Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

181. Evaluation of the preventive efficacy of three dentin tubule occlusion methods against discoloration caused by triple-antibiotic paste. (Abstract)

Evaluation of the preventive efficacy of three dentin tubule occlusion methods against discoloration caused by triple-antibiotic paste. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the preventive efficacy of three dentin tubule occlusion methods against discoloration caused by triple-antibiotic paste (TAP). Sixty extracted human incisors were sectioned, and the access was opened. The specimens were randomly allocated to the following four groups (n = 15): bonding application (BD), teethmate

2018 Odontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

182. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Gynaecologic Procedures

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Gynaecologic Procedures No. 275-Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Gynaecologic Procedures - Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Volume 40, Issue 10, Pages e723–e733 No. 275-Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Gynaecologic Procedures x Nancy Van Eyk , MD Halifax, NS x Julie van Schalkwyk , MD Vancouver, BC No. 275, April 2012 (Reaffirmed October 2018) DOI: To view the full text, please login as a subscribed (...) user or . Click to view the full text on ScienceDirect. Abstract Objective To review the evidence and provide recommendations on antibiotic prophylaxis for gynaecologic procedures. Outcomes Outcomes evaluated include need and effectiveness of antibiotics to prevent infections in gynaecologic procedures. Evidence Medline and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between January 1978 and January 2011 on the topic of antibiotic prophylaxis in gynaecologic procedures. Results were

2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

183. Cystitis: taking an antibiotic

Cystitis: taking an antibiotic Decision aid for cystitis: taking an antibiotic © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights. Last updated November 2018 Page 1 of 2 Decision aid Cystitis: taking an antibiotic Information to help women who are not pregnant discuss the options with their healthcare professionals. Cystitis is usually caused by bacteria (germs) from your gut getting into your bladder (also called lower urinary tract infection, UTI). Sometimes symptoms get better (...) by themselves, but many people will need antibiotic treatment. What are the options? It’s not always clear when an antibiotic is needed so, for some women with cystitis, NICE recommends that you could either: ? start taking an antibiotic straightaway, or ? wait, and see if your symptoms start to get better by themselves. If they don’t get better within 48 hours, or get worse at any time, you should start taking the antibiotic. You can choose whether to wait and see if your symptoms improve on their own

2018 Health Information and Quality Authority

184. Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia?

Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? – Clinical Correlations Search Game Changer? How Many Days of Antibiotics is Best for Treating Community Acquired Pneumonia? January 16, 2018 6 min read By Calvin Ngai, MD Peer Reviewed A 71-year-old Caucasian woman with hypertension presented with a 2-day history of productive cough and fever. She was living (...) alone and had no history of any recent hospitalizations. On examination, she was alert and oriented but slightly tachypneic; her lungs were clear to auscultation bilaterally. Laboratory tests were significant for a white blood cell count of 18,000 m L with 89% neutrophils. The chest x-ray showed a right lower lobe infiltrate. She was admitted and started on antibiotics for treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). She improved clinically, and after remaining afebrile for 48 hours, she

2018 Clinical Correlations

185. Is the use of chlorhexidine contributing to increased resistance to chlorhexidine and/or antibiotics?

’ defined by using the clinical breakpoints for resistance as specified by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing (EUCAST) or the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CSLI). 2. Increase in the incidence (rate) of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria established through the use of chlorhexidine identifying dosage form, exposure and specific population and / or setting. Antibiotic-resistant strain of bacteria through the use of chlorhexidine to be recorded. 3. Increases (...) to chlorhexidine in a specific population and / or setting. To address the question ‘Does exposure (different dosages, duration of use, and stratification of exposure) to any form of chlorhexidine increases the incidence and/or prevalence of antibiotic- resistant strains of bacteria in any person within different healthcare settings? ’ the outcomes included: ? ‘Resistance against antibiotics’ defined by using the clinical breakpoints for resistance as specified by the European Committee on Antimicrobial

2018 National Health and Medical Research Council

186. Antibiotics after incision and drainage for uncomplicated skin abscesses Full Text available with Trip Pro

of adverse effects including nausea and diarrhoea We suggest TMP-SMX rather than clindamycin because TMP-SMX has a lower risk of diarrhoea Cephalosporins in addition to incision and drainage are probably not more effective than incision and drainage alone in most settings From a societal perspective, the modest benefits from adjuvant antibiotics may not outweigh the harms from increased antimicrobial resistance in the community, although this is speculative Box 1 Linked articles in this BMJ Rapid (...) are likely to prefer TMP-SMX. Person-centred versus societal perspective (impact on antibiotic resistance) The recommendations explicitly take a person-centred perspective rather than a public health or societal perspective. The use of antibiotics is associated with the emergence of antibiotic resistance within the community and may increase the risk of antibiotic resistant infections in community members. The increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance are a public health priority. From a societal

2018 BMJ Rapid Recommendations

187. Primary care: Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia in older adults compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs

Primary care: Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia in older adults compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia in older adults compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser (...) injury and hyperkalaemia in older adults compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs Article Text Commentary Primary care Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia in older adults compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs Oghenekome Gbinigie Statistics from Altmetric.com Commentary on : Crellin E, Mansfield KE, Leyrat C, et al . Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study. BMJ

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine

191. General medicine: Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections

General medicine: Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using (...) your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Antibiotic prescribing does not decrease complications in adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections Article Text Commentary General

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine

192. Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections Following Removal of Orthopedic Implants Used for Treatment of Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections Following Removal of Orthopedic Implants Used for Treatment of Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg Fractures: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Following clean (class I, not contaminated) surgical procedures, the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) should be less than approximately 2%. However, an infection rate of 12.2% has been reported following removal of orthopedic implants used for treatment of fractures below the knee.To evaluate (...) the effect of a single dose of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis on the incidence of SSIs following removal of orthopedic implants used for treatment of fractures below the knee.Multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial including 500 patients aged 18 to 75 years with previous surgical treatment for fractures below the knee who were undergoing removal of orthopedic implants from 19 hospitals (17 teaching and 2 academic) in the Netherlands (November 2014-September 2016), with a follow-up of 6

2017 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

193. Association of Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics With Treatment Failure, Adverse Events, and Quality of Life in Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics With Treatment Failure, Adverse Events, and Quality of Life in Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections. Acute respiratory tract infections account for the majority of antibiotic exposure in children, and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections is increasing. It is not clear whether broad-spectrum treatment is associated with improved outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum treatment.To compare (...) the effectiveness of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment for acute respiratory tract infections in children.A retrospective cohort study assessing clinical outcomes and a prospective cohort study assessing patient-centered outcomes of children between the ages of 6 months and 12 years diagnosed with an acute respiratory tract infection and prescribed an oral antibiotic between January 2015 and April 2016 in a network of 31 pediatric primary care practices in Pennsylvania and New Jersey

2017 JAMA

194. The rumen microbiome: an underexplored resource for novel antimicrobial discovery Full Text available with Trip Pro

The rumen microbiome: an underexplored resource for novel antimicrobial discovery Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drug candidates to target multi-drug resistant bacteria. The rumen microbiome presents an underexplored resource for the discovery of novel microbial enzymes and metabolites, including AMPs. Using functional screening and computational approaches, we identified 181 potentially novel AMPs from a rumen bacterial metagenome. Here, we show that three of the selected AMPs (...) in bacterial counts, which was comparable to treatment with 2% mupirocin ointment. Our findings indicate that the rumen microbiome may provide viable alternative antimicrobials for future therapeutic application.

2017 NPJ biofilms and microbiomes

195. Efficacy of Preoperative Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Crohn Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Abstract)

Efficacy of Preoperative Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Crohn Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial We investigated the efficacy of oral antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing surgery for Crohn disease.Although oral antibiotic prophylaxis with mechanical bowel preparation has been recommended for colorectal surgery, the use of this approach remains somewhat controversial. Moreover, the efficacy of this approach (...) A (12/163; 7.4%) than in group B (27/162; 16.6%) (P = 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, the absence of oral antibiotic prophylaxis was an independent risk factor for incisional SSI (odds ratio: 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-8.3; P = 0.01).Combined oral and intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients with Crohn disease contributed to the prevention of SSI.

2017 EvidenceUpdates

196. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis (Abstract)

Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis Uncomplicated appendicitis may resolve spontaneously or require treatment with antibiotics or appendicectomy. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the outcome of a non-antibiotic management strategy with that of antibiotic therapy in uncomplicated appendicitis.Patients presenting to a university teaching hospital with CT-verified uncomplicated simple appendicitis (appendiceal diameter no larger than 11 mm (...) and without any signs of perforation) were randomized to management with a no-antibiotic regimen with supportive care (intravenous fluids, analgesia and antipyretics as necessary) or a 4-day course of antibiotics with supportive care. The primary endpoint was rate of total treatment failure, defined as initial treatment failure within 1 month and recurrence of appendicitis during the follow-up period.Some 245 patients were randomized within the trial, and followed up for a median of 19 months

2017 EvidenceUpdates

197. [KOKUSAI]Third tripartite meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents posted

the text. Tripartite Meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents In response to the discussions at the G7 summits (in Schloss Elmau and Ise-Shima) on the countermeasures taken against antimicrobial resistant infections, EMA, FDA and PMDA held a tripartite face-to-face meeting. Date Location SUMMARY 1 1-2 September 2016, London At this meeting, in addition to sharing information on current situation regarding the data requirements for the approval of new (...) [KOKUSAI]Third tripartite meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents posted Tripartite Meeting held between EMA, FDA and PMDA towards enhancing development for Antibacterial Agents | Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency Please make JavaScript on and see this site. Navigation of each product type Our recommended contents Navigation of each product type Our recommended contents Tripartite Meeting (for Antibacterial Agents) Here begins

2017 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

198. Antimicrobial resistance, trade, food safety and security Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial resistance, trade, food safety and security 29255786 2018 11 13 2352-7714 5 2018 Jun One health (Amsterdam, Netherlands) One Health Antimicrobial resistance, trade, food safety and security. 6-8 10.1016/j.onehlt.2017.11.004 George Anna A eng Editorial 2017 11 28 Netherlands One Health 101660501 2352-7714 2017 11 26 2017 11 27 2017 12 20 6 0 2017 12 20 6 0 2017 12 20 6 1 epublish 29255786 10.1016/j.onehlt.2017.11.004 S2352-7714(17)30059-9 PMC5725214 Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Feb;16(2

2017 One health

199. Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? 29296882 2018 11 13 2473-9529 1 25 2017 Nov 28 Blood advances Blood Adv Empiric antibiotic use in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: should we avoid anaerobe coverage? 2325-2328 10.1182/bloodadvances.2017005108 Shono Yusuke Y 0000-0002-0459-1659 Department of Immunology, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. van den Brink Marcel R M

2017 Blood advances

200. Subtle Microbiome Manipulation Using Probiotics Reduces Antibiotic-Associated Mortality in Fish Full Text available with Trip Pro

Subtle Microbiome Manipulation Using Probiotics Reduces Antibiotic-Associated Mortality in Fish Prophylactic antibiotics in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry are intended to prevent the negative impacts of disease outbreaks. Research in mice and humans suggests that antibiotics may disturb microbiome communities and decrease microbiome-mediated disease resistance, also known as "colonization resistance." If antibiotics impact fish as they do mice and humans, prophylactic (...) administrations on aquaculture farms may increase downstream disease susceptibility in target hosts, despite short-term pathogen control benefits. We tested the effects of antibiotics on mortality after a pathogen challenge in the Poecilia sphenops black molly and subsequently tested if probiotic inoculations could reverse any antibiotic-induced losses of disease resistance. We found that antibiotic treatment significantly increased fish mortality. We further found that our two candidate probiotic bacterial

2017 mSystems