Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

What is Trip?

Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care.

Trip has been online since 1997 and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search.

As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news.

For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com

Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

241. Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis.

Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis. BACKGROUND: Irreversible pulpitis, which is characterised by acute and intense pain, is one of the most frequent reasons that patients attend for emergency dental care. Apart from removal of the tooth, the customary way of relieving the pain of irreversible pulpitis is by drilling into the tooth, removing the inflamed pulp (nerve) and cleaning the root canal. However, a significant number of dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics to stop the pain (...) of irreversible pulpitis.This review updates the previous version published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for irreversible pulpitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 27 January 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 12); MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 27 January 2016); EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 27 January 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (to 27 January 2016) and the WHO

Cochrane2016

242. Effect of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Among Primary Care Practices: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Effect of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Among Primary Care Practices: A Randomized Clinical Trial. 26864410 2016 02 11 2016 02 16 2016 10 17 1538-3598 315 6 2016 Feb 09 JAMA JAMA Effect of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Among Primary Care Practices: A Randomized Clinical Trial. 562-70 10.1001/jama.2016.0275 Interventions based on behavioral science might reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. To assess effects (...) of behavioral interventions and rates of inappropriate (not guideline-concordant) antibiotic prescribing during ambulatory visits for acute respiratory tract infections. Cluster randomized clinical trial conducted among 47 primary care practices in Boston and Los Angeles. Participants were 248 enrolled clinicians randomized to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 interventions for 18 months. All clinicians received education on antibiotic prescribing guidelines on enrollment. Interventions began between November 1, 2011

JAMA2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

243. Antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: mechanisms and clinical implications.

Antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: mechanisms and clinical implications. Resistance of the Enterobacteriaceae to antibiotics, especially of the β lactam type, is increasingly dominated by the mobilization of continuously expressed single genes that encode efficient drug modifying enzymes. Strong and ubiquitous selection pressure has seemingly been accompanied by a shift from "natural" resistance, such as inducible chromosomal enzymes, membrane impermeability, and drug efflux (...) , to the modern paradigm of mobile gene pools that largely determine the epidemiology of modern antibiotic resistance. In this way, antibiotic resistance is more available than ever before to organisms such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae that are important causes of major sepsis. Modulation of the phenotype by host bacteria makes gene transmission less obvious and may in part explain why tracking and control of carbapenem resistance has been particularly problematic in the Enterobacteriaceae

BMJ2016

244. Could procalcitonin be used as an indicator to start or stop antibiotics for acute upper and lower respiratory infections?

Could procalcitonin be used as an indicator to start or stop antibiotics for acute upper and lower respiratory infections? Could procalcitonin be used as an indicator to start or stop antibiotics for acute upper and lower respiratory infections? Toggle navigation Shared more. Cited more. Safe forever. Toggle navigation View Item JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Search MOspace This Collection Browse Statistics Could procalcitonin (...) be used as an indicator to start or stop antibiotics for acute upper and lower respiratory infections? View/ Open Date 2015-12 Format Metadata Abstract Evidence-Based Answer: Procalcitonin-guided algorithms for the initiation and stopping of antibiotics in acute upper and lower respiratory infections (ARIs) decreased antibiotic usage and duration in the primary care setting and was not associated with higher mortality rates or treatment failures (SOR: A, meta-analysis of RCTs). URI Part of Citation

Evidence Based Practice 2016

246. Improving antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated acute respiratory tract infections

Improving antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated acute respiratory tract infections Improving antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated acute respiratory tract infections Improving antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated acute respiratory tract infections McDonagh M, Peterson K, Winthrop K, Cantor A, Holzhammer B, Buckley DI Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been (...) made for the HTA database. Citation McDonagh M, Peterson K, Winthrop K, Cantor A, Holzhammer B, Buckley DI. Improving antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated acute respiratory tract infections. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 163. 2016 Authors' objectives To assess the comparative effectiveness of interventions for improving antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in adults and children. Authors' conclusions

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2016

247. Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation.

Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation. BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Infections dominated by organisms of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of at least 18 closely-related species of gram-negative bacteria, are particularly difficult to treat. These infections may be associated with a fulminant necrotising pneumonia. Burkholderia cepacia complex (...) bacteria are resistant to many common antibiotics and able to acquire resistance against many more. Following patient segregation in cystic fibrosis medical care, the more virulent epidemic strains are not as frequent, and new infections are more likely to be with less virulent environmentally-acquired strains. Although evidence-based guidelines exist for treating respiratory exacerbations involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa, these cannot be extended to Burkholderia cepacia complex infections. This review

Cochrane2016

248. Intra-Operative Surgical Irrigation of the Surgical Incision: What Does the Future Hold?Saline, Antibiotic Agents, or Antiseptic Agents?

Intra-Operative Surgical Irrigation of the Surgical Incision: What Does the Future Hold?Saline, Antibiotic Agents, or Antiseptic Agents? Login to your account Username Password Keep me logged in Change Password Old Password New Password Too Short Weak Medium

Surgical Infection Society2016

249. MALDI-TOF for detection of antibiotic resistant bacteria

MALDI-TOF for detection of antibiotic resistant bacteria Health Policy Advisory Committee on Technology Technology Brief Update MALDI-TOF for detection of antibiotic resistant bacteria December 2016 © State of Queensland (Queensland Department of Health) 2016 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 3.0 Australia licence. In essence, you are free to copy and communicate the work in its current form for non-commercial purposes, as long as you (...) through funding. This Update was prepared by Benjamin Ellery and Jacqueline Parsons and from Adelaide Health Technology Assessment (AHTA), University of Adelaide.. MALDI-TOF for detection of antibiotic resistant bacteria: Update December 2016 i 2016 Summary of findings The findings of this Update suggest that the evidence base for MALDI-TOF in the detection of vancomycin resistant enterococci and other antibiotic resistant bacteria remains underdeveloped. While the technology appears promising, only

COAG Health Council - Horizon Scanning Technology Briefs2016

250. Universal Glove and Gown Use and Acquisition of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in the ICU: A Randomized Trial

Universal Glove and Gown Use and Acquisition of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in the ICU: A Randomized Trial PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club2016

251. What is the role of topical creams, skin moisturisers and maintenance antibiotics in the treatment of rash from anti-EGFR therapy in patients with lung cancer?

What is the role of topical creams, skin moisturisers and maintenance antibiotics in the treatment of rash from anti-EGFR therapy in patients with lung cancer? What is the role of topical creams, skin moisturisers and maintenance antibiotics in the treatment of rash from anti-EGFR therapy in patients with lung cancer? - Cancer Guidelines Wiki Skip Links Personal tools Search Navigation Cancer Council guidelines Methodology Hosted cancer guidelines Prevention Policies Social links Page actions (...) > Clinical question > What is the role of topical creams, skin moisturisers and maintenance antibiotics in the treatment of rash from anti-EGFR therapy in patients with lung cancer? Information on authorship and revision Guidelines commissioned by Last modified : 2 December 2016 14:56:21 Author(s) : — Author — Author — Co-author Cite this page Peters, M, Caitlin Broderick, Cancer Council Australia Lung Cancer Guidelines Working Party. What is the role of topical creams, skin moisturisers and maintenance

MHRA Drug Safety Update2016

252. Systematic review: Antibiotics administered for acute otitis media have modest benefits and adverse effects

Systematic review: Antibiotics administered for acute otitis media have modest benefits and adverse effects Antibiotics administered for acute otitis media have modest benefits and adverse effects | Evidence-Based Medicine This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword (...) Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Antibiotics administered for acute otitis media have modest benefits and adverse effects Article Text Therapeutics/Prevention Systematic review Antibiotics administered for acute otitis media have modest benefits and adverse effects Jennifer J Shin Statistics from Altmetric.com No Altmetric data available

Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)2016

253. Randomised controlled trial: Antibiotics of no benefit to children with eczema and features of cutaneous infection but controversy remains unresolved

Randomised controlled trial: Antibiotics of no benefit to children with eczema and features of cutaneous infection but controversy remains unresolved Antibiotics of no benefit to children with eczema and features of cutaneous infection but controversy remains unresolved | Evidence-Based Medicine This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts (...) Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Antibiotics of no benefit to children with eczema and features of cutaneous infection but controversy remains unresolved Article Text Therapeutics/Prevention Randomised controlled trial Antibiotics of no benefit to children with eczema

Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)2016

254. Concurrent probiotics reduce the risk of antibiotic induced diarrhea and clostridium difficile

Concurrent probiotics reduce the risk of antibiotic induced diarrhea and clostridium difficile UTCAT3058, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title Concurrent probiotics reduce the risk of antibiotic induced diarrhea and clostridium difficile Clinical Question In adult patients taking antibiotics post-treatment, does taking probiotics as opposed to not taking probiotics help to prevent secondary infection (...) ? Clinical Bottom Line In adult patients taking post-op antibiotics, the concurrent use of probiotics reduced the incidence of both antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection. This is supported by a systematic review of several randomized controlled trials in which the concurrent use of probiotics prevented antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection. This treatment can be used by general dentists, and patients are likely to accept the treatment. Best

UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library2016

255. Quantitative study?other: Structured antibiotic ?time-out? audits as recommended by the CDC reduce antibiotic use and costs

Quantitative study?other: Structured antibiotic ?time-out? audits as recommended by the CDC reduce antibiotic use and costs Structured antibiotic ‘time-out’ audits as recommended by the CDC reduce antibiotic use and costs | Evidence-Based Nursing This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password (...) ? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Structured antibiotic ‘time-out’ audits as recommended by the CDC reduce antibiotic use and costs Article Text Nursing issues Quantitative study—other Structured antibiotic ‘time-out’ audits as recommended by the CDC reduce antibiotic use and costs Peter G Davey Statistics from

Evidence-Based Nursing (Requires free registration)2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

256. Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults: Advice for High-Value Care From the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults: Advice for High-Value Care From the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians '); } Sign in below to access your subscription for full content INDIVIDUAL SIGN IN | You will be directed to acponline.org to register and create your Annals account (...) INSTITUTIONAL SIGN IN | | Subscribe to Annals of Internal Medicine . You will be directed to acponline.org to complete your purchase. Search Clinical Guidelines | 15 March 2016 Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults: Advice for High-Value Care From the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Free Aaron M. Harris, MD, MPH; Lauri A. Hicks, DO; Amir Qaseem, MD, PhD, MHA; for the High Value Care Task Force of the American College

American College of Physicians2016

257. Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program

Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program IDSA : Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program | | | | | > > ShareThis "Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program: Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America" Published: Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 2016 ; 62 : 51 -77 Abstract Evidence-based guidelines for implementation and measurement of antibiotic stewardship interventions in inpatient populations including long (...) -term care were prepared by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. The panel included clinicians and investigators representing internal medicine, emergency medicine, microbiology, critical care, surgery, epidemiology, pharmacy, and adult and pediatric infectious diseases specialties. These recommendations address the best approaches for antibiotic stewardship programs to influence the optimal use

Infectious Diseases Society of America2016

258. Prophylactic antibiotics or G(M)-CSF for the prevention of infections and improvement of survival in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy.

Prophylactic antibiotics or G(M)-CSF for the prevention of infections and improvement of survival in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy. BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) and other infectious complications are some of the most serious treatment-related toxicities of chemotherapy for cancer, with a mortality rate of 2% to 21%. The two main types of prophylactic regimens are granulocyte (macrophage) colony-stimulating factors (G(M)-CSF) and antibiotics, frequently quinolones (...) or cotrimoxazole. Current guidelines recommend the use of colony-stimulating factors when the risk of febrile neutropenia is above 20%, but they do not mention the use of antibiotics. However, both regimens have been shown to reduce the incidence of infections. Since no systematic review has compared the two regimens, a systematic review was undertaken. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of G(M)-CSF compared to antibiotics in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic chemotherapy. SEARCH METHODS: We

Cochrane2015

259. Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical site infection in people undergoing liver transplantation.

Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical site infection in people undergoing liver transplantation. BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection is more frequent in liver transplantation than in other types of solid organ transplantation with different antibiotics. Studies have shown that the rate of surgical site infection varies from 8.8% to 37.5% after liver transplantation. Therefore, antimicrobial prophylaxis is likely an essential tool for reducing these infections. However, the literature lacks (...) evidence indicating the best prophylactic antibiotic regimen that can be used for liver transplantation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of antibiotic prophylactic regimens for surgical site infection in people undergoing liver transplantation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences

Cochrane2015

260. Which antibiotic therapy, if any, is effective in reducing symptom severity and duration of acute bacterial sinusitis?

Which antibiotic therapy, if any, is effective in reducing symptom severity and duration of acute bacterial sinusitis? Which antibiotic therapy, if any, is effective in reducing symptom severity and duration of acute bacterial sinusitis? Toggle navigation Shared more. Cited more. Safe forever. Toggle navigation View Item JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Search MOspace This Collection Browse Statistics Which antibiotic therapy, if any (...) , is effective in reducing symptom severity and duration of acute bacterial sinusitis? View/ Open Date 2015-10 Format Metadata Abstract Which antibiotic therapy, if any, is effective in reducing symptom severity and duration of acute bacterial sinusitis? Evidence Based Answer: The use of antibiotics for acute bacterial sinusitis appears to reduce clinical failure rate at 7 to 15 days, although the clinical benefit over placebo is small (NNT=21). No antimicrobial therapy is superior to another and antibiotics

Evidence Based Practice 2015