Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1081. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia

Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alternative antibiotic regimens in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia Richerson M A, Ambrose P G, Quintiliani R, Bui K Q, Nightingale C H Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Intravenous antibiotic monotherapy for hospitalised patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Hypothetical patients requiring treatment

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1998

1082. A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents

A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents Evans R S, Pestotnik S L, Classen D C, Clemmer T P, Weaver L K, Orme J F, Lloyd J F, Burke J P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains (...) was a nonrandomised trial with historical controls carried out in a single centre. The duration of follow-up was not clearly reported. Analysis of effectiveness The analysis was based on intention-to-treat and the primary health outcomes used in the analysis being thenumber of adverse events caused by antiinfective agents, number of days of excessive antibiotic dosage, and mortality. A regression model was used to investigate the differences in costs and outcomes between strategies after controlling

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1998

1083. Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis

Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis Omidvari K, de Boisblanc B P, Karam G, Nelson S, Haponik E, Summer W Record Status (...) This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Using an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy (2-day i.v. antibiotic course followed by switch to oral antibiotics (cefaclor)) for the treatment of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1998

1084. Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes

Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes Macy E Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED (...) . Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Elective penicillin skin testing (PenSTs) in advance of acute antibiotic need and (optional) amoxicillin challenge (AC) in patients with negative skin test responses. Patients were previously entered in a study of new penicillin reagents and received at least 1 prescription drug over a 2-year period

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1998

1085. A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the Canadian Ciprofloxacin Health Economic Study Group

A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the Canadian Ciprofloxacin Health Economic Study Group A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the Canadian Ciprofloxacin Health Economic Study Group A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs usual antibiotic treatment in acute (...) of the antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB). The dose recommended was 500-mg bid, but dose and duration were left to the physician's discretion as was the decision to prescribe ciprofloxacin for subsequent AECBs within the follow-up period in the event of treatment failure. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis. Study population Adult outpatient men and women aged 18 and over, presenting

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1998

1086. Randomised controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics before insertion of intrauterine devices. IUD Study Group.

Randomised controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics before insertion of intrauterine devices. IUD Study Group. 9546505 1998 04 30 1998 04 30 2015 06 16 0140-6736 351 9108 1998 Apr 04 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Randomised controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics before insertion of intrauterine devices. IUD Study Group. 1005-8 The value of antibiotic prophylaxis before insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) remains uncertain. We undertook a triple-masked, randomised, placebo (...) of the remaining 1867 (98%) participants for at least 90 days after insertion. The rate of IUD removal for any reason other than partial expulsion was 3.8% (35/918) in the antibiotic group and 3.4% (31/915) in the placebo group (relative risk 1.1 [95% CI 0.7-1.8]). The two treatment groups sought medical attention with equal frequency (mean 38 visits per 100 women). During the 90 days after IUD insertion, only one woman from each assignment group had salpingitis, as defined by established criteria. Prophylaxis

Lancet1998

1087. Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence

Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Meta-analysis of trials of prophylactic antibiotics for children with measles: inadequate evidence Shann F Authors' objectives To assess whether prophylactic antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high (more than 1%) fatality rate. Searching MEDLINE (...) was searched from 1966 to 1995 using the terms 'measles' plus either 'antibiotic', 'penicillin', 'sulphonamide', 'prospective studies' or 'RCT'. Additional studies were obtained by examining results of previous handsearches of studies of pneumonia in children, in all the journals in the University library from 1935 to 1946. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing routine antibiotic prophylaxis with no antibiotic or with selective

DARE.1997

1088. Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis

Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Do oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with Streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Rothrock S G, Harper M B, Green S M, Clark M C (...) , Bachur R, McIlmail D P, Giordano P A, Falk J L Authors' objectives To determine whether oral antibiotics prevent meningitis and serious bacterial infections in children with streptococcus pneumoniae occult bacteraemia. Searching MEDLINE was searched for all English language publications concerning bacteraemia, fever or streptococcus pneumoniae from 1966 to April 1996. Bibliographies of all articles retrieved were also examined. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review

DARE.1997

1089. The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis

The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis The use of antibiotics to prevent serious sequelae in children at risk for occult bacteremia: a meta-analysis Bulloch B, Craig W R, Klassen T P Authors' objectives To determine whether antibiotics prevent serious bacterial infections in children at risk for occult bacteremia (...) Antibiotic versus no antibiotic, or oral antibiotic versus IM antibiotic. Specific antibiotics studied included penicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Participants included in the review Children between 3 months and 36 months of age who had a fever of greater or equal to 39C, no identified focus of infection and a blood culture obtained on initial visit. Patients were excluded if they had a focus of infection, a known or suspected hypersensitivity to the antibiotics being

DARE.1997

1090. A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions

A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions A randomized, prospective evaluation of an interventional program to discontinue intravenous antibiotics at two tertiary care teaching institutions Bailey T C, Ritchie D J, McMullin S T, Kahn M, Reichley (...) R M, Casabar E, Shannon W, Dunagan W C Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology A labour-intensive, pharmacist intervention aimed at discontinuing intravenous antibiotics or switching patients from intravenous to oral

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997

1091. A pharmacist-initiated program of intravenous to oral antibiotic conversion

A pharmacist-initiated program of intravenous to oral antibiotic conversion A pharmacist-initiated program of intravenous to oral antibiotic conversion A pharmacist-initiated program of intravenous to oral antibiotic conversion Przybylski K G, Rybak M J, Martin P R, Weingarten C M, Zaran F K, Stevenson J G, Levine D P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods (...) , the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology A pharmacist-initiated programme of conversion from parenteral to oral antibiotics in patients with mild and moderate infections. The intervention programme targeted those antimicrobials with high use or high cost to the study institution including ampicillin-sulbactam, ciprofloxacin, imipenem-cilastatin, cefuroxime, cefazolin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997

1092. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection

Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection Pharmacoeconomic analysis of selected antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infection Quenzer R W, Pettit K G, Arnold R J, Kaniecki D J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotics (clarithromycin, cefixime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, erythromycin, cefuroxime, ampicillin and cefaclor) to treat community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, acute exacerbation

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997

1093. A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy

A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy A decision analysis to guide antibiotic selection for chlamydia infection during pregnancy Hueston W J, Lenhart J G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions (...) followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Treating infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women initially with any of 4 antibiotic options (amoxicillin, 500mg 3 times a day for 7 days; erythromycin, 500mg 4 times a day for 7 days; clindamycin hydrochloride, 450mg 4 times a day for 7 days; and azithromycin, a single 1g dose), followed, for non-responders, by 1 of 3 antibiotics not chosen for initial therapy. Type

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997

1094. Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Cost-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Inadomi J, Sonnenberg A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical (...) assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Prophylactic antibiotics (norfloxacin 400 mg daily and trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole 160mg/800mg 5 days per week). Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Hypothetical cohort of 100 patients with ascites and cirrhosis. Three cases were separately investigated, with patients having: (1) a previous history of SBP; (2) no previous history of SBP

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997

1095. Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures

Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Comparison of ceftriaxone with penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fractures Heit J M, Stevens M R, Jeffords K Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Ceftriaxone and penicillin for antibiotic prophylaxis for compound mandible fracture. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Male and female patients with compound mandible fractures. Setting Hospital. The economic study was carried out in Miami, Florida, USA. Dates to which

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997

1097. Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes

Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes Fraser G L, Stogsdill P, Dickens J D, Wennberg D E, Smith R P, Prato B S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results (...) and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Patient-specific, antibiotic-related suggestions given to the attending physician by a team consisting of an infectious disease fellow and a clinical pharmacist for adult patients receiving parenteral antibiotics. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Adult inpatients receiving 1 or more of the following 10

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997

1098. Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery

Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Wieck J A, Jackson J K, O'Brien T J, Lurate R B, Russell J M, Dorchak J D Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical (...) assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of prophylactic antibiotics in arthroscopic surgery Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness study. Study population Male and female patients undergoing arthroscopy. The average age was 31, with a range of 13 to 70 years. Patients with penicillin or cefazolin allergy were excluded, as were patients requiring metal implants. Setting Hospital. The economic study

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997

1099. Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media

Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media Pharmacoeconomic impact of factors affecting compliance with antibiotic regimens in the treatment of acute otitis media Wandstrat T L, Kaplan B Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS (...) EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Treatment of otitis media with antibiotics. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness study. Study population Children of both sexes aged between 2 months and 7 years old with acute otitis media. Setting Primary care. The economic study was conducted in West

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997

1100. Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy

Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy Successful control of Clostridium difficile infection in an elderly care unit through use of a restrictive antibiotic policy McNulty C, Logan M, Donald I P, Ennis D, Taylor D, Baldwin R N, Bannerjee M, Cartwright K A Record Status This is a critical (...) abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of a restrictive antibiotic policy for treatment of infections in an elderly care unit. Patients with suspected infections were prescribed intravenous benzyl penicillin for streptococcal infections

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.1997