Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1101. Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A randomized controlled trial. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network.

Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A randomized controlled trial. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. 9307346 1997 10 08 1997 10 08 2016 10 17 0098-7484 278 12 1997 Sep 24 JAMA JAMA Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. A randomized controlled trial. National Institute of Child Health and Human (...) Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. 989-95 Intrauterine infection is thought to be one cause of preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). Antibiotic therapy has been shown to prolong pregnancy, but the effect on infant morbidity has been inconsistent. To determine if antibiotic treatment during expectant management of PPROM will reduce infant morbidity. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. University hospitals of the National Institute of Child Health and Human

JAMA1997

1102. Primary-care-based randomised placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis.

Primary-care-based randomised placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis. 9078199 1997 04 17 1997 04 17 2016 11 24 0140-6736 349 9053 1997 Mar 08 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Primary-care-based randomised placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment in acute maxillary sinusitis. 683-7 The value of antibiotics in acute rhinosinusitis is uncertain. Although maxillary sinusitis is commonly diagnosed and treated in general practice, no effectiveness studies (...) no prognostic value, nor were they an effect modifier. Side-effects were recorded in 28% of patients given amoxycillin and in 9% of those taking placebo (p < 0.01). The occurrence of relapses was similar in both groups (21 vs 17%) during the follow-up year. Antibiotic treatment did not improve the clinical course of acute maxillary sinusitis presenting to general practice. For these patients, an initial radiographic examination is not necessary and initial management can be limited to symptomatic treatment

Lancet1997

1103. Reattendance and complications in a randomised trial of prescribing strategies for sore throat: the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics.

Reattendance and complications in a randomised trial of prescribing strategies for sore throat: the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics. 9270458 1997 09 04 1997 09 04 2016 10 19 0959-8138 315 7104 1997 Aug 09 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Reattendance and complications in a randomised trial of prescribing strategies for sore throat: the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics. 350-2 To assess the medicalising effect of prescribing antibiotics for sore throat. 11 general (...) practices in England. Randomised trial of three approaches to sore throat: a 10 day prescription of antibiotics, no antibiotics, or a delayed prescription if the sore throat had not started to settle after three days. 716 patients aged 4 and over with sore throat and an abnormal physical sign: 84% had tonsillitis or pharyngitis. Number and rate of patients making a first return with sore throat, pharyngitis, or tonsillitis. Early returns (within two weeks) and complications (otitis media, sinusitis

BMJ1997 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

1104. Adjunctive antibiotic treatment in preterm labor and neonatal morbidity: a meta-analysis

Adjunctive antibiotic treatment in preterm labor and neonatal morbidity: a meta-analysis Adjunctive antibiotic treatment in preterm labor and neonatal morbidity: a meta-analysis Adjunctive antibiotic treatment in preterm labor and neonatal morbidity: a meta-analysis Egarter C, Leitich H, Husslein P, Kaider A, Schemper M Authors' objectives To determine the effects of prophylactic antibiotics on neonatal mortality and morbidity in patients with pre-term labour. Searching Eighteen medical (...) databases were searched up to January 1995 including MEDLINE (from 1964) and EMBASE (from 1974); no search terms are provided in the review. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Specific interventions included in the review Antibiotic treatment: intravenous (i.v.) ampicillin plus oral erythromycin; clindamycin followed by oral clindamycin; i.v. ampicillin plus i.v. sulbactam; i.v. ampicillin followed by oral ampicillin

DARE.1996

1105. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease

Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease Warshafsky S, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Kamer RS, Peterson SJ, Wormser GP Authors' objectives To determine if antibiotic prophylaxis following a deer tick bite is effective in reducing the risk of developing Lyme disease ( Borrelia burgdorferi ). Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1983 to 1995 (...) for trials published in the English language using the combinations: 'Lyme disease' and 'Prevention', 'Lyme disease' and 'Prophylaxis', 'Lyme disease' and 'Trial'. Bibliographies from retrieved articles were examined to identify any other relevant trials. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of Lyme disease were included if patients were randomly allocated to treatment or control group withing

DARE.1996

1106. Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis

Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis Utility of antibiotic therapy in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a meta-analysis Ananth C V, Guise J M, Thorp J M Authors' objectives To examine the efficacy and effectiveness of antibiotic therapy on maternal outcomes in pre-term premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in pregnancy. Searching The following (...) . Specific interventions included in the review Antibiotics administered included penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, synthetic penicillins, and triple antibiotic therapy. Duration of therapy ranged from 3 days to the end of pregnancy. Parenteral, oral and combination administration of antibiotics were included. Participants included in the review Women experiencing pre-term PROM were included. Infant gestational age across all the included trials ranged from 19 to 34 weeks. Babies were also included

DARE.1996

1107. Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin

Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin Economic analysis of antibiotic regimens used in the treatment pharyngitis: a prospective comparison of azithromycin versus roxithromycin Carbon C, Hotton J M, Pepin L F, Wohlhuter C, Souetre E, Hardens M, Lozet H, Riviera (...) analysis. Study population Patients were of both sexes, between 18 and 65 years of age, with clinical signs and symptoms of pharyngitis (sore throat, erythema and purulence on examination, dysphagia and fever >38 C) and suitable to receive antibiotic therapy. Setting Primary care. The economic study was carried out in Paris, France. Dates to which data relate Effectiveness data were collected between October 1991 and July 1992. Resources used were estimated using data from 1992. 1992 prices were used

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1996

1108. Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis

Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis Sawaya G F, Grady D, Kerlikowske K, Grimes D A Authors' objectives To determine the efficacy of periabortal antibiotics in preventing postabortal upper genital tract infection using (...) data from published trials. Searching MEDLINE was searched for articles published between January 1966 and September 1994. Keywords used included: 'abortion', 'infection', 'prophylaxis', 'antibiotics', 'pelvic inflammatory disease' (PID) and 'suction curettage'. Bibliographies of review articles were also searched to identify further trials. The search was not restricted to articles published in English. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled

DARE.1996

1109. Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks

Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks Mukhopadhyay S, Singh M, Cater J I, Ogston S, Franklin M, Olver R E Authors' objectives To evaluate the benefits and risks of nebulised antipseudomonal therapy in cystic fibrosis. Searching (...) MEDLINE was searched using the Cochrane Collaboration strategy. Additional studies were located by searching Current Contents, by examining bibliographies of textbooks, reviews, editorials and international cystic fibrosis conference proceedings, and through personal communications. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Specific interventions included in the review Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics

DARE.1996

1110. Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis

Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis Antibiotic treatment in preterm premature rupture of membranes and neonatal morbidity: a metaanalysis Egarter C, Leitich H, Karas H, Wieser F, Husslein P, Kaider A, Schemper M Authors' objectives To assess the effect of prophylactic antibiotics on neonatal mortality, clinical sepsis (...) of the neonate, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in mothers with pre-term premature rupture of membranes. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to January 1995, and EMBASE from 1974 to January 1995, for all literature included under the following terms: 'preterm' or 'premature rupture', 'amniotic' or 'fetal' or 'fetal membrane', 'amnion' or 'amniotic sac', and 'antibiotics'. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included

DARE.1996

1111. Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes

Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes Prospective evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies: oral versus intramuscular routes Fried G W, Goetz G, Potts-Nulty S, Solomon G, Cioschi H M, Staas W E Record Status This is a critical (...) abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystometrogram and/or cystogram studies. Type of intervention Treatment;primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population A cohort of male and female

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1996

1112. A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children

A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children A cost-utility analysis of second-line antibiotics in the treatment of acute otitis media in children Oh P, Maerov P, Pritchard D, Knowles S, Einarson T, Shear N Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Second-line antibiotic treatment used to treat acute otitis media in children. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population Male and female children with acute otitis media. Ages ranged from 2 months to 18 years, but the majority of patients were between 6 months and 12

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1996

1113. Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes

Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes Implementing antibiotic practice guidelines through computer-assisted decision support: clinical and financial outcomes Pestotnik S L, Classen D C, Evans R S, Burke J P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The implementation of antibiotic practice guidelines, through computer-assisted decision support. Type of intervention Secondary prevention and treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis Study population Patients discharged from a acute-care referral

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1996

1114. A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic tissue levels in the corpora cavernosa of patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation using gentamicin plus cefazolin versus an oral fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis

A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic tissue levels in the corpora cavernosa of patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation using gentamicin plus cefazolin versus an oral fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic tissue levels in the corpora cavernosa of patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation using gentamicin plus cefazolin versus an oral fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis A randomized prospective comparison of antibiotic (...) drawn. Health technology Oral fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin) in penile prosthesis implantation. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients undergoing penile prosthesis placement or replacement. The exclusion criteria included the use of any antibiotics within 7 days of surgery or a known hypersensitivity to the medication. Setting Hospital, the economic study was carried out in Seattle, USA. Dates to which data relate The dates

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1996

1115. A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy

A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy A prospective randomized study of inpatient IV antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: the optimal duration of therapy Siegel R E, Halpern N A, Almenoff P L, Lee A, Cashin R, Greene J G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Shortened course of inpatient IV antibiotic therapy prior to switching to oral antibiotic in the patient with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1996

1116. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with a high risk of infection

Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with a high risk of infection Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with a high risk of infection Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis after gastrointestinal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with a high risk of infection Pauwels A, Mostefa-Kara N, Debenes B, Degoutte E, Levy V G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Prophylactic course of antibiotics to cirrhotic patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with gastrointestinal haemorrhage and high risk of infection. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid 1 g/200 mg three times daily and ciprofloxacin 200 mg twice daily. Type

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1996

1117. A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion

A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion A cost-benefit analysis of the post-operative use of antibiotic ear drops following grommet insertion Pearson C R, Thomas M R, Cox H J, Garth R J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief (...) summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Use of antibiotic ear drops (Sofradex) following grommet insertion in the prophylaxis of otorrhoea. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients undergoing bilateral grommet insertion for eustachian dysfunction or otitis media with effusion. Setting Hospital

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1996

1118. Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions.

Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions. 8684101 1996 08 19 1996 08 19 2015 06 16 0140-6736 347 9014 1996 Jun 01 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Effects of antibiotic treatment in the subset of common-cold patients who have bacteria in nasopharyngeal secretions. 1507-10 Upper-respiratory-tract infection is one of the main causes of overuse of antibiotics. We have found previously that bacteria such as Haemophilus (...) influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae can be isolated from the nasopharyngeal secretions of a substantial proportion of adults with upper-respiratory-tract infections. We have assessed the efficacy of co-amoxiclav in patients with common colds but no clinical signs of sinusitis or other indications for antibiotics. Between January, 1992 and March, 1994, 314 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic with common colds were enrolled in the double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Lancet1996

1119. Randomised controlled trial of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical treatment of closed fractures: the Dutch Trauma Trial.

Randomised controlled trial of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical treatment of closed fractures: the Dutch Trauma Trial. 8609746 1996 05 29 1996 05 29 2015 06 16 0140-6736 347 9009 1996 Apr 27 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Randomised controlled trial of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical treatment of closed fractures: the Dutch Trauma Trial. 1133-7 The efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in fracture surgery remains controversial for lack of well-documented prospective (...) studies. We report here the findings of the Dutch Trauma Trial, a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of antibiotic prophylaxis in the primary operative treatment of limb fractures. Ceftriaxone was chosen because of its pharmacokinetic profile, including high serum levels, high tissue penetration, and long elimination half-life, makes it suitable for single-dose prophylaxis. Patients aged 18 years or more, attending one of fourteen Dutch centres for acute treatment

Lancet1996

1120. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of empirical therapy with ceftazidime alone or combination antibiotics for febrile neutropenia in cancer patients

Pharmacoeconomic analysis of empirical therapy with ceftazidime alone or combination antibiotics for febrile neutropenia in cancer patients Pharmacoeconomic analysis of empirical therapy with ceftazidime alone or combination antibiotics for febrile neutropenia in cancer patients Pharmacoeconomic analysis of empirical therapy with ceftazidime alone or combination antibiotics for febrile neutropenia in cancer patients Dranitsaris G, Tran T M, McGeer A, Narine L Record Status This is a critical (...) abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology A single-agent broad spectrum antibacterial (ceftazidime) compared with two combination antibiotic regimens (tobramycin plus piperacillin with cefazolin (CAP), and tobramycin plus piperacillin without cefazolin (AP

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1995