Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

161. Intermittent prophylactic antibiotics for bronchiectasis [Cochrane protocol]

Intermittent prophylactic antibiotics for bronchiectasis [Cochrane protocol] Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email

2019 PROSPERO

162. Interventions to modify antibiotic use in children with suspected infections in peripheral health care settings in LMICs: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Interventions to modify antibiotic use in children with suspected infections in peripheral health care settings in LMICs: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content

2019 PROSPERO

163. Fluoroquinolone antibiotic-induced joint and cartilage damage in children: a meta-analysis

Fluoroquinolone antibiotic-induced joint and cartilage damage in children: a meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites

2019 PROSPERO

164. COPD exacerbation: no systematic use of antibiotics

COPD exacerbation: no systematic use of antibiotics Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''COPD exacerbation: no systematic use of antibiotics'', 1 January 2019 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > COPD exacerbation: no systematic use of antibiotics Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  Spotlight COPD exacerbation: no systematic use of antibiotics For episodes (...) of moderate aggravation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is preferable to prescribe antibiotics as a first-line treatment only when the suspicion of bacterial infection is reinforced by an increase in sputum purulence. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are subject to exacerbations of their disease, i.e. episodes of prolonged aggravation. The known causes are mainly viral and bacterial infections. Some exacerbations justify hospitalisation: severe

2019 Prescrire

165. The Role of Oral Antibiotic Preparation in Elective Colorectal Surgery: A Meta-analysis (Abstract)

The Role of Oral Antibiotic Preparation in Elective Colorectal Surgery: A Meta-analysis To compare the impact of the use of oral antibiotics (OAB) with or without mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) on outcome in elective colorectal surgery.Meta-analyses have demonstrated that MBP does not impact upon postoperative morbidity or mortality, and as such it should not be prescribed routinely. However, recent evidence from large retrospective cohort and database studies has suggested that there may

2019 EvidenceUpdates

166. Evaluation of different antibiotic prophylaxis strategies for hepatectomy: a network meta-analysis

Evaluation of different antibiotic prophylaxis strategies for hepatectomy: a network meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web

2019 PROSPERO

167. Efficacy and tolerability of antibiotic augmentation in schizophrenia spectrum disorders - a systematic literature review

Efficacy and tolerability of antibiotic augmentation in schizophrenia spectrum disorders - a systematic literature review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence

2019 PROSPERO

168. A systematic review to determine the most effective antibiotic treatment regimen for lower limb cellulitis

A systematic review to determine the most effective antibiotic treatment regimen for lower limb cellulitis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation

2019 PROSPERO

169. The cost-benefit analysis of antibiotics for stable non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in Chinese health care system: a systematic review and meta analysis

The cost-benefit analysis of antibiotics for stable non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in Chinese health care system: a systematic review and meta analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith

2019 PROSPERO

170. The clinical effects of antibiotic prophylaxis for operative hysteroscopy: a meta-analysis

The clinical effects of antibiotic prophylaxis for operative hysteroscopy: a meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address

2019 PROSPERO

171. Relationship between individualized antibiotics regimens based on maximum a posterior Bayesian and clinical outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Relationship between individualized antibiotics regimens based on maximum a posterior Bayesian and clinical outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith

2019 PROSPERO

172. Identifying the superior antibiotic prophylaxis strategy for breast surgery: a network meta-analysis

Identifying the superior antibiotic prophylaxis strategy for breast surgery: a network meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web

2019 PROSPERO

173. Antibiotic allergy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic allergy. Antibiotics are the commonest cause of life-threatening immune-mediated drug reactions that are considered off-target, including anaphylaxis, and organ-specific and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. However, many antibiotic reactions documented as allergies were unknown or not remembered by the patient, cutaneous reactions unrelated to drug hypersensitivity, drug-infection interactions, or drug intolerances. Although such reactions pose negligible risk to patients (...) , they currently represent a global threat to public health. Antibiotic allergy labels result in displacement of first-line therapies for antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment. A penicillin allergy label, in particular, is associated with increased use of broad-spectrum and non-β-lactam antibiotics, which results in increased adverse events and antibiotic resistance. Most patients labelled as allergic to penicillins are not allergic when appropriately stratified for risk, tested, and re-challenged. Given

2018 Lancet

174. Shared decision making in primary care can reduce antibiotic prescribing

Shared decision making in primary care can reduce antibiotic prescribing Shared decision making in primary care can reduce antibiotic prescribing Discover Portal Discover Portal Shared decision making in primary care can reduce antibiotic prescribing Published on 26 January 2016 doi: Strategies, known as shared decision making, reduced antibiotic prescribing for people with acute respiratory infections by almost 40% in the short term (up to six weeks). This Cochrane systematic review compared (...) and the other six were from high-income European countries and Canada, so the findings are applicable to the UK. There is insufficient evidence about the long term effect (up to one year and beyond) of the strategies used to facilitate shared decision making, so it is not known whether they could reverse community-level antibiotic resistance trends. It is likely that multiple approaches will be needed. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Antibiotic resistance is now seen

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

175. Triple Antibiotic Solution Promotes Similar Antibacterial Effects as Calcium Hydroxide/2% Chlorhexidine When Used as an Intracanal Medicament

Triple Antibiotic Solution Promotes Similar Antibacterial Effects as Calcium Hydroxide/2% Chlorhexidine When Used as an Intracanal Medicament UTCAT3361, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Triple Antibiotic Solution Promotes Similar Antibacterial Effects as Calcium Hydroxide/2% Chlorhexidine When Used as an Intracanal Medicament Clinical Question In patients undergoing non-surgical therapy in a tooth (...) diagnosed with pulpal necrosis, does the use of triple antibiotic paste as an intracanal medicament have better antibacterial efficacy than a calcium hydroxide/chlorhexidine formulation? Clinical Bottom Line Triple antibiotic solution (1 mg/mL) promoted similar antibacterial effects as calcium hydroxide/2% chlorhexidine when used as an intracanal medicament. This is based on several randomized clinical trials in which intracanal medicaments were placed for 7 to 21 days in primary and immature/mature

2018 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

176. A systematic review of local antibiotic devices used to improve wound healing following the surgical management of foot infections in diabetics (Abstract)

A systematic review of local antibiotic devices used to improve wound healing following the surgical management of foot infections in diabetics Local antibiotics are used in the surgical management of foot infection in diabetic patients. This systematic review analyzes the available evidence of the use of local antibiotic delivery systems as an adjunct to surgery.Databases were searched to identify eligible studies and 13 were identified for inclusion.Overall, the quality of the studies (...) reduction was identified when using an antimicrobial gel to deliver antibiotics and anti-biofilm agents (quorum-sensing inhibitors) compared with routine dressings and systemic antibiotics. Analyses of case series identified 485 patients who were treated using local antibiotic delivery devices. The rates of wound healing, re-operation, and mortality were comparable to those that have been previously reported for the routine management of these infections.There is a lack of good-quality evidence

2018 EvidenceUpdates

177. Advances in optimizing the prescription of antibiotics in outpatient settings. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Advances in optimizing the prescription of antibiotics in outpatient settings. The inappropriate use of antibiotics can increase the likelihood of antibiotic resistance and adverse events. In the United States, nearly a third of antibiotic prescriptions in outpatient settings are unnecessary, and the selection of antibiotics and duration of treatment are also often inappropriate. Evidence shows that antibiotic prescribing is influenced by psychosocial factors, including lack of accountability (...) , perceived patient expectations, clinician workload, and habit. A varied and growing body of evidence, including meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials, has evaluated interventions to optimize the use of antibiotics. Interventions informed by behavioral science-such as communication skills training, audit and feedback with peer comparison, public commitment posters, and accountable justification-have been associated with improved antibiotic prescribing. In addition, delayed prescribing, active

2018 BMJ

178. A review of antibiotic prophylaxis for traveler’s diarrhea: past to present Full Text available with Trip Pro

A review of antibiotic prophylaxis for traveler’s diarrhea: past to present As there is rapid increase in international travel to tropical and subtropical countries, there will likely be more people exposed to diarrheal pathogens in these moderate to high risk areas and subsequent increased concern for traveler's diarrhea. The disease may appear as a mild clinical syndrome, yet a more debilitating presentation can lead to itinerary changes and hospitalization. As bacterial etiologies (...) are the most common causative agents of TD, the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent TD has been reported among travelers for several years. The most common type of antibiotic used for TD has changed over 50 years, depending on many influencing factors. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis for TD prevention in travelers is still controversial, mainly because of difficulties balancing the risks and benefits. Many factors, such as emerging drug resistance, side effects, cost and risk behavior need

2018 Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines

179. Hospital-based antibiotic use in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hospital-based antibiotic use in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex Treatment guidelines exist for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, although studies suggest poor concordance in clinician practice. Using a national database including hospital encounters of laboratory-confirmed MAC patients, we sought to characterise US treatment practices. We assessed patients in the Premier Healthcare Database from 2009 to 2013 with two or more MAC-positive cultures or one MAC (...) % resistance-associated therapy. Patients were more likely to receive guidelines-based therapy if they had multiple hospital encounters (aRR 1.5), codes for PNTM (aRR 5.7) or tuberculosis (aRR 4.5) or radiological procedures (aRR 10.9); multiple hospital encounters (aRR 0.8) or a tuberculosis code (aRR 0.1) were less likely to be associated with receiving resistance-promoting regimens. In hospital-based MAC patients, half received antibiotics active against MAC, a low proportion received therapy based

2018 ERJ open research

180. Systemic Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Systemic Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Systemic Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Michael Gottlieb, MD*; Joshua M. DeMott, PharmD, MSc; Marilyn Hallock, MD, MS; Gary D. Peksa, PharmD *Corresponding Author. E-mail: michaelgottliebmd@gmail.com, Twitter: @MGottliebMD. Study objective: The addition of antibiotics to standard incision and drainage (...) is controversial, with earlier studies demonstrating no signi?cant bene?t. However, 2 large, multicenter trials have recently been published that have challenged the previous literature. The goal of this review was to determine whether systemic antibiotics for abscesses after incision and drainage improve cure rates. Methods: PubMed, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

2018 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots