Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

121. Procalcitonin-guided decision making for duration of antibiotic therapy in neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial (NeoPIns).

Procalcitonin-guided decision making for duration of antibiotic therapy in neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial (NeoPIns). BACKGROUND: Up to 7% of term and late-preterm neonates in high-income countries receive antibiotics during the first 3 days of life because of suspected early-onset sepsis. The prevalence of culture-proven early-onset sepsis is 0·1% or less in high-income countries, suggesting substantial overtreatment. We assess whether (...) procalcitonin-guided decision making for suspected early-onset sepsis can safely reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment. METHODS: We did this randomised controlled intervention trial in Dutch (n=11), Swiss (n=4), Canadian (n=2), and Czech (n=1) hospitals. Neonates of gestational age 34 weeks or older, with suspected early-onset sepsis requiring antibiotic treatment were stratified into four risk categories by their treating physicians and randomly assigned [1:1] using a computer-generated list

Lancet2017

122. The Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis

The Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club2017

123. A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses.

A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses. BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated skin abscesses are common, yet the appropriate management of the condition in the era of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, double-blind trial involving outpatient adults and children. Patients were stratified according to the presence of a surgically drainable abscess, abscess size, the number of sites

NEJM2017

124. Pre-admission antibiotics for suspected cases of meningococcal disease.

Pre-admission antibiotics for suspected cases of meningococcal disease. BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease can lead to death or disability within hours after onset. Pre-admission antibiotics aim to reduce the risk of serious disease and death by preventing delays in starting therapy before confirmation of the diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To study the effectiveness and safety of pre-admission antibiotics versus no pre-admission antibiotics or placebo, and different pre-admission antibiotic regimens (...) ) or quasi-RCTs comparing antibiotics versus placebo or no intervention, in people with suspected meningococcal infection, or different antibiotics administered before admission to hospital or confirmation of the diagnosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data from the search results. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous data. We included only one trial and so did not perform data synthesis

Cochrane2017

125. Short-course versus long-course oral antibiotic treatment for infections treated in outpatient settings: a review of systematic reviews

Short-course versus long-course oral antibiotic treatment for infections treated in outpatient settings: a review of systematic reviews 28486675 2017 05 09 2017 05 09 1460-2229 2017 May 09 Family practice Fam Pract Short-course versus long-course oral antibiotic treatment for infections treated in outpatient settings: a review of systematic reviews. 10.1093/fampra/cmx037 To summarize the evidence comparing the effectiveness of short and long courses of oral antibiotics for infections treated (...) antibiotics for Group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis (OR 1.03, 95% CI:0.97, 1.11); community acquired pneumonia (RR 0.99, 95% CI:0.97, 1.01); acute otitis media [<2 years old OR: 1.09 (95% CI:0.76, 1.57); ≥2 years old OR: 0.85 (95% CI:0.60, 1.21)]; or urinary tract infection (RR 1.06, 95% CI:0.64, 1.76). There was no difference in the clinical cure for adults treated with short or long course antibiotics for acute bacterial sinusitis (RR 0.95, 95% CI:0.81, 1.21); uncomplicated cystitis in non

EvidenceUpdates2017

126. Efficacy and Safety of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 (LP299V) in the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children-Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

Efficacy and Safety of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 (LP299V) in the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children-Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study 28438377 2017 04 25 2017 04 25 1097-6833 2017 Apr 21 The Journal of pediatrics J. Pediatr. Efficacy and Safety of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 (LP299V) in the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children-Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. S0022-3476(17 (...) )30459-6 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.03.047 To determine if Lactobacillus plantarum DSM9843 (LP299V) reduces the frequency of antibiotic-associated loose/watery stools and gastrointestinal symptoms, and can be administered safely to children who are prescribed antibiotics. We performed a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study in children receiving outpatient antibiotic therapy in primary healthcare settings. The children were given LP299V/placebo during

EvidenceUpdates2017

127. Antibiotic prescription strategies and adverse outcome for uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infections: prospective cough complication cohort (3C) study.

Antibiotic prescription strategies and adverse outcome for uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infections: prospective cough complication cohort (3C) study. Objective To assess the impact on adverse outcomes of different antibiotic prescribing strategies for lower respiratory tract infections in people aged 16 years or more. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting UK general practice. Participants 28 883 patients with lower respiratory tract infection; symptoms, signs, and antibiotic (...) prescribing strategies were recorded at the index consultation. Main outcome measures The main outcomes were reconsultation with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection in the 30 days after the index consultation, hospital admission, or death. Multivariable analysis controlled for an extensive list of variables related to the propensity to prescribe antibiotics and for clustering by doctor. Results Of the 28 883 participants, 104 (0.4%) were referred to hospital for radiographic investigation

BMJ2017

128. Antibiotic Prescribing for Nonbacterial Acute Upper Respiratory Infections in Elderly Persons.

Antibiotic Prescribing for Nonbacterial Acute Upper Respiratory Infections in Elderly Persons. Background: Reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURIs) requires a better understanding of the factors associated with this practice. Objective: To determine the prevalence of antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial AURIs and whether prescribing rates varied by physician characteristics. Design: Retrospective analysis of linked administrative (...) health care data. Setting: Primary care physician practices in Ontario, Canada (January-December 2012). Patients: Patients aged 66 years or older with nonbacterial AURIs. Patients with cancer or immunosuppressive conditions and residents of long-term care homes were excluded. Measurements: Antibiotic prescriptions for physician-diagnosed AURIs. A multivariable logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations was used to examine whether prescribing rates varied by physician

Annals of Internal Medicine2017

129. Antibiotics Do Not Lower Pain or Infection with Acute Apical Abscess

Antibiotics Do Not Lower Pain or Infection with Acute Apical Abscess UTCAT3216, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Antibiotics Do Not Lower Pain or Infection with Acute Apical Abscess Clinical Question In adults receiving emergency treatment for their periapical abscess, will antibiotic supplement to pulpectomy treatment with irrigation and drainage of their abscess be more beneficial in reducing (...) the patient's pain compared to treatment without antibiotics? Clinical Bottom Line Pain with acute apical abscess of permanent dentition is managed well by pulpectomy with irrigation and drainage. The addition of antibiotic therapy does not improve the patient's relief from pain or infection. Best Evidence (you may view more info by clicking on the PubMed ID link) PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type (level of evidence) #1) Matthews/2003 35 relevant citations including 8

UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library2017

130. Use of antibiotics during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion

Use of antibiotics during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion 28461374 2017 05 02 2017 05 08 2017 05 11 1488-2329 189 17 2017 May 01 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ Use of antibiotics during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion. E625-E633 10.1503/cmaj.161020 Although antibiotics are widely used during pregnancy, evidence regarding their fetal safety remains limited. Our aim was to quantify the association between (...) antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort (1998-2009). We excluded planned abortions and pregnancies exposed to fetotoxic drugs. Spontaneous abortion was defined as having a diagnosis or procedure related to spontaneous abortion before the 20th week of pregnancy. The index date was defined as the calendar date of the spontaneous abortion. Ten controls per case were randomly selected and matched

EvidenceUpdates2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

131. Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for knee arthroplasty

Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for knee arthroplasty Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for knee arthroplasty Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for knee arthroplasty HAYES, Inc Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation HAYES, Inc. Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for knee arthroplasty. Lansdale: HAYES, Inc. Directory Publication. 2017 Authors (...) ' conclusions Antibiotic bone cement (ABC) is a type of curable polymethylmethacrylate preparation created by adding various antibiotic medications to plain, nonmedicated bone cement. Most commonly, ABC is used to treat infected total joint prostheses as part of a revision arthroplasty, but its use as antibiotic prophylaxis in primary joint arthroplasty is increasing. Rationale: The usage of ABC at the arthroplasty site may be useful in maintaining a locally high level of antibiotic drug concentration

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2017

132. Antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease.

Antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. BACKGROUND: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection that affects 4% to 12% of young women, and is one of the most common causes of morbidity in this age group. The main intervention for acute PID is the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics which cover Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and anaerobic bacteria, administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or orally. In this review, we assessed the optimal treatment regimen (...) for PID. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic regimens used to treat pelvic inflammatory disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Infections Review Group's Specialized Register, which included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from 1944 to 2016, located through electronic searching and handsearching; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid platform (1991 to July 2016); MEDLINE (1946 to July 2016); Embase (1947

Cochrane2017

133. Effect of Oral Dexamethasone Without Immediate Antibiotics vs Placebo on Acute Sore Throat in Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Effect of Oral Dexamethasone Without Immediate Antibiotics vs Placebo on Acute Sore Throat in Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Importance: Acute sore throat poses a significant burden on primary care and is a source of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Corticosteroids could be an alternative symptomatic treatment. Objective: To assess the clinical effectiveness of oral corticosteroids for acute sore throat in the absence of antibiotics. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind (...) , placebo-controlled randomized trial (April 2013-February 2015; 28-day follow-up completed April 2015) conducted in 42 family practices in South and West England, enrolled 576 adults recruited on the day of presentation to primary care with acute sore throat not requiring immediate antibiotic therapy. Interventions: Single oral dose of 10 mg of dexamethasone (n = 293) or identical placebo (n = 283). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary: proportion of participants experiencing complete resolution

JAMA2017

134. Topical Antibiotics for Infection Prevention: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Topical Antibiotics for Infection Prevention: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for Infection Prevention: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Topical Antibiotics for Infection Prevention: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for Infection Prevention: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Published on: March 30, 2017 Project Number: RC0854-000 (...) Product Line: Research Type: Drugs Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of topical antibiotics for patients to prevent skin or wound infection? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of topical antibiotics for the prevention of skin or wound infection? Key Message Two systematic reviews and one non-randomized study showed that in non-surgical patients, exit site infection rates were statistically significantly

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review2017

135. Impact of introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on antibiotic prescribing: analysis of observational and randomised studies in public and private healthcare settings.

Impact of introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on antibiotic prescribing: analysis of observational and randomised studies in public and private healthcare settings. Objectives To examine the impact of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on prescribing of antimicrobials, specifically antibiotics, for acute febrile illness in Africa and Asia. Design Analysisof nine preselected linked and codesigned observational and randomised studies (eight cluster or individually randomised (...) trials and one observational study). Setting Public and private healthcare settings, 2007-13, in Afghanistan, Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. Participants 522 480 children and adults with acute febrile illness. Interventions Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Main outcome measures Proportions of patients for whom an antibiotic was prescribed in trial groups who had undergone rapid diagnostic testing compared with controls and in patients with negative test results compared

BMJ2017

136. Antibiotics for Acute Asthma Exacerbations: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines

Antibiotics for Acute Asthma Exacerbations: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines Antibiotics for Acute Asthma Exacerbations: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Antibiotics for Acute Asthma Exacerbations: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines Antibiotics for Acute Asthma Exacerbations: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines Published on: March 23, 2017 Project Number (...) : RB1076-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drugs Report Type: Summary of Abstracts Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of antibiotics for acute asthma exacerbations without clear signs of bacterial infection? What is the cost-effectiveness of antibiotics for acute asthma exacerbations without clear signs of bacterial infection? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of antibiotics for acute asthma exacerbations? Key Message Three randomized-control trials

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review2017

137. The role of antibiotics in pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis

The role of antibiotics in pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis 28894828 2018 11 13 2378-8038 2 3 2017 06 Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol The role of antibiotics in pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. 104-108 10.1002/lio2.67 Presenting the role of antibiotics in pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis based on its pathophysiology and microbiology. Review of the literature searching PubMed for microbiology and treatment of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. Chronic

Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

138. Topical Antibiotics for Infected Dermatitis: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Topical Antibiotics for Infected Dermatitis: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for Infected Dermatitis: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Topical Antibiotics for Infected Dermatitis: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for Infected Dermatitis: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Published on: March 3, 2017 Project Number: RC0852-000 Product (...) Line: Research Type: Drugs Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of topical antibiotics for patients with infected dermatitis? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of topical antibiotics for the treatment of infected dermatitis? Key Message Evidence to date suggests that topical antibiotics provide no additional benefits when added to other topical treatments in both children and adults with clinically

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review2017

139. The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy

The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods (...) . Citation Minton J, Czoski Murray C, Meads D, Hess S, Vargas-Palacios A, Mitchell E, Wright J, Hulme C, Raynor D K, Gregson A, Stanley P, McLintock K, Vincent R & Twiddy M. The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy. Health Services and Delivery Research 2017; 5(6) Authors' objectives Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2017

140. Topical Antibiotics for Impetigo: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Topical Antibiotics for Impetigo: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for Impetigo: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Topical Antibiotics for Impetigo: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for Impetigo: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Published on: February 21, 2017 Project Number: RC0851-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drugs Report Type (...) : Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of topical antibiotics for patients with impetigo? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of topical antibiotics for the treatment of impetigo? Key Message The evidence identified in this report supports the clinical efficacy of topical antibiotics, specifically mupirocin and fusidic acid, for the treatment of impetigo. Insufficient evidence was identified to support the clinical efficacy

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review2017