Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

221. Antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis.

Antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of the most common emerging multi-drug resistant organisms found in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis and its prevalence is increasing. Chronic infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has recently been shown to be an independent predictor of pulmonary exacerbation requiring hospitalization and antibiotics. However, the role of antibiotic treatment (...) of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in people with cystic fibrosis is still unclear. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: The objective of our review is to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. The primary objective is to assess this in relation to lung function and pulmonary exacerbations in the setting of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The secondary objective is to assess this in relation

Cochrane2016

222. Antibiotics and antiseptics for wounds: evidence and ignorance

Antibiotics and antiseptics for wounds: evidence and ignorance Antibiotics and antiseptics for wounds: evidence and ignorance - Evidently Cochrane Search and hit Go By July 8, 2016 // This blog for nurses looks at Cochrane evidence on antibiotics and antiseptics for wounds and finds that there is a lack of reliable evidence to inform practice. So here I am again, writing about evidence and pressure ulcers. These two things continue to be strangers to each other it seems! I pounced on a recent (...) with the hope that we might have some good evidence to help us with some of the uncertainties around how best to treat them. It’s the latest in a suite of reviews, joining others on their use to treat surgical wounds healing by secondary intention and venous leg ulcers. Was my enthusiasm justified? Well let’s take a look at all of these. Antibiotics and antiseptics for pressure ulcers Are we any further on? We still idon’thave reliable evidence to inform practice The reviewers looked for evidence from

Evidently Cochrane2016

223. The Effect of Prophylactic Antibiotics on Post Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Infectious Complications: A Double-Blinded Clinical Trial.

The Effect of Prophylactic Antibiotics on Post Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Infectious Complications: A Double-Blinded Clinical Trial. 27382438 2016 07 06 2016 07 06 2017 02 20 8 5 2016 May Electronic physician Electron Physician The Effect of Prophylactic Antibiotics on Post Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Infectious Complications: A Double-Blinded Clinical Trial. 2308-14 10.19082/2308 Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most common surgeries in laparoscopic surgery. Although (...) , it is believed that LC has low-risk for post-operative infectious complications, the use of a prophylactic antibiotic is still controversial in elective LC. To determine the impact of prophylactic antibiotics on postoperative infection complications in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial, patients who were candidates for elective LC, from March 2012 to 2015, in four hospitals in Babol, Iran, were studied. Patients were allocated randomly

Electronic physician2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

224. Safety of reduced antibiotic prescribing for self limiting respiratory tract infections in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records.

Safety of reduced antibiotic prescribing for self limiting respiratory tract infections in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the incidence of pneumonia, peritonsillar abscess, mastoiditis, empyema, meningitis, intracranial abscess, and Lemierre's syndrome is higher in general practices that prescribe fewer antibiotics for self limiting respiratory tract infections (RTIs). DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: 610 UK general practices from (...) the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS: Registered patients with 45.5 million person years of follow-up from 2005 to 2014. EXPOSURES: Standardised proportion of RTI consultations with antibiotics prescribed for each general practice, and rate of antibiotic prescriptions for RTIs per 1000 registered patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of pneumonia, peritonsillar abscess, mastoiditis, empyema, meningitis, intracranial abscess, and Lemierre's syndrome, adjusting for age group

BMJ2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

225. ORBACTIV (oritavancin), antibiotic of the glycopeptide class

ORBACTIV (oritavancin), antibiotic of the glycopeptide class ORBACTIV SUMMARY CT14548

Haute Autorite de sante2016

226. SIVEXTRO (tedizolid), antibiotic of the oxazolidinone class - non-serious infections of staphylococcal aetiology that are resistant to methicillin

SIVEXTRO (tedizolid), antibiotic of the oxazolidinone class - non-serious infections of staphylococcal aetiology that are resistant to methicillin SIVEXTRO SUMMARY CT14395

Haute Autorite de sante2016

227. Arikayce - antibiotic containing the active substance amikacin

Arikayce - antibiotic containing the active substance amikacin 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5555 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2016. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. 24 June 2016 EMA/430267/2016 EMEA/H/C/003936 Questions and answers Withdrawal of the marketing authorisation (...) application for Arikayce (amikacin) On 8 June 2016, Insmed Limited officially notified the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) that it wishes to withdraw its application for a marketing authorisation for Arikayce intended for the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. What is Arikayce? Arikayce is an antibiotic containing the active substance amikacin. It was to be available as a suspension for inhalation. What was Arikayce expected to be used for? Arikayce

European Medicines Agency - EPARs2016

228. The Relationship Between Presentation and the Time of Initial Administration of Antibiotics With Outcomes of Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: The PROMPT Study

The Relationship Between Presentation and the Time of Initial Administration of Antibiotics With Outcomes of Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: The PROMPT Study 29142915 2018 11 13 2468-0249 1 2 2016 Jul Kidney international reports Kidney Int Rep The Relationship Between Pr esentation and the Time of Initial Administration of Antibiotics With O utco m es of P eri t onitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: The PROMPT Study. 65-72 10.1016/j.ekir.2016.05.003 The impact of time (...) to treatment on clinical outcome is an established precept in infectious disease but is not established in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis (PDRP). In a prospective multicenter study of PDRP, symptom-to-contact time (SC), contact-to-treatment time (CT), defined as the time from health care presentation to initial antibiotic, and symptom-to-treatment time (ST) were determined. One hundred sixteen patients had 159 episodes of PDRP. Median SC for all episodes was 5.0 hours (first to third quartile [Q1

Kidney international reports2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

229. [What's the optimal time of cesarean section antibiotic prophylaxis, before skin incision or after umbilical cord clamping? A prospective randomized study].

[What's the optimal time of cesarean section antibiotic prophylaxis, before skin incision or after umbilical cord clamping? A prospective randomized study]. 27212612 2016 05 23 2016 12 19 1773-0430 45 9 2016 Nov Journal de gynecologie, obstetrique et biologie de la reproduction J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) [What's the optimal time of cesarean section antibiotic prophylaxis, before skin incision or after umbilical cord clamping? A prospective randomized study]. 1133-1143 S0368-2315(16 (...) )00077-6 10.1016/j.jgyn.2016.03.004 To compare the effect of antibiotics prophylaxis within 30 mins before skin incision (A) and after umbilical cord clamping (C) on the incidence of postoperative infections in patients undergoing elective caesarean section at Farhat Hached university teaching hospital. We conducted a randomised clinical trial evaluating 279 patients undergoing elective caesarean section. Patients were randomly assigned a group number that allocated them to either arm of the study

Journal de gynecologie, obstetrique et biologie de la reproduction2016

230. Antibiotic preferences for childhood pneumonia vary by physician type and European region

Antibiotic preferences for childhood pneumonia vary by physician type and European region 27730183 2018 11 13 2312-0541 2 2 2016 Apr ERJ open research ERJ Open Res Antibiotic preferences for childhood pneumonia vary by physician type and European region. 00001-2016 Survey of EAPRASnet and @PREPARE_EUROPE members reveals heterogeneity of antibiotic choice for childhood pneumonia http://ow.ly/4mIS2P. Bielicki Julia A JA Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute for Infection

ERJ open research2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

231. Microarray-based long oligonucleotides probe designed for Brucella Spp. detection and identification of antibiotic susceptibility pattern

Microarray-based long oligonucleotides probe designed for Brucella Spp. detection and identification of antibiotic susceptibility pattern 27280008 2016 06 09 2018 11 13 2008-5842 8 4 2016 Apr Electronic physician Electron Physician Microarray-based long oligonucleotides probe designed for Brucella Spp. detection and identification of antibiotic susceptibility pattern. 2297-303 10.19082/2296 Brucella spp. is a common zoonotic infection referred to as Brucellosis, and it is a serious public (...) health problem around the world. There are currently six classical species (pathogenic species in both animals and humans) within the genus Brucella. The ability and practicality facilitated by a microarray experiment help us to recognize Brucella spp. and its antibiotic resistant gene. Rapid phenotypic determination of antibiotic resistance is not possible by disk diffusion methods. Thus, evaluating antibiotics pattern and Brucella detection appear necessary technique by molecular methods

Electronic physician2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

232. Importation, Antibiotics, and Clostridium difficile Infection in Veteran Long-Term Care: A Multilevel Case-Control Study.

Importation, Antibiotics, and Clostridium difficile Infection in Veteran Long-Term Care: A Multilevel Case-Control Study. BACKGROUND: Although clinical factors affecting a person's susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection are well-understood, little is known about what drives differences in incidence across long-term care settings. OBJECTIVE: To obtain a comprehensive picture of individual and regional factors that affect C difficile incidence. DESIGN: Multilevel longitudinal nested (...) case-control study. SETTING: Veterans Health Administration health care regions, from 2006 through 2012. PARTICIPANTS: Long-term care residents. MEASUREMENTS: Individual-level risk factors included age, number of comorbid conditions, and antibiotic exposure. Regional risk factors included importation of cases of acute care C difficile infection per 10 000 resident-days and antibiotic use per 1000 resident-days. The outcome was defined as a positive result on a long-term care C difficile test

Annals of Internal Medicine2016

233. A Regimen of Postoperative Antibiotics and Chlorhexidine Rinses Can Increase The Success Rate of Implant Osseointegration Following Ridge Preservation

A Regimen of Postoperative Antibiotics and Chlorhexidine Rinses Can Increase The Success Rate of Implant Osseointegration Following Ridge Preservation UTCAT3080, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title A Regimen of Postoperative Antibiotics and Chlorhexidine Rinses Can Increase The Success Rate of Implant Osseointegration Following Ridge Preservation Clinical Question In patients undergoing implant placement (...) following ridge preservation, does the use of post operative antibiotics and chlorhexidine rinse increase the success rate of implant osseointegration compared to no antibiotic/chlorhexidine use? Clinical Bottom Line Both pre- and postoperative antibiotics and chlorhexidine use increase the success rate of implant osseointegration following bone graft placement. Best Evidence (you may view more info by clicking on the PubMed ID link) PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type (level of evidence

UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library2016

234. Antibiotic Exposure During the First 6 Months of Life and Weight Gain During Childhood.

Antibiotic Exposure During the First 6 Months of Life and Weight Gain During Childhood. IMPORTANCE: Early-life antibiotic exposure has been associated with increased adiposity in animal models, mediated through the gut microbiome. Infant antibiotic exposure is common and often inappropriate. Studies of the association between infant antibiotics and childhood weight gain have reported inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between early-life antibiotic exposure and childhood (...) or higher for gestational age, and who had a preventive health visit within 14 days of life and at least 2 additional visits in the first year of life. Children with complex chronic conditions and those who received long-term antibiotics or multiple systemic corticosteroid prescriptions were excluded. We included 38,522 singleton children and 92 twins (46 matched pairs) discordant in antibiotic exposure. Final date of follow-up was December 31, 2012. EXPOSURE: Systemic antibiotic use in the first 6

JAMA2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

235. New Societal Approaches to Empowering Antibiotic Stewardship

New Societal Approaches to Empowering Antibiotic Stewardship 26914942 2016 03 28 2018 11 13 1538-3598 315 12 2016 Mar 22-29 JAMA JAMA New Societal Approaches to Empowering Antibiotic Stewardship. 1229-30 10.1001/jama.2016.1346 Spellberg Brad B Los Angeles County?+?University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine at University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Srinivasan Arjun A US Centers

JAMA2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

236. The Impact of Timing of Antibiotics on Outcomes in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

The Impact of Timing of Antibiotics on Outcomes in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club2016

237. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral and topical antibiotics for children with clinically infected eczema in the community: the ChildRen with Eczema, Antibiotic Management (CREAM) study

A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral and topical antibiotics for children with clinically infected eczema in the community: the ChildRen with Eczema, Antibiotic Management (CREAM) study A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral and topical antibiotics for children with clinically infected eczema in the community: the ChildRen with Eczema, Antibiotic Management (CREAM) study Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found (...) Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} The study found that oral and topical antibiotics have no effect, or a harmful effect, on subjective eczema severity in children with clinically infected eczema in the community. {{author}} {{($index

NIHR HTA programme2016

238. Macrolide antibiotics and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia in older adults

Macrolide antibiotics and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia in older adults 26903359 2016 04 19 2016 09 01 2017 02 20 1488-2329 188 7 2016 Apr 19 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne CMAJ Macrolide antibiotics and the risk of ventricular arrhythmia in older adults. E120-9 10.1503/cmaj.150901 Many respiratory tract infections are treated with macrolide antibiotics. Regulatory agencies warn that these antibiotics increase the risk (...) of ventricular arrhythmia. We examined the 30-day risk of ventricular arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with macrolide antibiotics relative to nonmacrolide antibiotics. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study involving older adults (age > 65 yr) with a new prescription for an oral macrolide antibiotic (azithromycin, clarithromycin or erythromycin) in Ontario from 2002 to 2013. Our primary outcome was a hospital encounter with ventricular arrhythmia within 30 days after a new

EvidenceUpdates2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

239. Oral and Parenteral Versus Parenteral Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Elective Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery (JMTO PREV 07-01): A Phase 3, Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Trial

Oral and Parenteral Versus Parenteral Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Elective Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery (JMTO PREV 07-01): A Phase 3, Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Trial 26756752 2016 05 13 2017 05 15 2017 05 15 1528-1140 263 6 2016 Jun Annals of surgery Ann. Surg. Oral and Parenteral Versus Parenteral Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Elective Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery (JMTO PREV 07-01): A Phase 3, Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Trial. 1085-91 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001581 To confirm (...) the efficacy of oral and parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis (ABX) in the elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery. There is no evidence for the establishment of an optimal ABX regimen for laparoscopic colorectal surgery, which has become an important choice for the colorectal cancer patients. The colorectal cancer patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic surgery were eligible for this multicenter, open-label, randomized trial. They were randomized to receive either oral and parenteral prophylaxis (1 g

EvidenceUpdates2016

240. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with Orthopedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with Orthopedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with Orthopedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with Orthopedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines Antibiotic (...) Prophylaxis in Patients with Orthopedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines Published on: February 17, 2016 Project Number: RC0751-000 Product Line: Research Type: Devices and Systems Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with orthopedic implants undergoing dental procedures? What are the evidence-based guidelines associated

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review2016