Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1121. Evaluation of an antibiotic prescribing protocol for treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive airways disease in a hospital respiratory unit

Evaluation of an antibiotic prescribing protocol for treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive airways disease in a hospital respiratory unit Evaluation of an antibiotic prescribing protocol for treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive airways disease in a hospital respiratory unit Evaluation of an antibiotic prescribing protocol for treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive airways disease in a hospital respiratory unit Boyter A C, Davey P G, Hudson S (...) A, Clark R A, Lipworth B J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Use of antibiotics in the treatment of infective exacerbations of chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD). First line therapy was oral amoxycillin 500mg tid

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1995

1122. Cost analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis in clean head and neck surgery

Cost analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis in clean head and neck surgery Cost analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis in clean head and neck surgery Cost analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis in clean head and neck surgery Blair E A, Johnson J T, Wagner R L, Carrau R L, Bizakis J G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed (...) critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic prophylaxis in clean head and neck surgery. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness study. Study population The study population comprised patients who underwent clean neck dissection: patients with exposure to secretions from the upper aerodigestive tract were excluded. The mean age in the antibiotic prophylaxis group was 60 (range 24-91

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1995

1123. Antibiotics to prevent infection of simple wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized studies

Antibiotics to prevent infection of simple wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized studies Antibiotics to prevent infection of simple wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized studies Antibiotics to prevent infection of simple wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized studies Cummings P, Del Beccaro M A Authors' objectives To review the evidence of the effectiveness of prophylactic, systemic antibiotics in preventing infection in patients who are treated in emergency departments for simple non-bite (...) wounds. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1993 using the keywords 'wound infection' and 'antibiotic'. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with results analysed according to treatment using intention-to-treat analysis, were included. Specific interventions included in the review Prophylactic, systemic antibiotics (flucloxacillin plus ampicillin, triplopen, cephalexin, cefazolin) given orally or by an intramuscular route

DARE.1995

1124. Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil

Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil Pharmacoeconomic benefit of antibiotic step-down therapy: converting patients from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil Hendrickson J R, North D S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic step-down therapy from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil in patients with community-acquired pneumonia or a complicated urinary tract infection. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1995

1125. Antibiotics in chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a meta-analysis

Antibiotics in chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a meta-analysis Antibiotics in chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a meta-analysis Antibiotics in chronic obtrusive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a meta-analysis Saint S, Bent S, Vittinghoff E, Grady D Authors' objectives A meta-analysis of randomised trials was performed to estimate the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary artery disease (COPD). Searching (...) MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1994 for English language articles using the search terms 'COPD', 'chronic bronchitis', 'exacerbation' and 'antibiotic(s)'. Index Medicus was handsearched for articles published before 1966. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were checked, and experts in the field were contacted for additional material. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised, placebo-controlled trials with a follow-up of at least 5 days were included

DARE.1995

1126. Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics

Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics Costs of duodenal ulcer therapy with antibiotics Sonnenberg A, Townsend W F Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology (...) Duodenal ulcer (DU) management by histamine2 antagonists, selective vagotomy and antibiotics. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population 1000 hypothetical patients with active but uncomplicated ulcers. Setting Hospital/primary care. The economic study was carried out in the USA. Dates to which data relate Effectiveness data were derived from studies published between 1990 and 1994. Resource costs were obtained from 1993 data. 1993 prices

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1995

1127. Home intravenous antibiotic therapy: a safe and effective alternative to inpatient care

Home intravenous antibiotic therapy: a safe and effective alternative to inpatient care Home intravenous antibiotic therapy: a safe and effective alternative to inpatient care Home intravenous antibiotic therapy: a safe and effective alternative to inpatient care Grayson M L, Silvers J, Turnidge J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions (...) followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Intravenous antibiotic therapy administered at home to early-discharge patients with serious bacterial infections. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis Study population To be eligible for home intravenous therapy, patients had to satisfy the following criteria: stable clinical and psychological condition; established long-term venous access

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1995

1128. Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for community acquired lower respiratory tract infection in a general hospital: open, randomised controlled trial.

Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for community acquired lower respiratory tract infection in a general hospital: open, randomised controlled trial. 7787537 1995 07 27 1995 07 27 2013 11 21 0959-8138 310 6991 1995 May 27 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for community acquired lower respiratory tract infection in a general hospital: open, randomised controlled trial. 1360-2 To see whether there is a difference in outcome between patients treated with oral (...) and intravenous antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection. Open controlled trial in patients admitted consecutively and randomised to treatment with either oral co-amoxiclav, intravenous followed by oral co-amoxiclav, or intravenous followed by oral cephalosporins. Large general hospital in Dublin. 541 patients admitted for lower respiratory tract infection during one year. Patients represented 87% of admissions with the diagnosis and excluded those who were immunocompromised and patients with severe

BMJ1995 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

1129. Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis.

Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis. 7658819 1995 10 03 1995 10 03 2015 06 16 0140-6736 346 8976 1995 Sep 09 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Early antibiotic treatment in acute necrotising pancreatitis. 663-7 Despite improvements in surgical treatment and intensive care, mortality from severe acute pancreatitis remains high. We have carried out a randomised study of 60 consecutive patients with alcohol-induced necrotising pancreatitis to find out whether early (...) antibiotic treatment can improve outcome. 30 patients were assigned cefuroxime (4.5 g/day intravenously) from admission. In the second group, no antibiotic treatment was given until clinical or microbiologically verified infection or after a secondary rise in C-reactive protein. The inclusion criteria were C-reactive protein concentration above 120 mg/L within 48 h of admission and low enhancement (< 30 Hounsfield units) on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. There were more infectious complications

Lancet1995

1130. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease.

A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease. 8201735 1994 07 07 1994 07 07 2016 10 17 0098-7484 271 24 1994 Jun 22-29 JAMA JAMA A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease. 1913-8 OBJECTIVE--To determine the safety and efficacy of a new combination treatment for patients with Clostridium difficile (...) -associated disease (CDD). The treatment combines the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii with an antibiotic (vancomycin hydrochloride or metronidazole). DESIGN--A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group intervention study in patients with active CDD. Patients received standard antibiotics and S boulardii or placebo for 4 weeks, and were followed up for an additional 4 weeks after therapy. Effectiveness was determined by comparing the recurrence of CDD in the two groups using multivariate

JAMA1994

1131. Assessment of cost-effective antibiotic therapy in the management of infections in cancer patients

Assessment of cost-effective antibiotic therapy in the management of infections in cancer patients Assessment of cost-effective antibiotic therapy in the management of infections in cancer patients Assessment of cost-effective antibiotic therapy in the management of infections in cancer patients Cimino M A, Rotstein C M, Moser J M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Consensus guidelines for prescribing antibiotic therapy with and without concurrent intervention by a clinical pharmacist. Type of intervention Treatment Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Cancer patients requiring parenteral antibiotic therapy. Three groups were identified according to physician practice (medical

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1994

1132. [Cost-effectiveness of preventive antibiotic administration for lowering risk of infection by 0.25%]

[Cost-effectiveness of preventive antibiotic administration for lowering risk of infection by 0.25%] Kosteneffektivitat einer Antibiotikaprophylaxe bei Senkung des Infektionsrisikos um 0.25% [Cost-effectiveness of preventive antibiotic administration for lowering risk of infection by 0.25%] Kosteneffektivitat einer Antibiotikaprophylaxe bei Senkung des Infektionsrisikos um 0.25% [Cost-effectiveness of preventive antibiotic administration for lowering risk of infection by 0.25%] Albers B (...) A, Patka P, Haarman H J, Kostense P J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic prophylaxis preventing postoperative infections of closed fractures. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1994

1133. [Proposal for shortened antibiotic therapy as a cost-saving measure in uncomplicated infections]

[Proposal for shortened antibiotic therapy as a cost-saving measure in uncomplicated infections] Anstoss zu verkurzter i.v. Antibiotikabehandlung als kostensparende Intervention bei der Behandlung unkomplizierter Infekte [Proposal for shortened antibiotic therapy as a cost-saving measure in uncomplicated infections] Anstoss zu verkurzter i.v. Antibiotikabehandlung als kostensparende Intervention bei der Behandlung unkomplizierter Infekte [Proposal for shortened antibiotic therapy as a cost (...) -saving measure in uncomplicated infections] Schmid J P, Regamey C Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Shortening of intravenous (i.v.) antibiotic therapy in uncomplicated infections. Type of intervention Treatment

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1994

1134. Does topical antibiotic prophylaxis reduce post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea?

Does topical antibiotic prophylaxis reduce post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea? Does topical antibiotic prophylaxis reduce post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea? Does topical antibiotic prophylaxis reduce post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea? Garcia P, Gates G A, Schechtman K B Authors' objectives To assess the efficacy of topical antimicrobial prophylaxis against purulent post-operative otorrhea. Searching MEDLARS (MEDLINE) was searched using the MeSHs 'tympanostomy', 'complications' and 'otorrhea' (search (...) following typanostomy tube insertion in children at high risk of pirulent post-operative otorrhea, i.e. those with mucoid or purulent effusion. Bibliographic details Garcia P, Gates G A, Schechtman K B. Does topical antibiotic prophylaxis reduce post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea? Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 1994; 103(1): 54-58 Other publications of related interest 1. School of Public Health, University of Leeds. The treatment of persistent glue ear in children. Effective Health Care

DARE.1994

1135. Empirical parenteral antibiotic treatment of patients with fibromyalgia and fatigue and a positive serologic result for Lyme disease

Empirical parenteral antibiotic treatment of patients with fibromyalgia and fatigue and a positive serologic result for Lyme disease Empirical parenteral antibiotic treatment of patients with fibromyalgia and fatigue and a positive serologic result for Lyme disease Empirical parenteral antibiotic treatment of patients with fibromyalgia and fatigue and a positive serologic result for Lyme disease Lightfoot R W, Luft B J, Rahn D W, Steere A C, Sigal L H, Zoschke D C, Gardner P, Britton M C (...) studies included Not stated. Methods of combining primary studies Narrative method. Investigation of differences between primary studies Not reported. Results of the review In a population of 100,000, 2% will have the fatigue and myalgia syndrome due to causes other than Lyme disease. Of these, 2% will be falsely seropositive for Lyme disease. If all seropositive patients were treated with antibiotics for the possibility of Lyme disease, 3% will develop minor toxicity and 0.052 patients will develop

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1993

1136. A controlled trial in intensive care units of selective decontamination of the digestive tract with nonabsorbable antibiotics

A controlled trial in intensive care units of selective decontamination of the digestive tract with nonabsorbable antibiotics A controlled trial in intensive care units of selective decontamination of the digestive tract with nonabsorbable antibiotics A controlled trial in intensive care units of selective decontamination of the digestive tract with nonabsorbable antibiotics Gastinne H, Wolff M, Delatour F, Faurisson F, Chevret S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Topical nonabsorbable antibiotics (tobramycin 80mg, colistin sulfate 100mg and amphotericin B 100mg). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Intensive care patients receiving mechanical

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1992

1137. Randomised comparison of oral ofloxacin alone with combination of parenteral antibiotics in neutropenic febrile patients.

Randomised comparison of oral ofloxacin alone with combination of parenteral antibiotics in neutropenic febrile patients. 1349112 1992 05 28 1992 05 28 2015 06 16 0140-6736 339 8801 1992 May 02 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Randomised comparison of oral ofloxacin alone with combination of parenteral antibiotics in neutropenic febrile patients. 1092-6 Prompt treatment with empirical antibiotics in neutropenic febrile patients reduces morbidity and mortality. Most patients have been treated (...) with parenteral combination antibiotics, but newer antibiotics with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity have made monotherapy feasible. Ofloxacin, a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone, has the additional advantage that bactericidal concentrations can be achieved with oral administration. We have compared ofloxacin as an oral single agent with standard parenteral combination antibiotics for the management of neutropenic febrile patients in a prospective, randomised trial. Patients with severe neutropenia

Lancet1992

1138. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of native-valve endocarditis.

Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of native-valve endocarditis. 1346008 1992 02 11 1992 02 11 2015 11 19 0140-6736 339 8786 1992 Jan 18 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of native-valve endocarditis. 135-9 Whether antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent bacterial endocarditis is hotly debated. In an attempt to settle this issue, we have assessed the efficacy of prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis on native valves in a nationwide

Lancet1992

1139. The timing of prophylactic administration of antibiotics and the risk of surgical-wound infection.

The timing of prophylactic administration of antibiotics and the risk of surgical-wound infection. 1728731 1992 01 31 1992 01 31 2010 03 24 0028-4793 326 5 1992 Jan 30 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. The timing of prophylactic administration of antibiotics and the risk of surgical-wound infection. 281-6 Randomized, controlled trials have shown that prophylactic antibiotics are effective in preventing surgical-wound infections. However, it is uncertain how the timing (...) of antibiotic administration affects the risk of surgical-wound infection in actual clinical practice. We prospectively monitored the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis and studied the occurrence of surgical-wound infections in 2847 patients undergoing elective clean or "clean-contaminated" surgical procedures at a large community hospital. The administration of antibiotics 2 to 24 hours before the surgical incision was defined as early; that during the 2 hours before the incision, as preoperative

NEJM1992

1140. A controlled trial in intensive care units of selective decontamination of the digestive tract with nonabsorbable antibiotics. The French Study Group on Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract.

A controlled trial in intensive care units of selective decontamination of the digestive tract with nonabsorbable antibiotics. The French Study Group on Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract. 1734249 1992 03 03 1992 03 03 2015 11 19 0028-4793 326 9 1992 Feb 27 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. A controlled trial in intensive care units of selective decontamination of the digestive tract with nonabsorbable antibiotics. The French Study Group on Selective (...) Decontamination of the Digestive Tract. 594-9 Selective decontamination of the digestive tract with topical nonabsorbable antibiotics has been reported to prevent nosocomial infections in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and the procedure is used widely in Europe. However, it is unclear whether selective decontamination improves survival. We conducted a randomized, double-blind multicenter study in which 445 patients receiving mechanical ventilation in 15 intensive care units were given either

NEJM1992