Latest & greatest articles for autism

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on autism or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

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Autism

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder (a type of mental disorder) characterised by difficult social interaction, impaired communication (both verbal and non-verbal), and restricted and repetitive behaviours. It forms part of the broader autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a range of similar conditions, including Asperger syndrome.

Autism is a condition that begins from early childhood and is often suspected and diagnosed by ages 1-3. It is a lifelong disability that affects how people interact with others.

Autism causes and treatment

There have been many misconceptions as to what causes autism in the past such as the MMR vaccine and diet. Extensive research and clinical trials have concluded that none of these factors cause autism or ASD. However, the real cause is little understood but research is starting to unpick potential factors such as genetics, pollution and other environmental factors. A current favoured idea is that genes inherited from a child’s parents can make them more vulnerable to developing autism, some researchers suggest that the disorder will only develop when triggered by environmental factors.

The exact cause of autism spectrum disorder is unknown, however research into the disorder suggest that it is caused by several genetic and environmental factors. Genes inherited from a child’s parents can make them more vulnerable to developing autism, some researchers suggest that the disorder will only develop when triggered by environmental factors. Read more in clinical papers on autism.

Autism can be managed with a combination of prescribed medicines and behavioural treatment, depending on the severity of the disorder. Read about clinical trials and medical advancements for the treatment of autism on Trip.

Hot topics in Trip

Users of Trip frequently look at topics around adolescents, therapies, behaviour and screening. They also explore such topics as omega-3 fatty acids, SSRIs and aripiprazole. All these topics, and more, can be easily searched for within Trip.

Top results for autism

241. What is the evidence for the effectiveness of behavioural and skill-based early intervention in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

What is the evidence for the effectiveness of behavioural and skill-based early intervention in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? What is the evidence for the effectiveness of behavioural and skill-based early intervention in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? What is the evidence for the effectiveness of behavioural and skill-based early intervention in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Doughty C Record Status This is a bibliographic record (...) of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Doughty C. What is the evidence for the effectiveness of behavioural and skill-based early intervention in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Christchurch: New Zealand Health Technology Assessment (NZHTA) 2004: 47 Authors' objectives The focus of this Tech Brief is to consider the most recent and best evidence for the effectiveness

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2004

242. What is the evidence that sensory integration therapy elicits behavioural changes in children with autism (or autism spectrum disorder) compared to other/no therapy?

What is the evidence that sensory integration therapy elicits behavioural changes in children with autism (or autism spectrum disorder) compared to other/no therapy?

Occupational Therapy CATs2004

243. Auditory integration training and other sound therapies for autism spectrum disorders.

Auditory integration training and other sound therapies for autism spectrum disorders. BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders encompassing Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Semantic-Pragmatic disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Auditory integration therapy (AIT) was developed as a technique for improving abnormal sound sensitivity in individuals with behavioural disorders including autism. Other sound therapies (...) group for ABC subgroup scores. No significant adverse effects of AIT were reported. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed to inform parents', carers' and practitioners' decision making about this therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

Cochrane2004

244. Autism.

Autism. Autism is a disorder characterised by severe difficulties in social interaction and communication, and with unusual behaviours. Once thought of as rare, autism is now recognised as being common. The role of CNS factors in pathogenesis is suggested by high rates of seizure disorder; research has highlighted the role of several specific brain regions in syndrome pathogenesis. Autism is a strongly genetic disorder and probably arises because of multiple genes; recurrence rates in families

Lancet2003

245. Association between thimerosal-containing vaccine and autism.

Association between thimerosal-containing vaccine and autism. CONTEXT: Mercuric compounds are nephrotoxic and neurotoxic at high doses. Thimerosal, a preservative used widely in vaccine formulations, contains ethylmercury. Thus it has been suggested that childhood vaccination with thimerosal-containing vaccine could be causally related to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vaccination with a thimerosal-containing vaccine is associated with development (...) of autism. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1, 1990, until December 31, 1996 (N = 467 450) comparing children vaccinated with a thimerosal-containing vaccine with children vaccinated with a thimerosal-free formulation of the same vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate ratio (RR) for autism and other autistic-spectrum disorders, including trend with dose of ethylmercury. RESULTS: During 2 986 654 person-years, we identified 440

JAMA2003

246. Targeted treatments for symptom domains in child and adolescent autism.

Targeted treatments for symptom domains in child and adolescent autism. CONTEXT: The number of people with autism spectrum disorders has dramatically increased over the past decade, and problem behaviours in autism are an increasing challenge to families, schools, physicians, and other health-care professionals. Pharmacological treatments can effectively target problem behaviours associated with autism. STARTING POINT: Recently, L Namerow and colleagues (J Dev Behav Pediatr 2003; 24: 104-08 (...) ) presented preliminary data in children and adolescents with autism treated with citalopram, which suggested that selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors are useful in the reduction of symptom domains such as repetitive behaviours and mood disorders. J McCracken and colleagues (N Engl J Med 2000; 347: 314-21) showed that the atypical antipsychotic risperidone reduced serious behavioural problems, such as tantrums, aggression, or self-injury in children with autism and in children with below-average

Lancet2003

247. Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life in autism.

Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life in autism. CONTEXT: Autism most commonly appears by 2 to 3 years of life, at which time the brain is already abnormally large. This raises the possibility that brain overgrowth begins much earlier, perhaps before the first clinically noticeable behavioral symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pathological brain overgrowth precedes the first clinical signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether the rate of overgrowth during (...) with normative data of healthy infants, birth HC in infants with ASD was significantly smaller (z = -0.66, P<.001); after birth, HC increased 1.67 SDs and mean HC was at the 84th percentile by 6 to 14 months. Birth HC was related to cerebellar gray matter volume at 2 to 5 years, although the excessive increase in HC between birth and 6 to 14 months was related to greater cerebral cortex volume at 2 to 5 years. Within the ASD group, every child with autistic disorder had a greater increase in HC between

JAMA2003

248. The measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) and autism

The measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) and autism The measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) and autism The measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) and autism Higgins S Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Higgins S. The measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) and autism. Clayton, Victoria: Centre for Clinical Effectiveness (CCE) 2003: 14 Authors' objectives (...) This aim of this critical appraisal was to assess whether the combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) given according to the Department of Health's immunisation schedule increase the child's risk of developing autism. Project page URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Autistic Disorder; Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine /adverse effects Language Published English Country of organisation Australia Address for correspondence Monash Institute of Health Services Research, Block E

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2003

249. The effectiveness of pharmacological therapies for young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a critical appraisal of the literature

The effectiveness of pharmacological therapies for young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a critical appraisal of the literature The effectiveness of pharmacological therapies for young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a critical appraisal of the literature The effectiveness of pharmacological therapies for young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a critical appraisal of the literature Broadstock M, Doughty C Record Status (...) This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Broadstock M, Doughty C. The effectiveness of pharmacological therapies for young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a critical appraisal of the literature. Christchurch: New Zealand Health Technology Assessment (NZHTA) 2003: 77 Authors' objectives The purpose of this review was to systematically identify

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2003

250. Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area.

Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. CONTEXT: Concern has been raised about possible increases in the prevalence of autism. However, few population-based studies have been conducted in the United States. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of autism among children in a major US metropolitan area and to describe characteristics of the study population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND POPULATION: Study of the prevalence of autism among children aged 3 to 10 years in the 5 counties (...) of metropolitan Atlanta, Ga, in 1996. Cases were identified through screening and abstracting records at multiple medical and educational sources, with case status determined by expert review. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Autism prevalence by demographic factors, levels of cognitive functioning, previous autism diagnoses, special education eligibility categories, and sources of identification. RESULTS: A total of 987 children displayed behaviors consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

JAMA2003

251. Parent-mediated early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder.

Parent-mediated early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder. BACKGROUND: Recent estimates concerning the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder are much higher than those reported 30 years ago, with at least 1 in 400 children affected. This group of children and families have important service needs. The involvement of parents in implementing intervention strategies designed to help their autistic children has long been accepted as helpful. The potential benefits (...) are increased skills and reduced stress for parents as well as children. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine the extent to which parent-mediated early intervention has been shown to be effective in the treatment of children aged 1 year to 6 years 11 months with autistic spectrum disorder. In particular, it aimed to assess the effectiveness of such interventions in terms of the benefits for both children and their parents. SEARCH STRATEGY: A range of psychological, educational

Cochrane2003

252. A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism.

A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish Civil Registration System, which assigns a unique identification number to every live-born infant and new resident (...) in Denmark. MMR-vaccination status was obtained from the Danish National Board of Health. Information on the children's autism status was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, which contains information on all diagnoses received by patients in psychiatric hospitals and outpatient clinics in Denmark. We obtained information on potential confounders from the Danish Medical Birth Registry, the National Hospital Registry, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: Of the 537,303 children in the cohort

NEJM2002

253. Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database.

Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether children with autism are more likely to have a history of gastrointestinal disorders than children without autism. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: UK General Practice Research Database. SUBJECTS: Children born after 1 January 1988 and registered with the General Practice Research Database within 6 months (...) of birth. OUTCOME MEASURES: Chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, coeliac disease, food intolerance, and recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms recorded by the general practitioner. RESULTS: 9 of 96 (9%) children with a diagnosis of autism (cases) and 41 of 449 (9%) children without autism (matched controls) had a history of gastrointestinal disorders before the index date (the date of first recorded diagnosis of autism in the cases and the same date for controls). The estimated odds ratio

BMJ2002 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

254. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study.

Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination is associated with bowel problems and developmental regression in children with autism, looking for evidence of a "new variant" form of autism. DESIGN: Population study with case note review linked to independently recorded vaccine data. SETTING: Five health districts in north east (...) London. PARTICIPANTS: 278 children with core autism and 195 with atypical autism, mainly identified from computerised disability registers and born between 1979 and 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Recorded bowel problems lasting at least three months, age of reported regression of the child's development where it was a feature, and relation of these to MMR vaccination. RESULTS: The proportion of children with developmental regression (25% overall) or bowel symptoms (17%) did not change significantly (P

BMJ2002 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

255. Problem behaviour interventions for young children with autism: a research synthesis

Problem behaviour interventions for young children with autism: a research synthesis Problem behaviour interventions for young children with autism: a research synthesis Problem behaviour interventions for young children with autism: a research synthesis Horner R H, Carr E G, Strain P S, Todd A W, Reed, H K Authors' objectives To review recent research on the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for reducing problem behaviour in young children with autism. This was part of a broader (...) of appropriate behaviour, punishment and systems change. The interventions were tested in community and specialist settings; their duration ranged from 2 to 30 weeks. Participants included in the review Studies of children with autism and problem behaviour, aged less than 97 months old, were eligible for inclusion. The children in the included studies had mild to moderate intellectual disability. The majority were boys. Outcomes assessed in the review Studies that looked at reducing problem behaviour were

DARE.2002

256. A systematic review of the use of atypical antipsychotics in autism

A systematic review of the use of atypical antipsychotics in autism A systematic review of the use of atypical antipsychotics in autism A systematic review of the use of atypical antipsychotics in autism Barnard L, Young A H, Pearson J, Geddes J, O'Brien G Authors' objectives To review the efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotic drugs for patients with autism. Searching MEDLINE (from 1966 to June 2000) and ISI Web of Science (from 1981 to June 2000) were searched using the search terms (...) any inclusion criteria with regard to the participants, but it appears that participants with autistic spectrum disorder were eligible for inclusion in the review. The reported ages of the participants ranged from 23 months to 48 years, although most of the included studies focused on children. Some of the participants had learning disabilities. Outcomes assessed in the review The inclusion criteria with regard to outcomes were not reported. The authors stated that the review focused on behaviour

DARE.2002

257. Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems.

Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. 12151468 2002 08 01 2002 08 07 2016 11 22 1533-4406 347 5 2002 Aug 01 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. 314-21 Atypical antipsychotic agents, which block postsynaptic dopamine and serotonin receptors, have advantages over traditional antipsychotic medications in the treatment of adults with schizophrenia and may be beneficial in children (...) with autistic disorder who have serious behavioral disturbances. However, data on the safety and efficacy of atypical antipsychotic agents in children are limited. We conducted a multisite, randomized, double-blind trial of risperidone as compared with placebo for the treatment of autistic disorder accompanied by severe tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behavior in children 5 to 17 years old. The primary outcome measures were the score on the Irritability subscale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist

NEJM2002

258. Association between idiopathic infantile macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorders.

Association between idiopathic infantile macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a case-controlled, catch-up study of a cohort of boys born with macrocephaly in order to determine whether infantile macrocephaly is a risk marker for the later development of autism spectrum disorders. Our results show that infantile macrocephaly was associated with an increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (odds ratio 5.44, 95% CI 1.11-52.15; p=0.03). These findings suggest (...) that neurobiological differences during infancy may predict behavioural manifestations of autism spectrum disorders.

Lancet2001

259. MMR vaccine and autism: no evidence of association

MMR vaccine and autism: no evidence of association MMR vaccine and autism: no evidence of association MMR vaccine and autism: no evidence of association Health Technology Advisory Committee Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. The agency responsible for the publication has subsequently been disbanded. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Health Technology Advisory Committee. MMR vaccine (...) and autism: no evidence of association. Minnesota: Health Technology Advisory Committee (HTAC) 2001 Authors' objectives This report aims to assess the links between the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and the development of autism in children. Authors' conclusions There is no scientific evidence that supports the hypothesis that the MMR vaccine, or any combination of vaccines, causes the development of autism. Both the CDC and the British Committee on Safety of Medicines found no association

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2001

260. Behavioural interventions for preschool children with autism

Behavioural interventions for preschool children with autism Behavioural interventions for preschool children with autism Behavioural interventions for preschool children with autism McGahan L Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation McGahan L. Behavioural interventions for preschool children with autism. Ottawa: Canadian (...) Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment/Office Canadien de Coordination de l'Evaluation des Technologies de la Sante (CCOHTA) 2001: 88 Authors' objectives The objectives of this study are to present a summary of evidence and expert opinions regarding behavioural therapy, and describe Canadian issues and initiatives, an analysis of legal case findings in the area, and key factors that influence the provision of services to preschool children with autism in Canada. Authors' conclusions Though

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2001