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Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics
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Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.
Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.
Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.
Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.
Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.
Acute red ear in children: controlled trial of non-antibiotic treatment in general practice. 1912887 1991 11 12 1991 11 12 2017 02 19 0959-8138 303 6802 1991 Sep 07 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Acute red ear in children: controlled trial of non-antibiotic treatment in general practice. 558-62 To examine the efficacy and safety of conservative management of mild otitis media ("the acute red ear") in children. Double blind placebo controlled trial. 17 group general practices (48 general (...) practitioners) in Southampton, Bristol, and Portsmouth. 232 children aged 3-10 years with acute earache and at least one abnormal eardrum (114 allocated to receive antibiotic, 118 placebo). Amoxycillin 125 mg three times a day for seven days or matching placebo; 100 ml paracetamol 120 mg/5 ml. Diary records of pain and crying, use of analgesic, eardrum signs, failure of treatment, tympanometry at one and three months, recurrence rate, and ear, nose, and throat referral rate over one year. Treatment failure
Role of candida in pathogenesis of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in elderly inpatients. 1671890 1991 04 05 1991 04 05 2015 06 16 0140-6736 337 8740 1991 Mar 02 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Role of candida in pathogenesis of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in elderly inpatients. 511-4 The part that candida plays in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea was investigated in 24 elderly inpatients (mean age 74 years) who tested negative for Clostridium difficile toxin and other intestinal pathogens (...) . 7 had intestinal overgrowth of Candida species (greater than or equal to 10(5) cfu/ml). None of the 24 matched, antibiotic-treated controls without diarrhoea had candida overgrowth. All 5 patients with diarrhoea and candida overgrowth treated with oral nystatin responded with resolution of diarrhoea and lowering of faecal counts to less than 10(4) cfu/ml within 7 days of start of antifungal therapy despite continuation of antibacterial therapy. In the other 2 patients with candida overgrowth
Reduced intravascular catheter infection by antibiotic bonding. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. 2016833 1991 05 17 1991 05 17 2016 10 17 0098-7484 265 18 1991 May 08 JAMA JAMA Reduced intravascular catheter infection by antibiotic bonding. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. 2364-8 We report a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic-bonded catheters in reducing the incidence of intravascular catheter-related infections (...) . Ninety-three central venous catheters and 85 arterial catheters were studied in the surgical intensive care unit. Study catheters were pretreated with the cationic surfactant tridodecylmethylammonium chloride. The anionic antibiotic, cefazolin, was bonded before insertion of the catheters by immersing them in a 50-mg/mL solution. Fourteen percent of the 81 catheters in the control group were infected, compared with 2% of the 97 antibiotic-bonded catheters. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most
Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for herniorrhaphy and breast surgery. 2403655 1990 02 02 1990 02 02 2013 11 21 0028-4793 322 3 1990 Jan 18 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for herniorrhaphy and breast surgery. 153-60 We assessed the efficacy of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery in a randomized, double-blind trial of 1218 patients undergoing herniorrhaphy or surgery involving the breast, including excision of a breast (...) wound infections (Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio, 0.49), wounds that drained pus (risk ratio, 0.43), Staphylococcus aureus wound isolates (risk ratio, 0.49), and urinary tract infections (risk ratio, 0.40). There were also comparable reductions in the need for postoperative antibiotic therapy, non-routine visits to a physician for problems involving wound healing, incision and drainage procedures, and readmission because of problems with wound healing. We conclude that perioperative antibiotic
Early antibiotic treatment of reactive arthritis associated with enteric infections: clinical and serological study. 2271852 1991 02 26 1991 02 26 2013 10 02 0959-8138 301 6764 1990 Dec 08 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Early antibiotic treatment of reactive arthritis associated with enteric infections: clinical and serological study. 1299-302 To find out whether a 10-14 days' course of antibiotics early in the course of reactive arthritis associated with enteric infections could reduce (...) the severity and duration of the disease and whether the antibody response in patients with reactive arthritis associated with yersinia infection differed between those treated and those not treated with the antibiotics. Prospective multicentre trial in which patients were randomised to treatment or no treatment with antibiotics. Patients were seen at three and six weeks and three, six, nine, 12, and 18 months after their first visit. Departments of infectious diseases in three hospitals in Linköping
Effect of short-term intermittent antibiotic treatment on growth of Burmese (Myanmar) village children. 1977980 1990 12 03 1990 12 03 2015 11 19 0140-6736 336 8723 1990 Nov 03 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Effect of short-term intermittent antibiotic treatment on growth of Burmese (Myanmar) village children. 1090-3 To test the hypothesis that subclinical enteric infection (such as bacterial overgrowth), rice malabsorption, and growth faltering are causally linked, a field trial of low-dose (...) , short-term, intermittent antibiotic treatment was carried out in 142 hydrogen-producing (by lactulose breath hydrogen test) Burmese village children aged 6-59 months. The children were randomly allocated treatment with metronidazole (20 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg daily), amoxycillin (25 mg/kg daily), or placebo given 1 week per month for 6 months. A cooked rice meal breath hydrogen test was done to classify the children as rice absorbers (RA) or rice malabsorbers (RM) before treatment and monthly on the day
Cost-effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures in patients with artificial joints Cost-effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures in patients with artificial joints Cost-effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures in patients with artificial joints Tsevat J, Durand-Zaleski I, Pauker S G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief (...) summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic prophylaxis using erythromycin or penicillin. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population Patients with artificial joints. Setting The study was carried out in the USA. Dates to which data relate Price related to 1986. Source of effectiveness data Literature
Antibiotic Therapy in Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Antibiotic Therapy in Exacerbatio... preview & related info | Mendeley E-mail address Password ( ) Remember me …or sign in with Search Main Navigation › Short URL Annals of Internal Medicine ( 1987 ) Volume: 106 , Issue: 2 , Pages: 196-204 ISSN: 00034819 DOI: PubMed: Available from or Find this paper at: Abstract The effects of broad-spectrum antibiotic and placebo therapy in patients (...) that intervention was necessary. Over 3.5 years in 173 patients, 362 exacerbations were treated, 180 with placebo and 182 with antibiotic. The success rate with placebo was 55% and with antibiotic 68%. The rate of failure with deterioration was 19% with placebo and 10% with antibiotic. There was a significant benefit associated with antibiotic. Peak flow recovered more rapidly with antibiotic treatment than with placebo. Side effects were uncommon and did not differ between antibiotic and placebo. Related
Antibiotic administration to treat possible occult bacteremia in febrile children. 3309658 1987 11 20 1987 11 20 2013 11 21 0028-4793 317 19 1987 Nov 05 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Antibiotic administration to treat possible occult bacteremia in febrile children. 1175-80 We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of antibiotic administration to treat possible occult bacteremia in febrile children. A total of 955 children aged (...) of the randomly assigned children (2.8 percent) had bacteremic infections with pathogenic organisms (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and salmonella). There were no differences in the incidence of major infectious morbidity associated with bacteremia between the antibiotic and placebo groups--2 of 19 patients (10.5 percent) in the antibiotic group and 1 of 8 (12.5 percent) in the placebo group--although the power for this comparison was low. Antibiotics reduced fever (P less than 0.005
Antibiotic elimination of group-B streptococci in urine in prevention of preterm labour. 2881132 1987 04 10 1987 04 10 2015 06 16 0140-6736 1 8533 1987 Mar 14 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Antibiotic elimination of group-B streptococci in urine in prevention of preterm labour. 591-3 The presence of group-B streptococci in the urine of pregnant women seems to be associated with preterm labour. Urine samples from 4122 women at 27-31 weeks' gestation were examined for bacteria. Group-B
A scoring method (ASEPSIS) for postoperative wound infections for use in clinical trials of antibiotic prophylaxis. 2868173 1986 03 13 1986 03 13 2015 06 16 0140-6736 1 8476 1986 Feb 08 Lancet (London, England) Lancet A scoring method (ASEPSIS) for postoperative wound infections for use in clinical trials of antibiotic prophylaxis. 311-3 To compare antibiotic regimens for their effectiveness in preventing or treating wound sepsis, well-defined criteria for outcome are needed. A method
A randomized trial comparing ceftazidime alone with combination antibiotic therapy in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. 3526155 1986 09 17 1986 09 17 2013 11 21 0028-4793 315 9 1986 Aug 28 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. A randomized trial comparing ceftazidime alone with combination antibiotic therapy in cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. 552-8 To assess the efficacy of single-agent therapy relative to standard combination antibiotic therapy (...) treatment groups necessitated additional antimicrobial treatment or other modifications of the initial regimen, as compared with only 22 percent of the episodes of unexplained fever. We conclude that initial single-agent therapy with certain beta-lactam antibiotics is a safe alternative to standard combination antibiotic therapy, although patients with documented infection or protracted neutropenia are likely to require additional or modified treatment. Pizzo P A PA Hathorn J W JW Hiemenz J J Browne M M
Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection in patients on hemodialysis. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis. 3523240 1986 07 29 1986 07 29 2013 11 21 0028-4793 315 2 1986 Jul 10 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection in patients on hemodialysis. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis. 91-6 We conducted a five-year prospective controlled study of prophylaxis of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection among patients
Relative importance of antibiotic and improved clearance in topical treatment of chronic mucopurulent rhinosinusitis. A controlled study. 2874366 1986 09 17 1986 09 17 2015 06 16 0140-6736 2 8503 1986 Aug 16 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Relative importance of antibiotic and improved clearance in topical treatment of chronic mucopurulent rhinosinusitis. A controlled study. 359-60 50 patients with chronic mucopurulent rhinosinusitis were randomly allocated to treatment with nasal sprays (...) of dexamethasone, tramazoline, and neomycin, dexamethasone and tramazoline with no antibiotic, or matched placebo (propellant alone) four times daily to both nostrils for 2 weeks. The patients were assessed in a double-blind manner for symptomatic response and improvement in nasal mucociliary clearance, nasal airway resistance, sinus radiographs, and intranasal bacteriology and appearance. Both active preparations (with antibiotic 14 of 20 patients responded; without antibiotic 12 of 20 patients responded
Persistence of improvement in antibiotic prescribing in office practice. 3974058 1985 04 04 1985 04 04 2016 10 17 0098-7484 253 12 1985 Mar 22-29 JAMA JAMA Persistence of improvement in antibiotic prescribing in office practice. 1774-6 We evaluated persistence of the prescribing improvement seen in a previous statewide controlled trial, which measured improvement in the prescribing of contraindicated antibiotics and oral cephalosporins in the year after an educational intervention. Doctors
Double-blind study to compare the selection of antibiotic resistance by amoxycillin or cephradine in the commensal flora. 6136690 1983 10 08 1983 10 08 2015 06 16 0140-6736 2 8349 1983 Sep 03 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Double-blind study to compare the selection of antibiotic resistance by amoxycillin or cephradine in the commensal flora. 529-32 Elderly patients with acute urinary infections were treated in a double-blind study with either amoxycillin or cephradine. In 52 patients who had (...) received amoxycillin for one week about a third of all intestinal Escherichia coli were highly resistant to amoxycillin, and many were resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim, or chloramphenicol. Cephradine selected less resistance. At a week after completion of chemotherapy, cephradine-resistant E coli were replaced by sensitive cultures at a greater frequency than were amoxycillin-resistant E coli. Neither antibiotic altered the skin flora. Amoxycillin, but not cephradine, selected
Improving antibiotic prescribing in office practice. A controlled trial of three educational methods. 6350633 1983 10 28 1983 10 28 2016 10 17 0098-7484 250 13 1983 Oct 07 JAMA JAMA Improving antibiotic prescribing in office practice. A controlled trial of three educational methods. 1728-32 We conducted a statewide controlled trial of three methods to improve antibiotic prescribing in office practice: a mailed brochure, a drug educator visit, and a physician visit. Educational topics were three (...) antibiotics contraindicated for office practice and oral cephalosporins. Medicaid prescribing data were used to select donors who needed education. The effect of the methods was evaluated by comparing the change in prescribing (the year before the intervention v the year after the intervention) for the doctors receiving education with the prescribing of comparable doctors chosen as controls. The mailed brochure had no detectable effect, and the drug educator had only a modest effect. The physician visits
Antibiotic therapy of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. A controlled study using tetracycline. Antibiotic therapy of acute exace... preview & related info | Mendeley E-mail address Password ( ) Remember me …or sign in with Search Main Navigation › Short URL Annals of Internal Medicine ( 1982 ) Volume: 97 , Issue: 1 , Pages: 18-21 PubMed: Available from or Find this paper at: Abstract We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 40 patients to evaluate the need (...) for antibiotics in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. All patients were sufficiently ill to require hospitalization although none needed ventilatory support; the presence of pneumonia was excluded. Treatment consisted of bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and either tetracycline, 500 mg, or placebo by mouth every 6 hours for 1 week. Arterial blood gases, spirometric tests, bacteriologic evaluation of sputum, and patient and physician evaluation of the severity of illness were assessed at the beginning
Routine antibiotics in hospital management of acute asthma. 6121090 1982 05 12 1982 05 12 2015 06 16 0140-6736 1 8269 1982 Feb 20 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Routine antibiotics in hospital management of acute asthma. 418-20 The value of antibiotics was assessed in a randomised, double-blind study of amoxycillin and placebo in sixty adults admitted to hospital with acute exacerbations of asthma. 37 exacerbations were treated with amoxycillin and 34 were treated with placebo. Response (...) to treatment was closely monitored but no significant difference in improvement was demonstrated between groups for length of hospital stay, time taken for 50% improvement in symptoms, patient's self assessment and respiratory function, and symptoms and respiratory function at time of discharge from hospital. Antibiotics should not be given routinely to patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbations of asthma. Graham V A VA Milton A F AF Knowles G K GK Davies R J RJ eng Clinical Trial Journal
Therapy of acute otitis media: myringotomy, antibiotics, or neither? A double-blind study in children. 6117681 1982 01 28 1982 01 28 2015 06 16 0140-6736 2 8252 1981 Oct 24 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Therapy of acute otitis media: myringotomy, antibiotics, or neither? A double-blind study in children. 883-7 In a double-blind study 171 children with acute otitis media (239 affected ears) were treated by four different methods: neither antibiotics nor myringotomy; myringotomy only (...) ; antibiotics only; or both antibiotics and myringotomy. All received symptomatic treatment. There were no significant differences in clinical course (pain, temperature, duration of discharge, otoscopic appearances, audiography, recurrence rate) between the four groups. In the groups treated without antibiotics, the ears discharge for slightly longer and the eardrums took a little longer to heal; these differences were not significant. No complications were seen. Symptomatic therapy with nosedrops