Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

141. Should We Prescribe Antibiotics to This Patient With Persistent Upper Respiratory Symptoms?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Should We Prescribe Antibiotics to This Patient With Persistent Upper Respiratory Symptoms?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. The American College of Physicians (ACP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently published advice for high-value care on the appropriate use of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections. They conducted a narrative literature review of evidence for antibiotic use in this setting that included recent (...) clinical guidelines from professional societies supplemented by randomized, controlled trials; meta-analyses; and systematic reviews. They concluded that clinicians should reserve antibiotic treatment for acute rhinosinusitis in patients with persistent symptoms for more than 10 days, high fever and purulent nasal discharge or facial pain lasting for at least 3 consecutive days, or worsening symptoms after a typical viral illness that lasted 5 days and had initially improved ("double-sickening

Annals of Internal Medicine2017

142. Antibiotics in Acute Uncomplicated Diverticulitis

Antibiotics in Acute Uncomplicated Diverticulitis Emergency Medicine > Journal Club > Archive > March 2016 Toggle navigation March 2016 Antibiotics in Acute Uncomplicated Diverticulitis Vignette You are halfway through an average weekday shift in EM-2 when you encounter a very pleasant 50-year-old gentleman with abdominal pain. He reports the pain began three days ago and has progressively worsened. It is a dull, moderate pain located in the left lower quadrant with no radiation. He denies (...) check basic labs and order a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast. His WBC is 14K and his CT reveals uncomplicated sigmoid diverticulitis without perforation of abscess formation. As you are ordering antibiotics, you remember seeing a recent article in suggesting that antibiotics may not actually be necessary to treat diverticulitis. You had previously scoffed at the suggestion and tossed the magazine in the trash, but now wonder if the assertion was based on real science. Aware

Washington University Emergency Medicine Journal Club2017

143. The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy

The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display (...) , please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} There is major variability in outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy services in England; most patients would prefer home treatment, where a visiting specialist nurse service is likely

NIHR HTA programme2017

144. [Clinical guides in antibiotic treatment - 1st series (update)]

[Clinical guides in antibiotic treatment - 1st series (update)] Guides cliniques en antibiothérapie - Série I (mise à jour du guide RSA chez l'adulte) [Clinical guides in antibiotic treatment – 1st series (update)] Guides cliniques en antibiothérapie - Série I (mise à jour du guide RSA chez l'adulte) [Clinical guides in antibiotic treatment – 1st series (update)] INESSS Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA (...) . No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation INESSS. Guides cliniques en antibiothérapie - Série I (mise à jour du guide RSA chez l'adulte). [Clinical guides in antibiotic treatment – 1st series (update)] Quebec: Institut national d'excellence en sante et en services sociaux (INESSS). 2016 Authors' objectives First published in January 2005, the first series of clinical guides on antibiotic treatment were revised and updated in fall 2009. These guides outline

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2017

145. The role of infection and antibiotics in chronic rhinosinusitis.

The role of infection and antibiotics in chronic rhinosinusitis. 28894821 2018 11 13 2378-8038 2 1 2017 02 Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol The role of infection and antibiotics in chronic rhinosinusitis. 36-42 10.1002/lio2.61 To review the current understanding of the role of infection and antibiotics in chronic rhinosinusitis. PubMed literature search. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in adults is an inflammatory condition and the role of infection (...) an episode of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS), bacteria typical of ARS can generally be cultured and require short-course treatment. For CRS, topical antibacterial or antifungal agents have shown no benefit over placebo in RCTs, although RCTs of topical antibacterial agents have been small. Oral macrolides and doxycycline, antibiotics with anti-inflammatory properties, are the only systemic antibiotics that have been evaluated in RCTs. One RCT found 3 weeks of doxycycline beneficial in patients with polyps

Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

146. Carbon Sources Tune Antibiotic Susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Control

Carbon Sources Tune Antibiotic Susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Control 28111098 2017 11 16 2018 11 13 2451-9448 24 2 2017 Feb 16 Cell chemical biology Cell Chem Biol Carbon Sources Tune Antibiotic Susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Control. 195-206 S2451-9456(16)30476-7 10.1016/j.chembiol.2016.12.015 Metabolically dormant bacteria present a critical challenge to effective antimicrobial therapy because these bacteria (...) are genetically susceptible to antibiotic treatment but phenotypically tolerant. Such tolerance has been attributed to impaired drug uptake, which can be reversed by metabolic stimulation. Here, we evaluate the effects of central carbon metabolite stimulations on aminoglycoside sensitivity in the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We identify fumarate as a tobramycin potentiator that activates cellular respiration and generates a proton motive force by stimulating the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In contrast

Cell chemical biology2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

147. Historical Perspective on the Rise and Fall and Rise of Antibiotics and Human Weight Gain.

Historical Perspective on the Rise and Fall and Rise of Antibiotics and Human Weight Gain. In recent medical and popular literature, audiences have been asked to consider whether antibiotics have contributed to the rising obesity epidemic. Prominent magazines have stated that weight may be adversely affected by antibiotics that destroy existing microbiomes and replace them with less helpful ones. However, there is a long history of efforts to investigate the relationship between antibiotics (...) and human weight gain. In the early 1950s, amid initial findings that low doses of antibiotics served as growth promoters in animal livestock, investigators explored the role of antibiotics as magic bullets for human malnutrition. Nevertheless, early enthusiasm was tempered by controlled studies showing that antibiotics did not serve as useful, nonspecific growth promoters for humans. In subsequent decades, against the backdrop of rising concern over antibiotic resistance, investigators studying

Annals of Internal Medicine2017

148. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance profiles of Salmonella isolated from fecal matter of domestic animals and animal products in Nairobi

Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance profiles of Salmonella isolated from fecal matter of domestic animals and animal products in Nairobi 28883972 2018 11 13 2055-0936 3 2017 Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance profiles of Salmonella isolated from fecal matter of domestic animals and animal products in Nairobi. 2 10.1186/s40794-016-0045-6 Salmonella has significant public health (...) implications causing food borne and zoonotic diseases in humans. Treatment of infections due to Salmonella is becoming difficult due to emergence of drug resistant strains. There is therefore need to characterize the circulating non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars in domestic animals and animal products in Kenya as well as determine their antibiotic resistance profiles. A total of 740 fecal samples were collected from cows ( n = 150), pigs ( n = 182), chicken ( n = 191) and chicken eggs ( n = 217) from

Tropical diseases, travel medicine and vaccines2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

149. Growth on Chitin Impacts the Transcriptome and Metabolite Profiles of Antibiotic-Producing Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 and Photobacterium galatheae S2753

Growth on Chitin Impacts the Transcriptome and Metabolite Profiles of Antibiotic-Producing Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 and Photobacterium galatheae S2753 28066819 2018 11 13 2379-5077 2 1 2017 Jan-Feb mSystems mSystems Growth on Chitin Impacts the Transcriptome and Metabolite Profiles of Antibiotic-Producing Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 and Photobacterium galatheae S2753. e00141-16 10.1128/mSystems.00141-16 Members of the Vibrionaceae family are often associated with chitin-containing (...) and of genes potentially involved in host colonization and/or infection. The expression of genes involved in secondary metabolism was also significantly affected by growth on chitin, in one case being 34-fold upregulated. This was reflected in the metabolome, where the antibiotics andrimid and holomycin were produced in larger amounts on chitin. Other polyketide synthase/ nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) clusters in P. galatheae were also strongly upregulated on chitin. Collectively

mSystems2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

150. Antibiotics or surgery for vesicoureteric reflux in children.

Antibiotics or surgery for vesicoureteric reflux in children. CONTEXT: 1-2% of children have vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). VUR occurs in 25-40% of children with acute pyelonephritis. VUR can lead to renal scarring, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. The best form of treatment for children with VUR is debated: no treatment, long-term antibiotic prophylaxis, surgery, or a combination of antibiotic prophylaxis and surgery. In children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs (...) ) and progressive renal damage, despite antibiotic prophylaxis, surgical correction of VUR, especially high-grade VUR, is generally recommended. STARTING POINT: Danielle Wheeler and colleagues recently did a meta-analysis of ten randomised controlled trials (964 children) to evaluate whether any intervention for VUR is better than no treatment (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 3: CD001532). The main endpoints were incidence of UTIs, new or progressive renal damage, renal growth, hypertension, and glomerular

Lancet2017

151. Re-emergence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection after mass antibiotic treatment of a trachoma-endemic Gambian community: a longitudinal study.

Re-emergence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection after mass antibiotic treatment of a trachoma-endemic Gambian community: a longitudinal study. BACKGROUND: Community-wide mass antibiotic treatment is a central component of trachoma control. The optimum frequency and duration of treatment are unknown. We measured the effect of mass treatment on the conjunctival burden of Chlamydia trachomatis in a Gambian community with low to medium trachoma prevalence and investigated the rate, route (...) , and determinants of re-emergent infection. METHODS: 14 trachoma-endemic villages in rural Gambia were examined and conjunctival swabs obtained at baseline, 2, 6, 12, and 17 months. Mass antibiotic treatment with azithromycin was given to the community at baseline. C trachomatis was detected by qualitative PCR and individual infection load then estimated by real-time quantitative PCR. FINDINGS: C trachomatis was detected in 95 (7%) of 1319 individuals at baseline. Treatment coverage was 83% of the population

Lancet2017

152. Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross-national database study.

Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross-national database study. BACKGROUND: Resistance to antibiotics is a major public-health problem and antibiotic use is being increasingly recognised as the main selective pressure driving this resistance. Our aim was to assess outpatient use of antibiotics and the association with resistance. METHODS: We investigated outpatient antibiotic use in 26 countries in Europe that provided internationally comparable (...) distribution or reimbursement data, between Jan 1, 1997, and Dec 31, 2002, by calculating the number of defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day, according to WHO anatomic therapeutic chemical classification and DDD measurement methodology. We assessed the ecological association between antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance rates using Spearman's correlation coefficients. FINDINGS: Prescription of antibiotics in primary care in Europe varied greatly; the highest rate was in France (32.2

Lancet2017

153. Antibiotic utilisation in very low birth weight infants without sepsis or necrotising enterocolitis is associated with multiple adverse outcomes

Antibiotic utilisation in very low birth weight infants without sepsis or necrotising enterocolitis is associated with multiple adverse outcomes Antibiotic utilisation in very low birth weight infants without sepsis or necrotising enterocolitis is associated with multiple adverse outcomes | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how (...) we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Antibiotic utilisation in very low birth weight infants without sepsis or necrotising

Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)2017

154. Cohort study: Oral antibiotics are as effective as intravenous antibiotics for postdischarge treatment of complicated pneumonia in children

Cohort study: Oral antibiotics are as effective as intravenous antibiotics for postdischarge treatment of complicated pneumonia in children Oral antibiotics are as effective as intravenous antibiotics for postdischarge treatment of complicated pneumonia in children | Evidence-Based Medicine This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username (...) * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Oral antibiotics are as effective as intravenous antibiotics for postdischarge treatment of complicated pneumonia in children Article Text Therapeutics/Prevention Cohort study Oral antibiotics are as effective as intravenous antibiotics

Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)2017

155. Randomised controlled trial: Clinical failure is more common in young children with acute otitis media who receive a short course of antibiotics compared with standard duration

Randomised controlled trial: Clinical failure is more common in young children with acute otitis media who receive a short course of antibiotics compared with standard duration Clinical failure is more common in young children with acute otitis media who receive a short course of antibiotics compared with standard duration | Evidence-Based Medicine This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Log in using your username and password (...) For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Clinical failure is more common in young children with acute otitis media who receive a short course of antibiotics compared with standard duration Article Text Therapeutics

Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)2017

156. Cohort study: General practices that reduce antibiotic prescribing for self-limiting respiratory tract infections by 10% can expect to see one extra patient with pneumonia each year and one peritonsillar abscess each decade

Cohort study: General practices that reduce antibiotic prescribing for self-limiting respiratory tract infections by 10% can expect to see one extra patient with pneumonia each year and one peritonsillar abscess each decade General practices that reduce antibiotic prescribing for self-limiting respiratory tract infections by 10% can expect to see one extra patient with pneumonia each year and one peritonsillar abscess each decade | Evidence-Based Medicine This site uses cookies. By continuing (...) to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here General practices that reduce antibiotic prescribing for self-limiting

Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)2017

157. Oral antibiotics for secondary prophylaxis following two-stage revision surgery for prosthetic joint infection

Oral antibiotics for secondary prophylaxis following two-stage revision surgery for prosthetic joint infection Oral antibiotics for secondary prophylaxis following two-stage revision surgery for prosthetic joint infection Oral antibiotics for secondary prophylaxis following two-stage revision surgery for prosthetic joint infection Leas B, Mull, N. Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality (...) of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Leas B, Mull, N.. Oral antibiotics for secondary prophylaxis following two-stage revision surgery for prosthetic joint infection. Philadelphia: Center for Evidence-based Practice (CEP). 2017 Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Anti-Bacterial Agents; Communicable Diseases; Humans; Joint Diseases; Prosthesis-Related Infections; Reoperation; Secondary Prevention Language Published English Country of organisation

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2017

160. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in obstetrical and gynecological procedures

Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in obstetrical and gynecological procedures

DynaMed Plus2017