Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

What is Trip?

Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care.

Trip has been online since 1997 and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search.

As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news.

For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com

Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

121. Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

those with PTB will not-has minimal evidence base for such a widely used intervention. Numerous potential causes of misclassification include bacterial super-infection of active PTB, placebo effect, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The main aim of this systematic review is to collate available evidence on the performance of trial-of-antibiotics as a diagnostic test and to explore the timing, interpretation, and decision-making process.We will search MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health using (...) Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review. Suboptimal diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) drives use of 'trial-of-antibiotics (non-tuberculosis)' in an attempt to distinguish PTB patients from those with bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The underlying assumption-that patients with LRTI will report 'response' to broad-spectrum antibiotics, while

2018 Systematic Reviews

122. Resolution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with a PROSE device for enhanced targeted antibiotic delivery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Resolution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with a PROSE device for enhanced targeted antibiotic delivery To report the resolution of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with use of a prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) device for enhanced targeted delivery of moxifloxiacin.A 62-year-old female presented with a 3-day history of pain, photophobia, and declining vision in left eye. The patient had a 2-year history of binocular (...) therapy. Frequent dosing to the PROSE reservoir is likely to increase fluoroquinolone bioavailability and may represent a valuable approach to overcome antibiotic resistance.

2018 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

123. Short-course versus long-course therapy of the same antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short-course versus long-course therapy of the same antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a lung infection that can be acquired during day-to-day activities in the community (not while receiving care in a hospital). Community-acquired pneumonia poses a significant public health burden in terms of mortality, morbidity, and costs. Shorter antibiotic courses for CAP may limit treatment costs and adverse effects (...) , but the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment is uncertain.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-course versus longer-course treatment with the same antibiotic at the same daily dosage for CAP in non-hospitalised adolescents and adults (outpatients). We planned to investigate non-inferiority of short-course versus longer-term course treatment for efficacy outcomes, and superiority of short-course treatment for safety outcomes.We searched CENTRAL, which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory

2018 Cochrane

124. Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score (Abstract)

Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is a widely used treatment modality for early acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A preoperative risk score was previously designed for predicting DAIR failure, consisting of chronic renal failure (K), liver cirrhosis (L), index surgery (I), cemented prosthesis (C), and C (...) -reactive protein >115 mg/L (KLIC). The aim of this study was to validate the KLIC score in an external cohort.We retrospectively evaluated patients with early acute PJI treated with DAIR between 2006 and 2016 in 3 Dutch hospitals. Early acute PJI was defined as <21 days of symptoms and DAIR performed within 90 days after index surgery. Failure was defined as the need for (1) second DAIR, (2) implant removal, (3) suppressive antimicrobial treatment, or (4) infection-related death within 60 days after

2018 EvidenceUpdates

125. Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis. Patients with infective endocarditis on the left side of the heart are typically treated with intravenous antibiotic agents for up to 6 weeks. Whether a shift from intravenous to oral antibiotics once the patient is in stable condition would result in efficacy and safety similar to those with continued intravenous treatment is unknown.In a randomized, noninferiority, multicenter trial, we assigned 400 adults in stable (...) condition who had endocarditis on the left side of the heart caused by streptococcus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative staphylococci and who were being treated with intravenous antibiotics to continue intravenous treatment (199 patients) or to switch to oral antibiotic treatment (201 patients). In all patients, antibiotic treatment was administered intravenously for at least 10 days. If feasible, patients in the orally treated group were discharged to outpatient

2018 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

126. Straw Wine Melanoidins as Potential Multifunctional Agents: Insight into Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibition Effects Full Text available with Trip Pro

Straw Wine Melanoidins as Potential Multifunctional Agents: Insight into Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme Inhibition Effects Numerous studies provide robust evidence for a protective effect of red wine against many diseases. This bioactivity has been mainly associated with phenolic fractions of wines. However, the health effects of melanoidins in red sweet wines has been ignored. The goal of the present work was to unravel the antioxidant, antimicrobial (...) , and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of straw sweet wine melanoidins. Results demonstrated that melanoidins have a potential antioxidant activity, determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antimicrobial activity of melanoidins was also tested against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isolated melanoidins against three bacterial strains

2018 Biomedicines

127. Antibiotics

. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com Antibiotics Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading. Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed (...) Antibiotics Top results for antibiotics - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Find evidence fast ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 or #4

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

128. Trends in outpatient antibiotic use and prescribing practice among US older adults, 2011-15: observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Trends in outpatient antibiotic use and prescribing practice among US older adults, 2011-15: observational study. To identify temporal trends in outpatient antibiotic use and antibiotic prescribing practice among older adults in a high income country.Observational study using United States Medicare administrative claims in 2011-15.Medicare, a US national healthcare program for which 98% of older adults are eligible.4.5 million fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years old (...) and older.Overall rates of antibiotic prescription claims, rates of potentially appropriate and inappropriate prescribing, rates for each of the most frequently prescribed antibiotics, and rates of antibiotic claims associated with specific diagnoses. Trends in antibiotic use were estimated by multivariable regression adjusting for beneficiaries' demographic and clinical covariates.The number of antibiotic claims fell from 1364.7 to 1309.3 claims per 1000 beneficiaries per year in 2011-14 (adjusted reduction

2018 BMJ

129. Responses of the Human Gut Escherichia coli Population to Pathogen and Antibiotic Disturbances Full Text available with Trip Pro

Responses of the Human Gut Escherichia coli Population to Pathogen and Antibiotic Disturbances Studies of Escherichia coli in the human gastrointestinal tract have focused on pathogens, such as diarrhea-causing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), while overlooking the resident, nonpathogenic E. coli community. Relatively few genomes of nonpathogenic E. coli strains are available for comparative genomic analysis, and the ecology of these strains is poorly understood. This study examined (...) the diversity and dynamics of resident human gastrointestinal E. coli communities in the face of the ecological challenges presented by pathogen (ETEC) challenge, as well as of antibiotic treatment. Whole-genome sequences obtained from E. coli isolates from before, during, and after ETEC challenge were used in phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses to examine the diversity of the resident E. coli communities, as well as the dynamics of the challenge strain, H10407, a well-studied ETEC strain

2018 mSystems

130. Probiotics to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients Receiving Antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Probiotics to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients Receiving Antibiotics. In adults and children prescribed antibiotics, is co-administration of a probiotic associated with a lower risk of symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection without an increase in adverse events?Moderate-quality evidence suggests that probiotics are associated with a lower risk of C difficile infection and very low-quality evidence suggests that probiotics are associated with fewer adverse events vs

2018 JAMA

131. Overuse of Antibiotics and the Rise of Superbugs: A Major Global Health Crisis

Overuse of Antibiotics and the Rise of Superbugs: A Major Global Health Crisis I not a bot. Resume. Are you not a robot? Click on the button to continue: I not a bot. Resume.

2018 MedicalVideos

132. Evolutionary conservation of the antimicrobial function of mucus: a first defence against infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evolutionary conservation of the antimicrobial function of mucus: a first defence against infection Mucus layers often provide a unique and multi-functional hydrogel interface between the epithelial cells of organisms and their external environment. Mucus has exceptional properties including elasticity, changeable rheology and an ability to self-repair by re-annealing, and is therefore an ideal medium for trapping and immobilising pathogens and serving as a barrier to microbial infection (...) are important to the goal of developing new antimicrobial strategies, they remain relatively poorly understood. This review summarises the physicochemical properties and evolutionary importance of mucus, which make it so successful in the prevention of bacterial infection. In addition, the strategies developed by bacteria to counteract the mucus layer are also explored.

2018 NPJ biofilms and microbiomes

133. Association Between Use of Acid-Suppressive Medications and Antibiotics During Infancy and Allergic Diseases in Early Childhood Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association Between Use of Acid-Suppressive Medications and Antibiotics During Infancy and Allergic Diseases in Early Childhood Allergic diseases are prevalent in childhood. Early exposure to medications that can alter the microbiome, including acid-suppressive medications and antibiotics, may influence the likelihood of allergy.To determine whether there is an association between the use of acid-suppressive medications or antibiotics in the first 6 months of infancy and development of allergic (...) [49.9%] girls) included for analysis, 60 209 (7.6%) were prescribed an H2RA, 13 687 (1.7%) were prescribed a PPI, and 131 708 (16.6%) were prescribed an antibiotic during the first 6 months of life. Data for each child were available for a median of 4.6 years. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) in children prescribed H2RAs and PPIs, respectively, were 2.18 (95% CI, 2.04-2.33) and 2.59 (95% CI, 2.25-3.00) for food allergy, 1.70 (95% CI, 1.60-1.80) and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.56-2.17) for medication allergy, 1.51

2018 EvidenceUpdates

134. Characterization of Wild and Captive Baboon Gut Microbiota and Their Antibiotic Resistomes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterization of Wild and Captive Baboon Gut Microbiota and Their Antibiotic Resistomes Environmental microbes have harbored the capacity for antibiotic production for millions of years, spanning the evolution of humans and other vertebrates. However, the industrial-scale use of antibiotics in clinical and agricultural practice over the past century has led to a substantial increase in exposure of these agents to human and environmental microbiota. This perturbation is predicted to alter (...) the ecology of microbial communities and to promote the evolution and transfer of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. We studied wild and captive baboon populations to understand the effects of exposure to humans and human activities (e.g., antibiotic therapy) on the composition of the primate fecal microbiota and the antibiotic-resistant genes that it collectively harbors (the "resistome"). Using a culture-independent metagenomic approach, we identified functional antibiotic resistance genes in the gut

2018 mSystems

135. Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activities of Citrus Water-Extracts Obtained by Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Methods Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activities of Citrus Water-Extracts Obtained by Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Methods Citrus pomace is a huge agro-food industrial waste mostly composed of peels and traditionally used as compost or animal feed. Owing to its high content of compounds beneficial to humans (e.g., flavonoids, phenol-like acids, and terpenoids), citrus waste is increasingly used to produce valuable supplements, fragrance, or antimicrobials. However, such processes require (...) sustainable and efficient extraction strategies by solvent-free techniques for environmentally-friendly good practices. In this work, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of water extracts of three citrus peels (orange, lemon, and citron) against ten different sanitary relevant bacteria. Both conventional extraction methods using hot water (HWE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used. Even though no extract fully inhibited the growth of the target bacteria, these latter

2018 Biomedicines

136. Empirical antimicrobial treatment in haemato-/oncological patients with neutropenic sepsis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Empirical antimicrobial treatment in haemato-/oncological patients with neutropenic sepsis Neutropenic sepsis in haemato-/oncological patients is a medical emergency, as infections may show a fulminant clinical course. Early differentiation between sepsis and febrile neutropenic response often proves to be challenging. To assess the severity of the illness, different tools, which are discussed in this article, are available. Once the diagnosis has been established, the correct use of early (...) empirical antibiotic and antifungal treatment is key in improving patient survival. Therefore, profound knowledge of local resistance patterns is mandatory and carefully designed antibiotic regimens have to be established in cooperation with local microbiologists or infectious diseases specialists. In the following, identification, therapy and management of high-risk, neutropenic patients will be reviewed based on experimental and clinical studies, guidelines and reviews.

2018 ESMO open

137. Differential antibacterial control by neutrophil subsets Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differential antibacterial control by neutrophil subsets Neutrophils comprise a heterogeneous population of cells essential for bacterial eradication, and defects in neutrophil function are associated with increased susceptibility to infection. In this study, neutrophils from healthy controls were shown to prevent bacterial proliferation for at least 48 hours when cocultured with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in tissue-like scaffolds by establishing a bacteriostatic (...) intracellularly. Conversely, CD16dim-banded neutrophils were the only neutrophil subset that adequately contained MRSA. These findings demonstrate a clear neutrophil heterogeneity in their antimicrobial capacity and the appearance of neutrophil subsets with a clear differentiation in functionality during acute inflammation. Furthermore, this study provides an evolutionary basis for the rapid release of banded neutrophils into the circulation during acute inflammation.© 2018 by The American Society

2018 Blood advances

138. Impact of antibiotics on smell dysfunction Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of antibiotics on smell dysfunction Viral or bacterial respiratory infections can cause long-lasting olfactory dysfunction. Antibiotic therapy is indicated in severe cases; however, it is unclear whether antibiotic use produces a positive, negative, or null effect on olfactory function. This retrospective study sought to determine whether antibiotic use has an influence on odor identification and detection threshold test scores of patients with smell dysfunction secondary to upper (...) respiratory infections (URIs), lower respiratory infections (LRIs), or rhinosinusitis.Data from a total of 288 patients presenting to the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center were evaluated.Patients with a URI etiology who had taken bactericidal antibiotics had lower detection thresholds than did patients who had not taken antibiotics (P < 0.023; analysis of covariance with age and time since infection onset as covariates). Moreover, thresholds were lower for bactericidal antibiotic users

2018 World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery

139. Continuous versus intermittent antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Continuous versus intermittent antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic airway disease characterised by a destructive cycle of recurrent airway infection, inflammation and tissue damage. Antibiotics are a main treatment for bronchiectasis. The aim of continuous therapy with prophylactic antibiotics is to suppress bacterial load, but bacteria may become resistant to the antibiotic, leading to a loss of effectiveness. On the other hand, intermittent prophylactic antibiotics (...) , given over a predefined duration and interval, may reduce antibiotic selection pressure and reduce or prevent the development of resistance. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the current evidence for studies comparing continuous versus intermittent administration of antibiotic treatment in bronchiectasis in terms of clinical efficacy, the emergence of resistance and serious adverse events.To evaluate the effectiveness of continuous versus intermittent antibiotics in the treatment of adults

2018 Cochrane

140. Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity

Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity'', 1 June 2018 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  (...)  |  Spotlight Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity Antibiotics disrupt the intestinal flora (intestinal microbiota) and could be a factor in weight gain. Prescription of antibiotics for children should not be automatic but should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Overweight and obesity are the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure and can be associated with various known genetic, hormone, environmental

2018 Prescrire