Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1. Effect of C-Reactive Protein-Guided Antibiotic Treatment Duration, 7-Day Treatment, or 14-Day Treatment on 30-Day Clinical Failure Rate in Patients With Uncomplicated Gram-Negative Bacteremia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (Abstract)

Effect of C-Reactive Protein-Guided Antibiotic Treatment Duration, 7-Day Treatment, or 14-Day Treatment on 30-Day Clinical Failure Rate in Patients With Uncomplicated Gram-Negative Bacteremia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Antibiotic overuse drives antibiotic resistance. Gram-negative bacteremia is a common infection that results in substantial antibiotic use.To compare the clinical effectiveness of C-reactive protein (CRP)-guided, 7-day, and 14-day antibiotic durations 30, 60, and 90 days after (...) treatment initiation.Multicenter, noninferiority, point-of-care randomized clinical trial including adults hospitalized with gram-negative bacteremia conducted in 3 Swiss tertiary care hospitals between April 2017 and May 2019, with follow-up until August 2019. Patients and physicians were blinded between randomization and antibiotic discontinuation. Adults (aged ≥18 years) were eligible for randomization on day 5 (±1 d) of microbiologically efficacious therapy for fermenting, gram-negative bacteria

2020 JAMA

2. A Multifaceted Antimicrobial Stewardship Program for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Cystitis in Nursing Home Residents

-intensity, multifaceted intervention was associated with improved antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated cystitis in a cohort of nursing homes without an adverse association with other safety outcomes. Although promising, further study is needed to determine whether the intervention could be widely implemented to assist facilities in meeting new federal nursing home requirements for antimicrobial stewardship and quality assurance performance improvement programs. Conflict of interest statement (...) A Multifaceted Antimicrobial Stewardship Program for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Cystitis in Nursing Home Residents A Multifaceted Antimicrobial Stewardship Program for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Cystitis in Nursing Home Residents - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. National Institutes of Health National Library

2020 EvidenceUpdates

3. Antibiotic Choice: The Synergistic Effect of Single vs Dual Antibiotics Full Text available with Trip Pro

demonstrated that dual antibiotics were associated with improved infection prevention and higher intra-articular antibiotic concentrations. Conclusion: In addition to broader pathogen coverage, several studies document synergy of elution and increased antibacterial activity when dual antibiotics are added to cement. Limited clinical evidence suggests that dual antibiotic cement may be associated with reduced infection rates. Keywords: antibiotic cement; antibiotic elution; antibiotic synergy; dual (...) Antibiotic Choice: The Synergistic Effect of Single vs Dual Antibiotics Antibiotic Choice: The Synergistic Effect of Single vs Dual Antibiotics - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine National Center for Biotechnology Information Show account info Close Account

2020 EvidenceUpdates

4. Dental antimicrobial stewardship: toolkit

Dental antimicrobial stewardship: toolkit Dental antimicrobial stewardship: toolkit - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. Accept cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Guidance Dental antimicrobial stewardship: toolkit Resources to help primary care practitioners promote the appropriate use of antibiotics in dental care. Published 9 November 2016 Last updated 16 July 2019 — From: Contents The dental antimicrobial stewardship ( ( ( Guidance (...) ( Education and training tools Audit tool and action planning An audit tool developed as a collaboration between Why the toolkit was developed The inappropriate use of antibiotics is related to bacterial resistance. Responsible use of antimicrobials should help control it. The toolkit aims to influence prescribers and patients attitudes to enable optimal antibiotic prescribing. An independent review of antimicrobial resistance, the commissioned by the UK Government in 2014 and chaired by Lord Jim O’Neill

2020 Public Health England

5. Cefiderocol (Fetcroja) - antibiotic

Cefiderocol (Fetcroja) - antibiotic Official address Domenico Scarlattilaan 6 ? 1083 HS Amsterdam ? The Netherlands An agency of the European Union Address for visits and deliveries Refer to www.ema.europa.eu/how-to-find-us Send us a question Go to www.ema.europa.eu/contact Telephone +31 (0)88 781 6000 © European Medicines Agency, 2020. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. EMA/115665/2020 EMEA/H/C/004829 Fetcroja (cefiderocol) An overview of Fetcroja and why (...) it is authorised in the EU What is Fetcroja and what is it used for? Fetcroja is an antibiotic used in adults to treat infections caused by bacteria classed as aerobic Gram- negative bacteria. It is for use when other treatments might not work. Fetcroja contains the active substance cefiderocol. How is Fetcroja used? Fetcroja can only be obtained with a prescription. It should only be used after taking advice from a doctor with appropriate experience of managing patients with infectious diseases. Fetcroja

2020 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

6. Practical advice on maintaining antimicrobial stewardship during the COVID-19 pandemic

Practical advice on maintaining antimicrobial stewardship during the COVID-19 pandemic SAPG response to COVID-19 Latest updates / / / 13 May 2020 SAPG response to COVID-19 To prioritise and support the capacity of health and social care services, Healthcare Improvement Scotland and the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG) have taken the decision to adapt our normal ways of working. This action is supported by Scottish Government. This is an unprecedented situation requiring unusual (...) measures, and that it is important that SAPG supports NHSScotland in maintaining essential services. All meetings of the SAPG committee and project groups have been suspended until further notice. The duration of these measures is unknown and we will provide further updates in due course. In the interim, if you have any queries, please contact: We have developed some interim pragmatic practical advice for clinical teams to ensure we maintain antimicrobial stewardship during the COVID-19 pandemic

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc papers

7. In utero exposure to systemic antibiotics vs reference penicillins was not linked to congenital malformations. (Abstract)

In utero exposure to systemic antibiotics vs reference penicillins was not linked to congenital malformations. Damkier P, Brønniche LM, Korch-Frandsen JF, Broe A. In utero exposure to antibiotics and risk of congenital malformations: a population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019;221:648.e1-648.e15. 31260651.

2020 Annals of Internal Medicine

8. Do Antibiotics Improve Outcomes in Patients With Acute Asthma Exacerbations? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Do Antibiotics Improve Outcomes in Patients With Acute Asthma Exacerbations? Do Antibiotics Improve Outcomes in Patients With Acute Asthma Exacerbations? - Annals of Emergency Medicine Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page Access provided by Volume 74, Issue 5, Pages 711–712 Do Antibiotics Improve Outcomes in Patients With Acute Asthma Exacerbations? x Latha Ganti , MD, MBA (EBEM Commentator) , x Javier Rosario , MD (EBEM Commentator) Department (...) of Emergency Medicine, Envision Physician Services, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, FL DOI: | Publication History Published online: April 11, 2019 Expand all Collapse all Article Outline Take-Home Message Moderate- to low-quality evidence suggests that antibiotics may reduce symptoms and improve pulmonary function but do not improve other outcomes in patients with acute asthma exacerbations. Methods Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health

2020 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

9. What Is the Utility of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Patients After Cardiac Arrest? Full Text available with Trip Pro

on Resuscitation; the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Council on Stroke. Resuscitation . 2008 ; 79 : 350–379 | | | | | Consequently, prophylactic antibiotics may seem reasonable in this population. However, it is important to balance this against the need for antimicrobial stewardship. Although this study demonstrated (...) What Is the Utility of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Patients After Cardiac Arrest? What Is the Utility of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Patients After Cardiac Arrest? - Annals of Emergency Medicine Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page Access provided by Volume 75, Issue 1, Pages 102–104 What Is the Utility of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Patients After Cardiac Arrest? x Michael Gottlieb , MD (EBEM Commentator) , x Trevor Landas , MD (EBEM

2020 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

10. Do Antibiotics Improve Patient Outcomes in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Do Antibiotics Improve Patient Outcomes in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? Do Antibiotics Improve Patient Outcomes in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? - Annals of Emergency Medicine Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page Access provided by Volume 74, Issue 5, Pages e79–e81 Do Antibiotics Improve Patient Outcomes in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? x Brit Long (...) , MD (EBEM Commentator) , x Michael D. April , MD, DPhil (EBEM Commentator) Department of Emergency Medicine, San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, Fort Sam Houston, TX DOI: | Publication History Published online: February 14, 2019 Expand all Collapse all Article Outline Take-Home Message For patients with acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, antibiotics reduce treatment failure for those with mild to moderate exacerbations. Antibiotics reduce mortality

2020 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

11. Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Therapy in Adult Patients with COVID-19

Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Therapy in Adult Patients with COVID-19 British Columbia COVID19 Therapeutics Committee (CTC) Clinical Practice Guidance for Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Therapy in Adult Patients with COVID-19 SEVERITY OF ILLNESS ANTIVIRAL THERAPY ANTIBACTERIAL THERAPY IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPY Critically Ill Patients Hospitalized, ICU-based Patients requiring ventilatory and/or circulatory support; also includes patients requiring high-flow nasal cannula, or higher (...) for DVT prophylaxis Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine (with or without azithromycin) is not recommended outside of approved clinical trials or where other indications would justify its use Lopinavir/ritonavir is not recommended outside of approved clinical trials Remdesivir* is not recommended outside of approved clinical trials Antibacterial therapy is not routinely recommended outside of approved clinical trials or where other indications would justify its use (eg. suspected bacterial co-infection

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc guidelines

12. Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction at 7-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy vs Appendectomy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction at 7-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy vs Appendectomy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction at 7-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy vs Appendectomy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features (...) in email: Save Cancel Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation JAMA Surg Actions . 2020 Feb 19;e196028. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2019.6028. Online ahead of print. Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction at 7-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy vs Appendectomy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial , , , , , , , , , , , , , Affiliations Expand Affiliations 1 Turku

2020 EvidenceUpdates

13. COVID-19 rapid guideline: antibiotics for pneumonia in adults in hospital

that bacterial co-infection occurs in less than about 10% of patients with COVID-19. But patients in critical care have an increased likelihood of bacterial infection compared with patients in other hospital wards or settings. • Because COVID-19 pneumonia is caused by a virus, antibiotics are ineffective unless there is a bacterial co-infection. • Inappropriate antibiotic use may reduce their availability, and indiscriminate use may lead to Clostridioides difficile infection and antimicrobial resistance (...) or more after admission and that was not incubating at admission). 3.5 When choosing antibiotics, take account of: • local antimicrobial resistance data and • other factors such as their availability. 3.6 For patients who are already taking an antibiotic that was started in the community for suspected pneumonia: • review the antibiotic choice and • change the antibiotic in line with antibiotic prescribing table 1, if appropriate. 3.7 Give oral antibiotics if the patient can take oral medicines

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

14. Evaluation of a clinical decision rule to guide antibiotic prescription in children with suspected lower respiratory tract infection in The Netherlands: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of a clinical decision rule to guide antibiotic prescription in children with suspected lower respiratory tract infection in The Netherlands: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Rule to Guide Antibiotic Prescription in Children With Suspected Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in The Netherlands: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomised Trial - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set (...) : Send at most: Send even when there aren't any new results Optional text in email: Save Cancel Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation PLoS Med Actions . 2020 Jan 31;17(1):e1003034. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003034. eCollection 2020 Jan. Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Rule to Guide Antibiotic Prescription in Children With Suspected Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in The Netherlands: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster

2020 EvidenceUpdates

15. Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set (...) : Send at most: Send even when there aren't any new results Optional text in email: Save Cancel Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation Diabetes Care Actions . 2020 Mar 4;dc191162. doi: 10.2337/dc19-1162. Online ahead of print. Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis

2020 EvidenceUpdates

16. Impetigo: antimicrobial prescribing

T erms used in the guideline 11 Recommendation for research 13 1 Antiseptics compared with antibiotics for impetigo 13 Rationales 14 Advice to reduce the spread of impetigo 14 Initial treatment 14 Reassessment and further treatment 16 Referral and seeking specialist advice 17 Choice of antimicrobial 18 Context 21 Summary of the evidence 22 Antimicrobials 22 Choice of antibiotics 23 Course length 25 Route of administration 25 Other considerations 27 Medicines safety 27 Medicines adherence 27 (...) Resource implications 27 Impetigo: antimicrobial prescribing (NG153) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 28Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults, young people and children aged 72 hours and over with impetigo. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. For managing other skin and soft tissue infections, see our web pages

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

17. Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Welcome to the new PubMed. For legacy (...) to an existing collection Name your collection: Name must be less than 100 characters Choose a collection: Unable to load your collection due to an error Add Cancel Add to My Bibliography My Bibliography Unable to load your delegates due to an error Add Cancel Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation Ann Surg Actions 2019 Dec 9 [Online ahead of print] Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized

2020 EvidenceUpdates

18. Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study. To assess the association between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and major malformations, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder in children.Population based cohort study.The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.The study cohort included 104 605 children born from 1990 to 2016 (...) , 1.14 to 2.19, mainly hypospadias). Erythromycin in the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of any major malformation (27.39 v 17.65 per 1000, 1.50, 1.13 to 1.99). No statistically significant associations were found for other system specific malformations or for neurodevelopmental disorders. Findings were robust to sensitivity analyses.Prescribing macrolide antibiotics during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of any major malformation

2020 BMJ

19. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing

26 Medicines safety 26 Medicines adherence 27 Resource implications 27 Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing (NG152) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 28Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults with leg ulcer infection. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 2-page visual summary (...) antibiotic use. 1.1.4 Give oral antibiotics if the person can take oral medicines, and the severity of their condition does not require intravenous antibiotics. 1.1.5 If intravenous antibiotics are given, review by 48 hours and consider switching to oral antibiotics if possible. T o find out why the committee made the recommendations on treatment for adults with an infected leg ulcer, see the rationales. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing (NG152) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

20. Antibiotic Use for the Urgent Management of Dental Pain and Intra-oral Swelling Clinical Practice Guideline Full Text available with Trip Pro

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Telebriefing on today's drug-resistant health threats. ( Available at: ) . , x 16 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Joint Statement on Importance of Outpatient Antibiotics Stewardship From 12 National Health Organizations. ( Available at: ) . , x 17 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/antimicrobial resistance (AR/AMR): the AMR challenge. ( Available at: ) . , x 18 White House Office of the Press Secretary. Fact sheet: over 150 (...) Antibiotic Use for the Urgent Management of Dental Pain and Intra-oral Swelling Clinical Practice Guideline Evidence-based clinical practice guideline on antibiotic use for the urgent management of pulpal- and periapical-related dental pain and intraoral swelling - The Journal of the American Dental Association Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Access provided by Volume 150, Issue 11, Pages 906–921.e12 Evidence-based clinical practice guideline

2020 American Dental Association Guidelines