Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

201. Bromelain capped gold nanoparticles as the novel drug delivery carriers to aggrandize effect of the antibiotic levofloxacin

Bromelain capped gold nanoparticles as the novel drug delivery carriers to aggrandize effect of the antibiotic levofloxacin 28337108 2018 11 13 1611-2156 15 2016 EXCLI journal EXCLI J Bromelain capped gold nanoparticles as the novel drug delivery carriers to aggrandize effect of the antibiotic levofloxacin. 772-780 10.17179/excli2016-710 To develop bromelain capped gold nanoparticles (BRN capped Au-NPs) as the effective drug delivery carriers of the antibiotic levofloxacin (LvN) and evaluate (...) -BRN-LvN-NPs and BRN capped Au-NPs were found to be (58.65 ± 2 nm, 38.11 ± 2 nm), zeta potential (-9.01 mV, -13.8 mV) and surface morphology (~13.2 nm, 11.4 nm) respectively. The MICs against S. aureus and E. coli were found to be (0.128 µg/mL, 1.10 µg/mL) for Au-BRN-LvN-NPs and (0.547 µg/mL, 1.96 µg/mL) for pure LvN. The results suggested that BRN capped Au-NPs can be used as effective drug delivery carriers of the antibiotic LvN. The Au-BRN-LvN-NPs exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity

EXCLI journal2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

202. Cefuroxime (Aprokam) - antibiotic prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery

Cefuroxime (Aprokam) - antibiotic prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery Published 12 December 2016 Product Update: cefuroxime 50mg powder for solution for injection (Aprokam ® ) SMC No (932/13) Thea Pharmaceuticals Ltd 04 November 2016 The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has completed its assessment of the above product and advises NHS Boards and Area Drug and Therapeutic Committees (ADTCs) on its use in NHS Scotland. The advice is summarised as follows: ADVICE (...) : following an abbreviated submission cefuroxime (Aprokam ® ) is accepted for use within NHS Scotland. Indication under review: antibiotic prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Cefuroxime (Aprokam ® ) provides a licensed preparation and enables the off-label intracameral use of cefuroxime in cataract surgery to be avoided. Advice context: No part of this advice may be used without the whole of the advice being quoted in full. This advice represents the view of the Scottish

Scottish Medicines Consortium2016

203. Written information for patients (or parents of child patients) to reduce the use of antibiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections in primary care.

Written information for patients (or parents of child patients) to reduce the use of antibiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections in primary care. BACKGROUND: Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are frequently managed in primary care settings. Although many are viral, and there is an increasing problem with antibiotic resistance, antibiotics continue to be prescribed for URTIs. Written patient information may be a simple way to reduce antibiotic use for acute URTIs (...) . OBJECTIVES: To assess if written information for patients (or parents of child patients) reduces the use of antibiotics for acute URTIs in primary care. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, Web of Science, clinical trials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) trials registry up to July 2016 without language or publication restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients (or parents of child patients) with acute

Cochrane2016

204. Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and persister cells using an electrochemical scaffold and enhanced antibiotic susceptibility

Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and persister cells using an electrochemical scaffold and enhanced antibiotic susceptibility 28649396 2018 11 13 2055-5008 2 2016 NPJ biofilms and microbiomes NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and persister cells using an electrochemical scaffold and enhanced antibiotic susceptibility. 2 10.1038/s41522-016-0003-0 Biofilms in chronic wounds are known to contain a persister subpopulation that exhibits enhanced (...) multidrug tolerance and can quickly rebound after therapeutic treatment. The presence of these "persister cells" is partly responsible for the failure of antibiotic therapies and incomplete elimination of biofilms. Electrochemical methods combined with antibiotics have been suggested as an effective alternative for biofilm and persister cell elimination, yet the mechanism of action for improved antibiotic efficacy remains unclear. In this work, an electrochemical scaffold (e-scaffold

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

205. Antibiotics for treating community-acquired pneumonia in people with sickle cell disease.

Antibiotics for treating community-acquired pneumonia in people with sickle cell disease. BACKGROUND: As a consequence of their condition, people with sickle cell disease are at high risk of developing an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma called community-acquired pneumonia. Many different bacteria can cause this infection and antibiotic treatment is generally needed to resolve it. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country (...) to country. Thus, there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from community-acquired pneumonia. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of the antibiotic treatment approaches (monotherapy or combined) for people with sickle cell disease suffering from community-acquired pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Group's

Cochrane2016

206. Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease.

Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis (both acute and chronic) is one of the most common infectious complications in people with sickle cell disease. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus, there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from osteomyelitis (...) . This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (monotherapy or combination therapy) is effective and safe as compared to pathogen-directed antibiotic treatment and whether this effectiveness and safety is dependent on different treatment regimens, age or setting. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches

Cochrane2016

207. Randomized clinical trial of oral and intravenous versus intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis for laparoscopic colorectal resection

Randomized clinical trial of oral and intravenous versus intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis for laparoscopic colorectal resection 27550722 2016 08 23 2017 04 03 2017 04 03 1365-2168 103 12 2016 Nov The British journal of surgery Br J Surg Randomized clinical trial of oral and intravenous versus intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis for laparoscopic colorectal resection. 1608-1615 10.1002/bjs.10281 The use of oral prophylactic antibiotics for the prevention of surgical-site infection (SSI (...) ) in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this RCT was to evaluate whether intravenous perioperative antibiotics are inferior to combined preoperative oral and perioperative intravenous antibiotics in this setting. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal resection in a single cancer centre were assigned randomly to combined preoperative oral antibiotics (metronidazole and kanamycin) and perioperative intravenous antibiotics (cefmetazole

EvidenceUpdates2016

208. Randomized clinical trial of observational versus antibiotic treatment for a first episode of CT-proven uncomplicated acute diverticulitis

Randomized clinical trial of observational versus antibiotic treatment for a first episode of CT-proven uncomplicated acute diverticulitis 27686365 2016 09 30 2017 04 03 2017 04 03 1365-2168 104 1 2017 Jan The British journal of surgery Br J Surg Randomized clinical trial of observational versus antibiotic treatment for a first episode of CT-proven uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. 52-61 10.1002/bjs.10309 Antibiotics are advised in most guidelines on acute diverticulitis, despite a lack (...) of evidence to support their routine use. This trial compared the effectiveness of a strategy with or without antibiotics for a first episode of uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. Patients with CT-proven, primary, left-sided, uncomplicated, acute diverticulitis were included at 22 clinical sites in the Netherlands, and assigned randomly to an observational or antibiotic treatment strategy. The primary endpoint was time to recovery during 6 months of follow-up. Main secondary endpoints were readmission

EvidenceUpdates2016

209. Pathogen- and antibiotic-specific effects of prednisone in community-acquired pneumonia

Pathogen- and antibiotic-specific effects of prednisone in community-acquired pneumonia 27471201 2016 07 29 2016 10 03 1399-3003 48 4 2016 Oct The European respiratory journal Eur. Respir. J. Pathogen- and antibiotic-specific effects of prednisone in community-acquired pneumonia. 1150-1159 10.1183/13993003.00474-2016 In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we demonstrated shorter time to clinical stability (TTCS (...) ) with adjunct corticosteroid therapy compared with placebo.We did a pre-planned, exploratory analysis of any association between microbiological diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and procalcitonin level and effect of prednisone on TTCS, mortality, and CAP complications (n=726 participants, enrolled between December 2009 and May 2014). Multiplex viral real time PCR was systematically performed in nasopharyngeal swabs beginning November 2011 (n=489). Other investigations and treatments were at the discretion

EvidenceUpdates2016

210. Probiotics and the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

Probiotics and the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Infants and Children. Clinical Question: In children prescribed an antibiotic, is the co-administration of a probiotic associated with lower rates of antibiotic-associated diarrhea without an increase in clinically important adverse events? Bottom Line: Moderate-quality evidence suggests that probiotics are associated with lower rates of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children (aged 1 month to 18 years) without an increase

JAMA2016

211. [Comparative effectiveness of carbapenems and alternative antibiotics for the treatment of bacteraemia and/or urinary tract infectious disease by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum á-lactamase]

[Comparative effectiveness of carbapenems and alternative antibiotics for the treatment of bacteraemia and/or urinary tract infectious disease by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum á-lactamase] [Comparative effectiveness of carbapenems and alternative antibiotics for the treatment of bacteraemia and/or urinary tract infectious disease by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase] [Comparative effectiveness of carbapenems and alternative antibiotics for the treatment (...) Park, Soo Kyung Son, Kyong Ran Peck, Su Yeun Moon, Eun-Jeong Joo, Jae-Ki Choi, Jae-Hoon Ko. [Comparative effectiveness of carbapenems and alternative antibiotics for the treatment of bacteraemia and/or urinary tract infectious disease by Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase] Seoul: National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA). NECA-A -16-001. 2016 Authors' conclusions This study systematically reviewed the recently published evidence to evaluate the clinical

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2016

212. Massive misuse of antibiotics by university students in China: a cross-sectional survey.

Massive misuse of antibiotics by university students in China: a cross-sectional survey. BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest threats to global population health this century, and is a major contributor to rising healthcare costs worldwide. The primary cause of this resistance is antibiotic misuse, especially routine inappropriate use of antibiotics for self-limiting illnesses. In China, over prescribing of antibiotics is pervasive leading to very high and increasing (...) rates of antimicrobial resistance in both hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and behaviours of university students in relation to antibiotic use in six Chinese provinces. METHODS: A stratified, cluster-random sampling method was used to select students across six universities in six provinces (Zhejiang, Wuhan, NanKai, Jilin, Guizhou, and Lanzhou Universities). An anonymous online survey tool, Wen Juan Xing, was used to collect data

Lancet2016

213. Building bridges to operationalise one health – A Sino-Swedish collaboration to tackle antibiotic resistance

Building bridges to operationalise one health – A Sino-Swedish collaboration to tackle antibiotic resistance 28616488 2018 11 13 2352-7714 2 2016 Dec One health (Amsterdam, Netherlands) One Health Building bridges to operationalise one health - A Sino-Swedish collaboration to tackle antibiotic resistance. 139-143 10.1016/j.onehlt.2016.09.002 Antibiotic resistance is a complex global health challenge. The recent Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance highlights the importance (...) of adopting One Health approaches that can cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. We report on the early experiences of a multisectoral Sino-Swedish research project that aims to address gaps in our current knowledge and seeks to improve the situation through system-wide interventions. Our research project is investigating antibiotic use and resistance in a rural area of China through a combination of epidemiological, health systems and laboratory investigations. We reflect here on the challenges

One health2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

214. Different antibiotic treatments for group A streptococcal pharyngitis.

Different antibiotic treatments for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. BACKGROUND: Antibiotics provide only modest benefit in treating sore throat, although effectiveness increases in participants with positive throat swabs for group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS). It is unclear which antibiotic is the best choice if antibiotics are indicated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the evidence on the comparative efficacy of different antibiotics in: (a) alleviating symptoms (pain, fever); (b (...) ) shortening the duration of the illness; (c) preventing relapse; and (d) preventing complications (suppurative complications, acute rheumatic fever, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis). To assess the evidence on the comparative incidence of adverse effects and the risk-benefit of antibiotic treatment for streptococcal pharyngitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to March week 3, 2016), Embase Elsevier (1974 to March 2016), and Web of Science Thomson Reuters (2010

Cochrane2016

215. Crystal structures of two nitroreductases from hypervirulent Clostridium difficile and functionally related interactions with the antibiotic metronidazole

Crystal structures of two nitroreductases from hypervirulent Clostridium difficile and functionally related interactions with the antibiotic metronidazole 27623089 2017 12 27 2018 11 13 1089-8611 60 2016 11 30 Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry Nitric Oxide Crystal structures of two nitroreductases from hypervirulent Clostridium difficile and functionally related interactions with the antibiotic metronidazole. 32-39 S1089-8603(16)30090-8 10.1016/j.niox.2016.09.003 Nitroreductases (NRs (...) ) are flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of organic nitro compounds (RNO 2 ; R = alkyl, aryl) to the nitroso RN=O, hydroxylamino RNHOH, or amine RNH 2 derivatives. Metronidazole (Mtz) is a nitro-containing antibiotic that is commonly prescribed for lower-gut infections caused by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile. C. difficile infections rank number one among hospital acquired infections, and can result in diarrhea, severe colitis, or even death

Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

216. Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis.

Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. BACKGROUND: Respiratory disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis. Life expectancy of people with cystic fibrosis has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. One of the major reasons for this increase is the mounting use of antibiotics to treat chest exacerbations caused by bacterial infections. The optimal duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy is not clearly defined. Individuals (...) usually receive intravenous antibiotics for 14 days, but treatment may range from 10 to 21 days. A shorter duration of antibiotic treatment risks inadequate clearance of infection which could lead to further lung damage. Prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics are expensive and inconvenient and the incidence of allergic reactions to antibiotics also increases with prolonged courses. The use of aminoglycosides requires frequent monitoring to avoid some of their side effects. However, some

Cochrane2016

217. Glue ear: will antibiotics help your child?

Glue ear: will antibiotics help your child? Glue ear: will antibiotics help your child? - Evidently Cochrane Search and hit Go By August 5, 2016 // In this guest blog, Professor Martin Burton talks about ‘glue ear’ and looks at the latest evidence that might help parents and their doctors to decide whether antibiotics are worth trying. ‘Glue ear’ (otherwise known as otitis media with effusion) is very common. Almost all children experience it at some point in childhood, but the consequences (...) – in a significant proportion of children. This is why so-called ‘active monitoring’ or ‘watchful waiting’ may be the best approach. A recent that I helped prepare, looked at the role of antibiotics in helping children with glue ear. The review found evidence of both benefits and harms associated with the use of antibiotics. On the one hand, it seems that a course of oral antibiotics increases the chance of complete resolution of otitis media with effusion. If you have a group of 200 children with glue ear and

Evidently Cochrane2016

218. Administration of Antibiotics to Children Before Age 2 Years Increases Risk for Childhood Obesity

Administration of Antibiotics to Children Before Age 2 Years Increases Risk for Childhood Obesity 27003602 2016 06 27 2017 02 20 1528-0012 151 1 2016 Jul Gastroenterology Gastroenterology Administration of Antibiotics to Children Before Age 2 Years Increases Risk for Childhood Obesity. 120-129.e5 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.03.006 S0016-5085(16)00352-8 Childhood obesity is increasing and is associated with adult obesity. Antibiotics have been used to promote weight gain in livestock for several (...) decades. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for children, but it is not clear how exposure to antibiotics early in life affects risk for obesity. We performed a population-based cohort study to assess the association between antibiotic exposure before age 2 years and obesity at age 4 years. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 21,714 children in The Health Improvement Network-a population-representative dataset of >10 million individuals derived from electronic medical records from 1995

EvidenceUpdates2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

219. Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial

Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial 27455166 2016 09 07 2017 02 02 2168-6114 176 9 2016 Sep 01 JAMA internal medicine JAMA Intern Med Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial. 1257-65 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.3633 The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not been well established. To validate Infectious Diseases (...) Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines for duration of antibiotic treatment in hospitalized patients with CAP. This study was a multicenter, noninferiority randomized clinical trial performed at 4 teaching hospitals in Spain from January 1, 2012, through August 31, 2013. A total of 312 hospitalized patients diagnosed as having CAP were studied. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2014, through February 28, 2015. Patients were randomized at day 5 to an intervention or control

EvidenceUpdates2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

220. Spinal fusion and antibiotic treatment illustrating lumbar osteomyelitis and spinal instability as a previously unrecognized and surgically treatable cause of autonomic dysreflexia

Spinal fusion and antibiotic treatment illustrating lumbar osteomyelitis and spinal instability as a previously unrecognized and surgically treatable cause of autonomic dysreflexia 28053757 2018 11 13 2058-6124 2 2016 Spinal cord series and cases Spinal Cord Ser Cases Spinal fusion and antibiotic treatment illustrating lumbar osteomyelitis and spinal instability as a previously unrecognized and surgically treatable cause of autonomic dysreflexia. 16013 10.1038/scsandc.2016.13 Autonomic (...) treated with spinal fusion to stabilize the mobile segment and further antibiotic treatment. He had complete resolution of his AD after surgery and eradication of his infection. Sieg Emily P EP Department of Neurosurgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center , Hershey, PA, USA. Zacko Joseph C JC Department of Neurosurgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center , Hershey, PA, USA. Hudson Timothy R TR Department of Neurosurgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center , Hershey, PA, USA. eng Journal Article 2016 07

Spinal cord series and cases2016 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro