Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1161. Prophylactic antibiotics in simple hand lacerations.

Prophylactic antibiotics in simple hand lacerations. 7007666 1981 04 24 1981 04 24 2016 10 17 0098-7484 245 10 1981 Mar 13 JAMA JAMA Prophylactic antibiotics in simple hand lacerations. 1055-6 A randomized prospective study of 265 patients with hand lacerations was carried out to define the role of prophylactic antibiotics in the management of simple, sutured wounds of the hand. Two hundred sixty-five patients were followed up until suture removal or satisfactory wound healing. There were (...) a total of three infections (1.1%). There was no noticeable differences in the incidence of infection in the antibiotic and placebo treatment groups. It is concluded that prophylactic antibiotics are an unnecessary adjunct in the treatment of simple lacerations of the hand and no replacement for meticulous wound management. Grossman J A JA Adams J P JP Kunec J J eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents AIM IM Anti

JAMA1981

1162. Antibiotic irrigation and catheter-associated urinary-tract infections.

Antibiotic irrigation and catheter-associated urinary-tract infections. 210379 1978 10 25 1978 10 25 2010 11 18 0028-4793 299 11 1978 Sep 14 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Antibiotic irrigation and catheter-associated urinary-tract infections. 570-3 To investigate the efficacy of antibiotic irrigation in preventing catheter-associated urinarytract infection, we carried out a randomized controlled trial of a neomycin-polymyxin irrigant administered through closed urinary (...) catheters. Eighteen of 98 (18 per cent) of the patients not given irrigation became infected, as compared with 14 of 89 (16 per cent) of those given irrigation, yielding a mean daily incidence of 5 per cent in each group. The distribution of organisms and their antibiotic sensitivities differed in the two groups, the organisms from the patients with irrigation being more resistant. Disconnections of the catheter junctions were associated with high rates of infection. The rate of disconnections

NEJM1978

1163. Oral non-absorbed antibiotics prevent infection in acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Oral non-absorbed antibiotics prevent infection in acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia. 72192 1977 12 29 1977 12 29 2015 06 16 0140-6736 2 8043 1977 Oct 22 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Oral non-absorbed antibiotics prevent infection in acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia. 837-40 113 patients being treated for acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia were investigated to determine the effect of suppression of body microbial flora on prevention of infection. They were randomly allocated to a control (...) group or a group which received non-absorbed antibiotics by mouth and topical applications of cutaneous and mucosal antiseptic preparations. The group receiving oral non-absorbed antibiotics had significantly few infections, fewer deaths from infection, fewer pyrexial episodes, and consequently received less systemic antibiotic therapy than the controls. Storring R A RA Jameson B B McElwain T J TJ Wiltshaw E E eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial England Lancet 2985213R

Lancet1977

1164. Prevention of wound infection in abdominal operations by peroperative antibiotics or povidone-iodine. A controlled trial.

Prevention of wound infection in abdominal operations by peroperative antibiotics or povidone-iodine. A controlled trial. 72953 1978 01 27 1978 01 27 2015 06 16 0140-6736 2 8047 1977 Nov 19 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Prevention of wound infection in abdominal operations by peroperative antibiotics or povidone-iodine. A controlled trial. 1043-5 The wound-infection rate after abdominal operations was compared in 113 patients randomly allocated to an untreated control group, a group receiving (...) preoperative lincomycin and tobramycin, or a group receiving local instillation of povidone-iodine. The wound-infection rate was 8.1% in 37 patients receiving antibiotics, 42.1% in 38 untreated controls, and 39.5% in 38 patients in the povidone-iodine group. Galland R B RB Saunders J H JH Mosley J G JG Darrell J H JH eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial England Lancet 2985213R 0140-6736 0 Aerosols 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 25655-41-8 Povidone-Iodine 9003-39-8

Lancet1977

1165. Prophylactic systemic antibiotics in colorectal surgery.

Prophylactic systemic antibiotics in colorectal surgery. 69126 1977 08 25 1977 08 25 2015 06 16 0140-6736 2 8027 1977 Jul 02 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Prophylactic systemic antibiotics in colorectal surgery. 4-8 The prophylactic value of gentamicin combined with either lincomycin or metronidazole in 52 patients undergoing colorectal surgery was investigated. The results confirmed the value of this practice. In a control group, the sepsis-rate was 48% with 1 death attributable to sepsis

Lancet1977

1166. Single-dose peroperative antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal surgery.

Single-dose peroperative antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal surgery. 60565 1976 10 20 1976 10 20 2015 06 16 0140-6736 2 7981 1976 Aug 14 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Single-dose peroperative antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal surgery. 325-8 A single intravenous dose of tobramycin and lincomycin, given at the start of gastrointestinal operations, significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative wound infection from 34% to 5%. The occurrence of both anaerobic and aerobic (...) bacteria was reduced. Therapeutic concentrations of the antibiotics were maintained throughout the operative period in most cases. No toxic effects of the antibiotics were detected, no anaesthetic complication occurred, and resistant strains of bacteria normally sensitive to the antibiotics were not isolated from wounds. Griffiths D A DA Simpson R A RA Shorey B A BA Speller D C DC Williams N B NB eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial England Lancet 2985213R 0140-6736 0 Anti

Lancet1976

1167. Controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics in minor wounds requiring suture.

Controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics in minor wounds requiring suture. 53659 1976 02 20 1976 02 20 2015 06 16 0140-6736 2 7946 1975 Dec 13 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics in minor wounds requiring suture. 1174-6 Minor wounds presenting in the accident department requiring suture were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: an intramuscular injection of 1-25 megaunits of penicillin as a long-acting depot preparation, local wound (...) irrigation with 100mg of tetracycline in solution, or no antibiotics. All wounds had a standard surgical toilet and were closed under aseptic conditions. Wound infections were noted five to seven days after suture, and in the two groups receiving antibiotics 23% of the wounds were infected whilst in the control group the frequency was 7%. The wisdom of using routine antibiotic prophylaxis in minor wounds is questioned. Day T K TK eng Clinical Trial Comparative Study Journal Article Randomized Controlled

Lancet1975