Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

141. Empirical antimicrobial treatment in haemato-/oncological patients with neutropenic sepsis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Empirical antimicrobial treatment in haemato-/oncological patients with neutropenic sepsis Neutropenic sepsis in haemato-/oncological patients is a medical emergency, as infections may show a fulminant clinical course. Early differentiation between sepsis and febrile neutropenic response often proves to be challenging. To assess the severity of the illness, different tools, which are discussed in this article, are available. Once the diagnosis has been established, the correct use of early (...) empirical antibiotic and antifungal treatment is key in improving patient survival. Therefore, profound knowledge of local resistance patterns is mandatory and carefully designed antibiotic regimens have to be established in cooperation with local microbiologists or infectious diseases specialists. In the following, identification, therapy and management of high-risk, neutropenic patients will be reviewed based on experimental and clinical studies, guidelines and reviews.

2018 ESMO open

142. Differential antibacterial control by neutrophil subsets Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential antibacterial control by neutrophil subsets Neutrophils comprise a heterogeneous population of cells essential for bacterial eradication, and defects in neutrophil function are associated with increased susceptibility to infection. In this study, neutrophils from healthy controls were shown to prevent bacterial proliferation for at least 48 hours when cocultured with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in tissue-like scaffolds by establishing a bacteriostatic (...) intracellularly. Conversely, CD16dim-banded neutrophils were the only neutrophil subset that adequately contained MRSA. These findings demonstrate a clear neutrophil heterogeneity in their antimicrobial capacity and the appearance of neutrophil subsets with a clear differentiation in functionality during acute inflammation. Furthermore, this study provides an evolutionary basis for the rapid release of banded neutrophils into the circulation during acute inflammation.© 2018 by The American Society

2018 Blood advances

143. Impact of antibiotics on smell dysfunction Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of antibiotics on smell dysfunction Viral or bacterial respiratory infections can cause long-lasting olfactory dysfunction. Antibiotic therapy is indicated in severe cases; however, it is unclear whether antibiotic use produces a positive, negative, or null effect on olfactory function. This retrospective study sought to determine whether antibiotic use has an influence on odor identification and detection threshold test scores of patients with smell dysfunction secondary to upper (...) respiratory infections (URIs), lower respiratory infections (LRIs), or rhinosinusitis.Data from a total of 288 patients presenting to the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center were evaluated.Patients with a URI etiology who had taken bactericidal antibiotics had lower detection thresholds than did patients who had not taken antibiotics (P < 0.023; analysis of covariance with age and time since infection onset as covariates). Moreover, thresholds were lower for bactericidal antibiotic users

2018 World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery

144. Continuous versus intermittent antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Continuous versus intermittent antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic airway disease characterised by a destructive cycle of recurrent airway infection, inflammation and tissue damage. Antibiotics are a main treatment for bronchiectasis. The aim of continuous therapy with prophylactic antibiotics is to suppress bacterial load, but bacteria may become resistant to the antibiotic, leading to a loss of effectiveness. On the other hand, intermittent prophylactic antibiotics (...) , given over a predefined duration and interval, may reduce antibiotic selection pressure and reduce or prevent the development of resistance. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the current evidence for studies comparing continuous versus intermittent administration of antibiotic treatment in bronchiectasis in terms of clinical efficacy, the emergence of resistance and serious adverse events.To evaluate the effectiveness of continuous versus intermittent antibiotics in the treatment of adults

2018 Cochrane

145. Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity

Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity'', 1 June 2018 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  (...)  |  Spotlight Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity Antibiotics disrupt the intestinal flora (intestinal microbiota) and could be a factor in weight gain. Prescription of antibiotics for children should not be automatic but should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Overweight and obesity are the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure and can be associated with various known genetic, hormone, environmental

2018 Prescrire

146. Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US?

of the excessive use of antibiotics, as exposure to multiple antibacterial agents provides the selective pressure for the rise and spread of these pathogens. 1 Studies have shown that the overuse of antibiotics is a consequence of the increased worldwide availability of these agents and 1 This issue is particularly relevant in Latin American countries, . 2 Given the increase in the numbers of Latino immigrants, it is important to examine their perceptions of medicine and antibiotic use in order to devise (...) better strategies to control the rise of antimicrobial resistant pathogens—a major global public health problem. Latin American countries have fewer restrictions on the sale of antimicrobial agents, and the existing . 3 This enables the self-diagnosing and self-medicating practices that many members of the Latino community are accustomed to. Furthermore, cultural beliefs and misconceptions regarding the purpose and function of antibiotics play a major role in their misuse among the Latino population

2018 Clinical Correlations

147. Appropriate and timely antibiotic administration for neonatal sepsis in Mesoamérica Full Text available with Trip Pro

Appropriate and timely antibiotic administration for neonatal sepsis in Mesoamérica Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of mortality among children under-5 in Latin America. The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI), a multicountry results-based aid programme, was designed to improve maternal, newborn and child health in impoverished communities in Mesoamérica. This study examines the delivery of timely and appropriate antibiotics for neonatal sepsis among facilities participating in the SMI (...) project. A multifaceted health facility survey was implemented at SMI inception and approximately 18 months later as a follow-up. A random sample of medical records from neonates diagnosed with sepsis was reviewed, and data regarding antibiotic administration were extracted. In this paper, we present the percentage of patients who received timely (within 2 hours) and appropriate antibiotics. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess for potential facility-level determinants of timely

2018 BMJ global health

148. Synthesis of graphene oxide-quaternary ammonium nanocomposite with synergistic antibacterial activity to promote infected wound healing Full Text available with Trip Pro

Synthesis of graphene oxide-quaternary ammonium nanocomposite with synergistic antibacterial activity to promote infected wound healing Bacterial infection is one of the most common complications in burn, trauma, and chronic refractory wounds and is an impediment to healing. The frequent occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria due to irrational application of antibiotics increases treatment cost and mortality. Graphene oxide (GO) has been generally reported to possess high antimicrobial (...) investigated the antibacterial activity and biocompatibility of GO-QAS in vitro and in vivo.GO-QAS exhibited synergistic antibacterial activity against bacteria through not only mechanical membrane perturbation, including wrapping, bacterial membrane insertion, and bacterial membrane perforation, but also oxidative stress induction. In addition, it was found that GO-QAS could eradicate multidrug-resistant bacteria more effectively than conventional antibiotics. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity tests

2018 Burns & trauma

149. Procalcitonin-Guided Use of Antibiotics for Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Procalcitonin-Guided Use of Antibiotics for Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. The effect of procalcitonin-guided use of antibiotics on treatment for suspected lower respiratory tract infection is unclear.In 14 U.S. hospitals with high adherence to quality measures for the treatment of pneumonia, we provided guidance for clinicians about national clinical practice recommendations for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections and the interpretation of procalcitonin assays. We (...) then randomly assigned patients who presented to the emergency department with a suspected lower respiratory tract infection and for whom the treating physician was uncertain whether antibiotic therapy was indicated to one of two groups: the procalcitonin group, in which the treating clinicians were provided with real-time initial (and serial, if the patient was hospitalized) procalcitonin assay results and an antibiotic use guideline with graded recommendations based on four tiers of procalcitonin levels

2018 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

150. Long-Term Effects of Omitting Antibiotics in Uncomplicated Acute Diverticulitis (Abstract)

Long-Term Effects of Omitting Antibiotics in Uncomplicated Acute Diverticulitis Traditionally uncomplicated acute diverticulitis was routinely treated with antibiotics, although evidence for this strategy was lacking. Recently, two randomized clinical trials (AVOD trial and DIABOLO trial) published short-term results of omitting antibiotics compared to routine antibiotic treatment. Both showed no significant differences regarding recovery from the initial episode, as well as rates (...) of complicated or recurrent diverticulitis and sigmoid resection. However, both studies showed a trend of higher rates of sigmoid resection in the observational groups. Here, the long-term effects of omitting antibiotics in first episode uncomplicated acute diverticulitis were assessed.A total of 528 patients with CT-proven, primary, left-sided, uncomplicated acute diverticulitis were randomized to either an observational or an antibiotic treatment strategy (DIABOLO trial). Outcome measures were complicated

2018 EvidenceUpdates

151. Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS): A cost-effectiveness study (Abstract)

Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS): A cost-effectiveness study To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of preventive ceftriaxone vs standard stroke unit care without preventive antimicrobial therapy in acute stroke patients.In this multicenter, randomized, open-label trial with masked endpoint assessment, 2,550 patients with acute stroke were included between 2010 and 2014. Economic evaluation was performed from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 3 months. Volumes and costs

2018 EvidenceUpdates

152. Biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles using Salicornia bigelovii and its antibacterial activity Full Text available with Trip Pro

Biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles using Salicornia bigelovii and its antibacterial activity In recent years, the field of nanotechnology has become the most active area of research in modern material science. While many chemical- as well as physical methods are also used, green synthesis of nanoparticles is becoming the most evolved method of synthesis. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles from the seed extract of Salicornia bigelovii.This experimental study was conducted from (...) December 2017 to January 2018 in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. The effects of two concentrations (1m M and 4mM) on the synthesis of nanoparticles were studied. Characterizations were done using different methods including ultraviolet (UV) visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Antibacterial activity of Ag nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied

2018 Electronic physician

153. Quantifying the Evolutionary Conservation of Genes Encoding Multidrug Efflux Pumps in the ESKAPE Pathogens To Identify Antimicrobial Drug Targets Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantifying the Evolutionary Conservation of Genes Encoding Multidrug Efflux Pumps in the ESKAPE Pathogens To Identify Antimicrobial Drug Targets Increasing rates of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection are one of the most pressing contemporary global health concerns. The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) have been identified as the leading global cause of multidrug (...) -resistant bacterial infections, and overexpression of multidrug efflux (MEX) transport systems has been identified as one of the most critical mechanisms facilitating the evolution of multidrug resistance in ESKAPE pathogens. Despite efforts to develop efflux pump inhibitors to combat antibiotic resistance, the need persists to identify additional targets for future investigations. We evaluated evolutionary pressures on 110 MEX-encoding genes from all annotated ESKAPE organism genomes. We identify

2018 mSystems

154. Pattern of Antimicrobial Resistance among Bacterial Isolates from Urogenital Clinical Specimens: A Descriptive Study from the Buea Health District, Cameroon Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pattern of Antimicrobial Resistance among Bacterial Isolates from Urogenital Clinical Specimens: A Descriptive Study from the Buea Health District, Cameroon Antimicrobial resistance has become a global concern and is particularly affecting developing countries where infectious diseases and poverty are endemic. The effectiveness of currently available antimicrobials is decreasing as a result of increasing resistant strains among clinical isolates.The aim of this study was to determine (...) the resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from different clinical urogenital specimens at different hospitals in the Buea Health District, Cameroon.A retrospective study was conducted in three hospital laboratories in the Buea Health District, Cameroon, from June to August 2017. All culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test results of patients who presented at each of the laboratories for urine, vaginal swab or urethral swab cultures from January 2012 to December 2016 were included in the study. Data

2018 Drugs - real world outcomes

155. Otitis media (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

is it for? 4 Recommendations 5 1.1 Managing acute otitis media 5 1.2 Self-care 7 1.3 Choice of antibiotic 8 Summary of the evidence 10 Self-care 10 Oral corticosteroids 11 No antibiotic 12 Back-up antibiotics 14 Choice of antibiotic 16 Antibiotic course length 18 Antibiotic dose frequency 19 Other considerations 21 Medicines adherence 21 Resource implications 21 Otitis media (acute): antimicrobial prescribing (NG91) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk (...) /terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 21Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute otitis media (ear infection). It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance. Acute otitis media can be caused by viruses or bacteria. It lasts for about a week, and most children get better in 3 days without antibiotics. Serious complications are rare. See a 2-page visual summary of the recommendations, including tables to support

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

156. Checking procalcitonin suitability for prognosis and antimicrobial therapy monitoring in burn patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Checking procalcitonin suitability for prognosis and antimicrobial therapy monitoring in burn patients Due to greater infection susceptibility, sepsis is the main cause of death in burn patients. Quick diagnosis and patient stratification, early and appropriated antimicrobial therapy, and focus control are crucial for patients' survival. On the other hand, superfluous extension of therapy is associated with adverse events and arousal of microbial resistance. The use of biomarkers, necessarily (...) coupled with close clinical examination, may predict outcomes, stratifying patients who need more intensive care, and monitor the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy, allowing faster de-escalation or stop, reducing the development of resistance and possibly the financial burden, without increasing mortality. The aim of this work is to check the suitability of procalcitonin (PCT) to fulfill these goals in a large sample of septic burn patients.One hundred and one patients, with 15% or more of total body

2018 Burns & trauma

157. Inhaled anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for long-term therapy in cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Inhaled anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for long-term therapy in cystic fibrosis. Inhaled antibiotics are commonly used to treat persistent airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa that contributes to lung damage in people with cystic fibrosis. Current guidelines recommend inhaled tobramycin for individuals with cystic fibrosis and persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection who are aged six years or older. The aim is to reduce bacterial load in the lungs so as to reduce inflammation (...) and deterioration of lung function. This is an update of a previously published review.To evaluate the effects long-term inhaled antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis on clinical outcomes (lung function, frequency of exacerbations and nutrition), quality of life and adverse events (including drug sensitivity reactions and survival).We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also

2018 Cochrane

158. Synthesis, characterization, computational studies and biological activity evaluation of Cu, Fe, Co and Zn complexes with 2-butanone thiosemicarbazone and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands as anticancer and antibacterial agents Full Text available with Trip Pro

Synthesis, characterization, computational studies and biological activity evaluation of Cu, Fe, Co and Zn complexes with 2-butanone thiosemicarbazone and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands as anticancer and antibacterial agents Mixed-ligand metal (II) (M=Cu, Fe, Co and Zn) complexes containing 2-butanone thiosemicarbazone and 1, 10-phenanthroline have been synthesized and characterized by melting point, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, UV-spectrophotometry and molar conductance measurements. All the complexes were (...) and tetracycline. The ligand was tested for its potential anticancer activity against MDA-MB-231 cell line using MTT assay. Antibacterial activity of the complexes was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using the disc diffusion method. Cu (II) complex showed maximum activity against the MDA cells and also exhibited mild antibacterial activity against S. aureus.

2018 EXCLI journal

159. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses (...) of this approach, we study people's antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions.RQ1: What are the manifestations and determinants of problematic antibiotic use in patients' healthcare-seeking pathways?RQ2: Will people's exposure to antibiotic awareness activities entail changed behaviours that diffuse or dissipate within a network of competing healthcare practices?RQ3: Which proxy indicators facilitate the detection of problematic antibiotic behaviours across and within communities?We

2018 BMJ global health

160. Oral versus inhaled antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral versus inhaled antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by a recurrent cycle of respiratory bacterial infections associated with cough, sputum production and impaired quality of life. Antibiotics are the main therapeutic option for managing bronchiectasis exacerbations. Evidence suggests that inhaled antibiotics may be associated with more effective eradication of infective organisms and a lower risk of developing antibiotic resistance (...) when compared with orally administered antibiotics. However, it is currently unclear whether antibiotics are more effective when administered orally or by inhalation.To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of oral versus inhaled antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with bronchiectasis.We identified studies through searches of the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialised Register (CAGR), which is maintained by the Information Specialist for the group. The Register contains trial

2018 Cochrane