total of 987 children displayed behaviors consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise (...) Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. Concern has been raised about possible increases in the prevalence of autism. However, few population-based studies have been conducted in the United States.To determine the prevalence of autism among children in a major US metropolitan area and to describe characteristics of the study population.Study of the prevalence of autism among children aged 3 to 10 years in the 5 counties of metropolitan Atlanta, Ga, in 1996. Cases were identified through
A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish Civil Registration System, which assigns a unique identification number to every live-born infant and new resident in Denmark. MMR (...) -vaccination status was obtained from the Danish National Board of Health. Information on the children's autism status was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, which contains information on all diagnoses received by patients in psychiatric hospitals and outpatient clinics in Denmark. We obtained information on potential confounders from the Danish Medical Birth Registry, the National Hospital Registry, and Statistics Denmark.Of the 537,303 children in the cohort (representing 2,129,864
Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. To assess whether children with autism are more likely to have a history of gastrointestinal disorders than children without autism.Nested case-control study.UK General Practice Research Database.Children born after 1 January 1988 and registered with the General Practice Research Database within 6 months of birth.Chronic inflammation (...) of the gastrointestinal tract, coeliac disease, food intolerance, and recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms recorded by the general practitioner.9 of 96 (9%) children with a diagnosis of autism (cases) and 41 of 449 (9%) children without autism (matched controls) had a history of gastrointestinal disorders before the index date (the date of first recorded diagnosis of autism in the cases and the same date for controls). The estimated odds ratio for a history of gastrointestinal disorders among children with autism
Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. To investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination is associated with bowel problems and developmental regression in children with autism, looking for evidence of a "new variant" form of autism.Population study with case note review linked to independently recorded vaccine data.Five health districts in north east London.278 children with core autism (...) and 195 with atypical autism, mainly identified from computerised disability registers and born between 1979 and 1998.Recorded bowel problems lasting at least three months, age of reported regression of the child's development where it was a feature, and relation of these to MMR vaccination.The proportion of children with developmental regression (25% overall) or bowel symptoms (17%) did not change significantly (P value for trend 0.50 and 0.47, respectively) during the 20 years from 1979, a period
Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. Atypical antipsychotic agents, which block postsynaptic dopamine and serotonin receptors, have advantages over traditional antipsychotic medications in the treatment of adults with schizophrenia and may be beneficial in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavioral disturbances. However, data on the safety and efficacy of atypical antipsychotic agents in children are limited.We conducted a multisite, randomized (...) , double-blind trial of risperidone as compared with placebo for the treatment of autistic disorder accompanied by severe tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behavior in children 5 to 17 years old. The primary outcome measures were the score on the Irritability subscale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the rating on the Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) scale at eight weeks.A total of 101 children (82 boys and 19 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 8.8+/-2.7 years) were randomly assigned
children with autism: a research synthesis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2002; 32(5): 423-446 PubMedID Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Autistic Disorder /psychology /rehabilitation; Behavior Therapy; Child; Child Behavior Disorders /psychology /rehabilitation; Child, Preschool; Early Intervention (Education); Humans; Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care); Research Design AccessionNumber 12002006647 Date bibliographic record published 31/03/2004 Date (...) Problem behaviour interventions for young children with autism: a research synthesis Problem behaviour interventions for young children with autism: a research synthesis Problem behaviour interventions for young children with autism: a research synthesis Horner R H, Carr E G, Strain P S, Todd A W, Reed, H K Authors' objectives To review recent research on the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for reducing problem behaviour in young children with autism. This was part of a broader
A systematic review of the use of atypical antipsychotics in autism A systematic review of the use of atypical antipsychotics in autism A systematic review of the use of atypical antipsychotics in autism Barnard L, Young A H, Pearson J, Geddes J, O'Brien G Authors' objectives To review the efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotic drugs for patients with autism. Searching MEDLINE (from 1966 to June 2000) and ISI Web of Science (from 1981 to June 2000) were searched using the search terms (...) any inclusion criteria with regard to the participants, but it appears that participants with autistic spectrum disorder were eligible for inclusion in the review. The reported ages of the participants ranged from 23 months to 48 years, although most of the included studies focused on children. Some of the participants had learning disabilities. Outcomes assessed in the review The inclusion criteria with regard to outcomes were not reported. The authors stated that the review focused on behaviour
Association between idiopathic infantile macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a case-controlled, catch-up study of a cohort of boys born with macrocephaly in order to determine whether infantile macrocephaly is a risk marker for the later development of autism spectrum disorders. Our results show that infantile macrocephaly was associated with an increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (odds ratio 5.44, 95% CI 1.11-52.15; p=0.03). These findings suggest (...) that neurobiological differences during infancy may predict behavioural manifestations of autism spectrum disorders.
Behavioural interventions for preschool children with autism Behavioural interventions for preschool children with autism Behavioural interventions for preschool children with autism McGahan L Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation McGahan L. Behavioural interventions for preschool children with autism. Ottawa: Canadian (...) Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment/Office Canadien de Coordination de l'Evaluation des Technologies de la Sante (CCOHTA) 2001: 88 Authors' objectives The objectives of this study are to present a summary of evidence and expert opinions regarding behavioural therapy, and describe Canadian issues and initiatives, an analysis of legal case findings in the area, and key factors that influence the provision of services to preschool children with autism in Canada. Authors' conclusions Though
, language performance and development, and various measures of personality, autism rating scales and stress measures. The most common outcome measure used in the studies was that of IQ. Sattler stated that some autistic children do not differ ntellectually from other 'normal' children, while some show unevenness in functioning. According to the DSM-IV, these children demonstrate impaired social interaction and communication, as well as diminished interest in their surroundings. Therefore it seems (...) Intensive intervention programs for children with autism Intensive intervention programs for children with autism Intensive intervention programs for children with autism Ludwig S, Harstall C Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Ludwig S, Harstall C. Intensive intervention programs for children with autism. Edmonton: Alberta
that, while many forms of intensive behavioural therapy clearly benefit children with autism, there is insufficient scientifically-valid effectiveness evidence to establish a causal relationship between a particular program of intensive, behavioural treatment, and the achievement of 'normal functioning'. Project page URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Autistic Disorder; Behavior Therapy; Child Language Published English Country of organisation Canada Province or state British (...) Autism and Lovaas treatment: a systematic review of effectiveness evidence Autism and Lovaas treatment: a systematic review of effectiveness evidence Autism and Lovaas treatment: a systematic review of effectiveness evidence Bassett K, Green C J, Kazanjian A Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. The agency responsible for the publication has subsequently been disbanded. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA
Lack of benefit of a single dose of synthetic human secretin in the treatment of autism and pervasive developmental disorder. Secretin is a peptide hormone that stimulates pancreatic secretion. After recent publicity about a child with autism whose condition markedly improved after a single dose of secretin, thousands of children with autistic disorders may have received secretin injections.We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single intravenous dose of synthetic human (...) secretin in 60 children (age, 3 to 14 years) with autism or pervasive developmental disorder. The children were randomly assigned to treatment with an intravenous infusion of synthetic human secretin (0.4 microg per kilogram of body weight) or saline placebo. We used standardized behavioral measures of the primary and secondary features of autism, including the Autism Behavior Checklist, to assess the degree of impairment at base line and over the course of a four-week period after treatment.Of the 60
Auditory integration training in autism Auditory integration training in autism Auditory integration training in autism Best L, Milne R Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Best L, Milne R. Auditory integration training in autism. Southampton: Wessex Institute for Health Research and Development (WIHRD) 1997 Authors' objectives (...) Auditory integration training (AIT) is a therapeutic listening procedure which is reported to alleviate or improve behaviour, attention, and communication deficits associated with various developmental disorders including autism and pervasive developmental disorders. The authors examine whether it is in fact helpful to people with autism. Authors' conclusions In view of the way that trials have produced conflicting results, and it remains uncertain whether AIT is any more beneficial than a placebo
Efficacy of vitamin B6 and magnesium in the treatment of autism: a methodology review and summary of outcomes Efficacy of vitamin B6 and magnesium in the treatment of autism: a methodology review and summary of outcomes Efficacy of vitamin B6 and magnesium in the treatment of autism: a methodology review and summary of outcomes Pfeiffer S I, Norton J, Nelson L, Shott S Authors' objectives To assess the effectiveness of vitamin B6 and magnesium in the treatment of autism, and to review (...) the methodology of studies in this area. Searching MEDLARS, PsycINFO and Mental Health Abstracts were searched, and the references of all studies published from 1975 were cross-checked. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials and uncontrolled studies were included. Specific interventions included in the review Vitamin B6 with magnesium. Participants included in the review Persons with autism were included