Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

101. Antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnancy.

Antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnancy. BACKGROUND: Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and is a major public health challenge today. N gonorrhoeae can be transmitted from the mother's genital tract to the newborn during birth, and can cause gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum as well as systemic neonatal infections. It can also cause endometritis and pelvic sepsis in the mother. This review updates and replaces an earlier Cochrane (...) Review on antibiotics for treating this infectious condition. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and harms of antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnant women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2017), LILACS database (1982 to April 5, 2017), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; April 5, 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov (April 5, 2017), the ISRCTN Registry (April 5, 2017), and Epistemonikos (April 5

Cochrane2018

102. Systemic use of antibiotics and risk of diabetes in adults: A nested case-control study of Alberta`s Tomorrow Project

Systemic use of antibiotics and risk of diabetes in adults: A nested case-control study of Alberta`s Tomorrow Project 29152889 2017 12 28 1463-1326 2017 Nov 20 Diabetes, obesity & metabolism Diabetes Obes Metab Systemic use of antibiotics and risk of diabetes in adults: A nested case-control study of Alberta's Tomorrow Project. 10.1111/dom.13163 Previous observational studies using administrative health records have suggested an increased risk of diabetes with use of antibiotics. However (...) , unmeasured confounding factors may explain these results. This study characterized the association between systemic use of antibiotics and risk of diabetes in a cohort of adults in Canada, accounting for both clinical and self-reported disease risk factors. In this nested case-control study, we used data from Alberta's Tomorrow Project (ATP), a longitudinal cohort study in Canada, and the linked administrative health records (2000-2015). Incident cases of diabetes were matched with up to 8 age and sex

EvidenceUpdates2018

103. Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea in Children

Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea in Children Emergency Medicine > Journal Club > Archive > November 2017 Toggle navigation November 2017 Probiotics to Prevent Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea in Children Vignette You are working in the SLCH ED. An 18-month-old unvaccinated patient has right ear pain and fever for 4 days, along with a runny nose and irritability. You look in her ear and see a bulging red eardrum. You are a superior clinician so you pull out your insufflator (...) and find that the eardrum has limited mobility, especially compared to the other side. with a diagnosis of acute otitis media in hand, you decide to prescribe high-dose amoxicillin for the child, based on the . However, as you start to explain this to the parents, they sound very hesitant because they have had other children who "always" get diarrhea when given antibiotics. They also recently had an elderly relative who was ill due to C. diff and they are scared to give their daughter antibiotics

Washington University Emergency Medicine Journal Club2018

104. Do antibiotics improve outcomes for patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbations?

Do antibiotics improve outcomes for patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbations? Do antibiotics improve outcomes for patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbations? Toggle navigation Shared more. Cited more. Safe forever. Toggle navigation View Item JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Search MOspace This Collection Browse Statistics Do antibiotics improve outcomes for patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbations? View/ Open Date 2012-09 (...) Format Metadata Abstract Antibiotic use reduced mortality and treatment failure in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A, systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). Giving antibiotics early to hospitalized patients decreased the need for later ventilation and readmission within 30 days for exacerbation of COPD (SOR: B, a retrospective cohort study). URI Citation Journal of Family

Clinical Inquiries2018

105. Machine Learning Leveraging Genomes from Metagenomes Identifies Influential Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Infant Gut Microbiome

Machine Learning Leveraging Genomes from Metagenomes Identifies Influential Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Infant Gut Microbiome Machine Learning Leveraging Genomes from Metagenomes Identifies Influential Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Infant Gut Microbiome | mSystems Main menu User menu Search Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Editor's Pick Research Article | Host-Microbe Biology Machine Learning Leveraging Genomes from Metagenomes Identifies Influential Antibiotic (...) Jillian F. Banfield Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA Nicola Segata University of Trento DOI: 10.1128/mSystems.00123-17 ABSTRACT Antibiotic resistance in pathogens is extensively studied, and yet little is known about how antibiotic resistance genes of typical gut bacteria influence microbiome dynamics. Here, we leveraged genomes from metagenomes to investigate how genes

mSystems2018 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

106. Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia?

Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? | Clinical Correlations Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? January 16, 2018 By Calvin Ngai, MD Peer Reviewed A 71-year-old Caucasian woman with hypertension presented with a 2-day history of productive cough and fever. She was living alone and had (...) no history of any recent hospitalizations. On examination, she was alert and oriented but slightly tachypneic; her lungs were clear to auscultation bilaterally. Laboratory tests were significant for a white blood cell count of 18,000 m L with 89% neutrophils. The chest x-ray showed a right lower lobe infiltrate. She was admitted and started on antibiotics for treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). She improved clinically, and after remaining afebrile for 48 hours, she was discharged on hospital

Clinical Correlations2018

107. Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics?

Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics? 1 Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics? Technical Report Prepared for National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Submitted by University of South Australia Division of Health Sciences Submission date 24th April 2017 2 Contents Page 1. Review Team and Background…………………………..…………………………….….3 2. Methods (...) in ‘chlorhexidine resistance’ within different healthcare settings? 2. Does exposure (different dosages, duration of use, and stratification of exposure) to any form of chlorhexidine increase the incidence and/or prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria in any person within different healthcare settings? Table 1: PICOS overview Question 1 Population and setting Intervention Outcome Types of studies Qu 1 All patients (isolates) / participants (isolates) including children and adults in different

National Health and Medical Research Council2018

108. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Procalcitonin-Guidance Versus Usual Care for Antimicrobial Management in Critically Ill Patients: Focus on Subgroups Based on Antibiotic Initiation, Cessation, or Mixed Strategies

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Procalcitonin-Guidance Versus Usual Care for Antimicrobial Management in Critically Ill Patients: Focus on Subgroups Based on Antibiotic Initiation, Cessation, or Mixed Strategies 29293146 2018 01 02 1530-0293 2018 Jan 02 Critical care medicine Crit. Care Med. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Procalcitonin-Guidance Versus Usual Care for Antimicrobial Management in Critically Ill Patients: Focus on Subgroups Based on Antibiotic Initiation, Cessation (...) , or Mixed Strategies. 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002953 Numerous studies have evaluated the use of procalcitonin guidance during different phases of antibiotics management (initiation, cessation, or a combination of both) in patients admitted to ICUs. Several meta-analyses have attempted to generate an overall effect of procalcitonin-guidance on patient outcomes. However, combining studies from different phases of antibiotics management may not be appropriate due to the risk of clinical heterogeneity

EvidenceUpdates2018

109. Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections Following Removal of Orthopedic Implants Used for Treatment of Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections Following Removal of Orthopedic Implants Used for Treatment of Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Importance: Following clean (class I, not contaminated) surgical procedures, the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) should be less than approximately 2%. However, an infection rate of 12.2% has been reported following removal of orthopedic implants used for treatment of fractures below the knee (...) . Objective: To evaluate the effect of a single dose of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis on the incidence of SSIs following removal of orthopedic implants used for treatment of fractures below the knee. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial including 500 patients aged 18 to 75 years with previous surgical treatment for fractures below the knee who were undergoing removal of orthopedic implants from 19 hospitals (17 teaching and 2 academic

JAMA2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

110. Association of Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics With Treatment Failure, Adverse Events, and Quality of Life in Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections.

Association of Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics With Treatment Failure, Adverse Events, and Quality of Life in Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections. Importance: Acute respiratory tract infections account for the majority of antibiotic exposure in children, and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections is increasing. It is not clear whether broad-spectrum treatment is associated with improved outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum treatment (...) . Objective: To compare the effectiveness of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment for acute respiratory tract infections in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study assessing clinical outcomes and a prospective cohort study assessing patient-centered outcomes of children between the ages of 6 months and 12 years diagnosed with an acute respiratory tract infection and prescribed an oral antibiotic between January 2015 and April 2016 in a network of 31

JAMA2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

111. Efficacy of Preoperative Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Crohn Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Efficacy of Preoperative Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Crohn Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial 29064884 2017 10 24 1528-1140 2017 Oct 23 Annals of surgery Ann. Surg. Efficacy of Preoperative Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Crohn Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002567 We investigated the efficacy of oral antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients (...) undergoing surgery for Crohn disease. Although oral antibiotic prophylaxis with mechanical bowel preparation has been recommended for colorectal surgery, the use of this approach remains somewhat controversial. Moreover, the efficacy of this approach for inflammatory bowel disease also remains unclear. This study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial at the Hyogo College of Medicine. The study protocols were registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials

EvidenceUpdates2017

112. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis

Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis 28925502 2017 11 27 2017 11 28 1365-2168 104 13 2017 Dec The British journal of surgery Br J Surg Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis. 1785-1790 10.1002/bjs.10660 Uncomplicated appendicitis may resolve spontaneously or require treatment with antibiotics or appendicectomy. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the outcome of a non-antibiotic management strategy (...) with that of antibiotic therapy in uncomplicated appendicitis. Patients presenting to a university teaching hospital with CT-verified uncomplicated simple appendicitis (appendiceal diameter no larger than 11 mm and without any signs of perforation) were randomized to management with a no-antibiotic regimen with supportive care (intravenous fluids, analgesia and antipyretics as necessary) or a 4-day course of antibiotics with supportive care. The primary endpoint was rate of total treatment failure, defined as initial

EvidenceUpdates2017

113. Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage?

Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? COMMENTARY TOTHE EDITOR: Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? Yusuke Shono 1 and Marcel R. M. van den Brink 1-3 1 Department of Immunology, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; 2 Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY; and 3 Adult BMT Service, Department (...) of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), 3,4 gut decontamination(GD)byoralantibioticssuchasvancomycin,polymyxinB,metronidazole,orciprofloxacin asaprophylacticstrategyisacommon,butnotstandardpracticeinallo-HCT.Anotherindicationforusing empiricantibioticsistotreatNFthatoccursinmorethan90%ofpatients. 5 Antibiotics,however,areableto damage the commensal gut microflora to various degrees, depending on the antibiotic class. 6,7 This becomes of increasing interest as recent studies with advanced DNA

Blood advances2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

114. Subtle Microbiome Manipulation Using Probiotics Reduces Antibiotic-Associated Mortality in Fish

Subtle Microbiome Manipulation Using Probiotics Reduces Antibiotic-Associated Mortality in Fish 29124129 2018 11 13 2379-5077 2 6 2017 Nov-Dec mSystems mSystems Subtle Microbiome Manipulation Using Probiotics Reduces Antibiotic-Associated Mortality in Fish. e00133-17 10.1128/mSystems.00133-17 Prophylactic antibiotics in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry are intended to prevent the negative impacts of disease outbreaks. Research in mice and humans suggests that antibiotics may disturb (...) microbiome communities and decrease microbiome-mediated disease resistance, also known as "colonization resistance." If antibiotics impact fish as they do mice and humans, prophylactic administrations on aquaculture farms may increase downstream disease susceptibility in target hosts, despite short-term pathogen control benefits. We tested the effects of antibiotics on mortality after a pathogen challenge in the Poecilia sphenops black molly and subsequently tested if probiotic inoculations could reverse

mSystems2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

115. Antibiotic prophylaxis for episiotomy repair following vaginal birth.

Antibiotic prophylaxis for episiotomy repair following vaginal birth. BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections occurring during labour, childbirth, and the puerperium may be associated with considerable maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic prophylaxis might reduce wound infection incidence after an episiotomy, particularly in situations associated with a higher risk of postpartum perineal infection, such as midline episiotomy, extension of the incision, or in settings where (...) the baseline risk of infection after vaginal birth is high. However, available evidence is unclear concerning the role of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing infections after an episiotomy. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether routine antibiotic prophylaxis before or immediately after incision or repair of episiotomy for women with an uncomplicated vaginal birth, compared with either placebo or no antibiotic prophylaxis, prevents maternal infectious morbidities and improves outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We

Cochrane2017

116. Explaining family physicians’ beliefs about antibiotic prescription

Explaining family physicians’ beliefs about antibiotic prescription 29238498 2018 11 13 2008-5842 9 10 2017 Oct Electronic physician Electron Physician Explaining family physicians' beliefs about antibiotic prescription. 5560-5567 10.19082/5560 Antibiotics are among those drugs prescribed abundantly in hospitals due to their high efficiency. However, excessive, non-logical and unnecessary use of antibiotics regardless of physicians' recommendations is considered as a challenge. The aim (...) of this study was to explain family physicians' beliefs about antibiotic prescription in Ahvaz. This study is part of a content-analysis qualitative research conducted in Ahvaz in 2016. Study subjects were selected according to purposive sampling and data collection continued to data saturation. Required data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews with participation of eight subjects. Data analysis was conducted along with conducting interviews using constant comparison analysis

Electronic physician2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

117. Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months.

Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months. BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment (...) places a significant burden on both patients and their families, including substantial expense, loss of routine, and decrease in quality of life. By reducing the duration of hospital treatment, healthcare burdens could potentially be reduced and treatment compliance may improve.This is an update of a review published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of short-course (two to three days) versus long-course (five days) intravenous therapy (alone or in combination with oral antibiotics

Cochrane2017

118. Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing pneumococcal infection in children with sickle cell disease.

Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing pneumococcal infection in children with sickle cell disease. BACKGROUND: Persons with sickle cell disease (SCD) are particularly susceptible to infection. Infants and very young children are especially vulnerable. The 'Co-operative Study of Sickle Cell Disease' observed an incidence rate for pneumococcal septicaemia of 10 per 100 person years in children under the age of three years. Vaccines, including customary pneumococcal vaccines, may be of limited (...) use in this age group. Therefore, prophylactic penicillin regimens may be advisable for this population. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002, and previously updated, most recently in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis against pneumococcus in children with SCD in relation to:1. incidence of infection;2. mortality;3. drug-related adverse events (as reported in the included studies) to the individual and the community;4. the impact

Cochrane2017

119. Effects of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care 12 Months After Stopping Interventions

Effects of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care 12 Months After Stopping Interventions 29049577 2017 10 25 2018 11 13 1538-3598 318 14 2017 10 10 JAMA JAMA Effects of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care 12 Months After Stopping Interventions. 1391-1392 10.1001/jama.2017.11152 Linder Jeffrey A JA Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Meeker Daniella D University of Southern

JAMA2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

120. Deconstructing a multiple antibiotic resistance regulation through the quantification of its input function

Deconstructing a multiple antibiotic resistance regulation through the quantification of its input function 29018569 2018 11 13 2056-7189 3 2017 NPJ systems biology and applications NPJ Syst Biol Appl Deconstructing a multiple antibiotic resistance regulation through the quantification of its input function. 30 10.1038/s41540-017-0031-2 Many essential bacterial responses present complex transcriptional regulation of gene expression. To what extent can the study of these responses substantiate (...) the logic of their regulation? Here, we show how the input function of the genes constituting the response, i.e., the information of how their transcription rates change as function of the signals acting on the regulators, can serve as a quantitative tool to deconstruct the corresponding regulatory logic. To demonstrate this approach, we consider the multiple antibiotic resistance ( mar ) response in Escherichia coli . By characterizing the input function of its representative genes in wild-type

NPJ systems biology and applications2017 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro