Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

261. Antibiotic Resistant and Virulence Determinants of Staphylococcus haemolyticus C10A as Revealed by Whole Genome Sequencing

Antibiotic Resistant and Virulence Determinants of Staphylococcus haemolyticus C10A as Revealed by Whole Genome Sequencing 26157506 2015 07 09 2015 07 09 2017 02 20 3 2015 Journal of genomics J Genomics Antibiotic Resistant and Virulence Determinants of Staphylococcus haemolyticus C10A as Revealed by Whole Genome Sequencing. 72-4 10.7150/jgen.12574 Staphylococcus haemolyticus is one of the pathogens that harbor a high level of antibiotic resistance. Here, we highlighted the potential

Journal of genomics2015 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

262. Empiric Antibiotic Treatment Reduces Mortality in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock From the First Hour: Results From a Guideline-Based Performance Improvement Program

Empiric Antibiotic Treatment Reduces Mortality in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock From the First Hour: Results From a Guideline-Based Performance Improvement Program PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club2015

263. Acute appendicitis - appendectomy or the "antibiotics first" strategy.

Acute appendicitis - appendectomy or the "antibiotics first" strategy. Clinical practice. Acute appendicitis--appendectomy or the "antibiotics first" strategy. - PubMed - NCBI Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search Result Filters Format Summary Summary (text) Abstract Abstract (text) MEDLINE XML PMID List Apply Choose Destination File Clipboard Collections E-mail Order My Bibliography Citation manager Format Create File 1 selected item (...) : 25970051 Format MeSH and Other Data E-mail Subject Additional text E-mail Add to Clipboard Add to Collections Order articles Add to My Bibliography Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Create File 2015 May 14;372(20):1937-43. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1215006. Clinical practice. Acute appendicitis--appendectomy or the "antibiotics first" strategy. . Erratum in [N Engl J Med. 2015] Comment in [Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2016] PMID: 25970051 DOI: [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication type

NEJM2015

264. Simplified antibiotic regimens compared with injectable procaine benzylpenicillin plus gentamicin for treatment of neonates and young infants with clinical signs of possible serious bacterial infection when referral is not possible: a randomised, open-lab

Simplified antibiotic regimens compared with injectable procaine benzylpenicillin plus gentamicin for treatment of neonates and young infants with clinical signs of possible serious bacterial infection when referral is not possible: a randomised, open-lab BACKGROUND: WHO recommends hospital-based treatment for young infants aged 0-59 days with clinical signs of possible serious bacterial infection, but most families in resource-poor settings cannot accept referral. We aimed to assess whether (...) use of simplified antibiotic regimens to treat young infants with clinical signs of severe infection was as efficacious as an injectable procaine benzylpenicillin-gentamicin combination for 7 days for situations in which hospital referral was not possible. METHODS: In a multisite open-label equivalence trial in DR Congo, Kenya, and Nigeria, community health workers visited all newborn babies at home, identifying and referring unwell young infants to a study nurse. We stratified young infants

Lancet2015

265. Prophylactic antibiotics for individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): a rapid review

Prophylactic antibiotics for individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): a rapid review Prophylactic antibiotics for individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): a rapid review Prophylactic antibiotics for individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): a rapid review Health Quality Ontario Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality (...) of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Health Quality Ontario. Prophylactic antibiotics for individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): a rapid review. Toronto: Health Quality Ontario (HQO). Rapid Review. 2015 Authors' conclusions The evidence yielded mixed results on the effectiveness and safety of the prophylactic use of the antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) for COPD patients. From the examination of 1 systematic review of RCTs (in Rapid Review, proper): Compared

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2015

266. Systematic review, meta-analysis and economic modelling of molecular diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis

Systematic review, meta-analysis and economic modelling of molecular diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis Systematic review, meta-analysis and economic modelling of molecular diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website

NIHR HTA programme2015

267. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria.

Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria. BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is commonly detected in women aged up to 60 years, patients with diabetes, and the elderly. The benefit of antibiotic treatment for this condition is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotics treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults. Specific objectives were to assess 1) the effectiveness of antibiotics for preventing development of symptomatic UTI, UTI-related (...) complications, overall mortality, UTI-related mortality, and resolution of bacteriuria; 2) the development of resistance to antibiotic treatment by comparing resistance of grown bacteria in urine before and after therapy; and 3) the frequency of adverse events. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register up to 24 February 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs

Cochrane2015

268. Antibiotic treatment strategies for community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

Antibiotic treatment strategies for community-acquired pneumonia in adults. BACKGROUND: The choice of empirical antibiotic treatment for patients with clinically suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who are admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospital wards is complicated by the limited availability of evidence. We compared strategies of empirical treatment (allowing deviations for medical reasons) with beta-lactam monotherapy, beta-lactam-macrolide combination therapy

NEJM2015

269. Use of Topical Tetracycline-Class Antibiotics Can Reduce Pain and Formation of New Ulcers and Increase Speed of Recovery in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Use of Topical Tetracycline-Class Antibiotics Can Reduce Pain and Formation of New Ulcers and Increase Speed of Recovery in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis UTCAT2830, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Use of Topical Tetracycline-Class Antibiotics Can Reduce Pain and Formation of New Ulcers and Increase Speed of Recovery in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Clinical Question

UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library2015

271. A New Antibiotic and the Evolution of Resistance

A New Antibiotic and the Evolution of Resistance 25785976 2015 03 19 2015 03 27 2016 10 25 1533-4406 372 12 2015 Mar 19 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. A new antibiotic and the evolution of resistance. 1168-70 10.1056/NEJMcibr1500292 Arias Cesar A CA Murray Barbara E BE eng R01 AI093749 AI NIAID NIH HHS United States Journal Article United States N Engl J Med 0255562 0028-4793 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 0 Depsipeptides LC730GUE72 teixobactin AIM IM Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2007

NEJM2015 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

272. Yoghurt to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children

Yoghurt to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children Yoghurt to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children » Morsels of Evidence Search Evidence based medicine for general practitioners « » Mar 13 Yoghurt to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children Categories: , , , , by Journal reference: Fox MJ, Ahuja KD, Robertson IK, Ball MJ, Eri RD. Can probiotic yogurt prevent diarrhoea in children on antibiotics? A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study. BMJ Open (...) 2015;5(1): e006474. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006474 Link: Published: 14 January 2015 Evidence cookie says… Probiotic yoghurt appears to reduce the incidence of diarrhoea in children receiving antibiotics in general practice settings. The dose was 2 x 100 g tubs of Vaalia-brand yoghurt daily during the antibiotic course of treatment. This is a reasonable preventive intervention to advise – especially for children who enjoy yoghurt. Clinical scenario I recently saw Leon, a 3-year-old boy suffering

Morsels of Evidence2015

273. Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease.

Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of acute chest syndrome is similar whether due to infectious or non-infectious causes, thus antibiotics are usually prescribed to treat all episodes. Many different pathogens, including bacteria, have been implicated as causative agents of acute chest syndrome. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus (...) , there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from acute chest syndrome. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2007, and previously updated in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (used alone or in combination):1. is effective for acute chest syndrome compared to placebo or standard treatment;2. is safe for acute chest syndrome compared to placebo

Cochrane2015

274. Antibiotic Prophylaxis with Bone Grafting Procedures Reduces Risk of Postoperative Complications

Antibiotic Prophylaxis with Bone Grafting Procedures Reduces Risk of Postoperative Complications UTCAT2804, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Antibiotic Prophylaxis with Bone Grafting Procedures Reduces Risk of Postoperative Complications Clinical Question In patients indicated for bone grafting, does oral antibiotic prophylaxis decrease risk of postoperative complications, including infections? Clinical (...) Bottom Line Antibiotic prophylaxis decreases the risk of postoperative complications including infection following a bone grafting or implant procedure, but various situational factors must be taken into account. Best Evidence (you may view more info by clicking on the PubMed ID link) PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type (level of evidence) #1) Resnik/2008 Adults indicated for dental implants and/or bone grafting procedures Practice Guideline Key results Antibiotic prophylaxis prior

UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library2015

275. There Is Insufficient Evidence to Support the Use of Systemic Antibiotics to Prevent Postoperative Endodontic Flare-Ups

There Is Insufficient Evidence to Support the Use of Systemic Antibiotics to Prevent Postoperative Endodontic Flare-Ups UTCAT2814, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title There Is Insufficient Evidence to Support the Use of Systemic Antibiotics to Prevent Postoperative Endodontic Flare-Ups Clinical Question Is the incidence of postoperative endodontic flare-ups lower if antibiotics are given compared (...) to endodontic therapy without antibiotics? Clinical Bottom Line There is insufficient evidence to support the use of systemic antibiotics to prevent postoperative endodontic flare-ups. Best Evidence (you may view more info by clicking on the PubMed ID link) PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type (level of evidence) #1) Cope/2014 62 participants in 2 trials Systematic review of randomized trials Key results There is insufficient evidence on the efficacy of systemic antibiotics to prevent flare-ups

UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library2015

278. Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections

Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections | Position statements and practice points | Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections | Canadian Paediatric Society Protecting and promoting the health and well-being of children and youth CPS Member Login | Who We Are What We Do Get Involved Education/CPD Publications Careers > Share POSITION STATEMENT (...) Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections Posted: Feb 6 2015 The Canadian Paediatric Society gives permission to print single copies of this document from our website. For permission to reprint or reproduce multiple copies, please see our . Principal author(s) Joan L Robinson, Jane C Finlay, Mia Eileen Lang, Robert Bortolussi; Canadian Paediatric Society , , Paediatr Child Health 2015;20(1):45-47. Abstract Prophylactic antibiotics for urinary tract infections

Canadian Paediatric Society2015

280. The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS): a pragmatic randomised open-label masked endpoint clinical trial.

The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS): a pragmatic randomised open-label masked endpoint clinical trial. BACKGROUND: In adults with acute stroke, infections occur commonly and are associated with an unfavourable functional outcome. In the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS) we aimed to establish whether or not preventive antimicrobial therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, improves functional outcome in patients with acute stroke. METHODS (...) with acute stroke. The results of our trial do not support the use of preventive antibiotics in adults with acute stroke. FUNDING: Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, Netherlands Heart Foundation, and the European Research Council. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet2015