Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1. Pediatric hydrocephalus - Antibiotic-impregnated shunt systems versus conventional shunts in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

. Journal of neurosurgery Pediatrics. 2008;2(1):25-28. Sciubba DM, Lin LM, Woodworth GF, McGirt MJ, Carson B, Jallo GI. Factors contributing to the medical costs of cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection treatment in pediatric patients with standard shunt components compared with those in patients with antibiotic impregnated components. In: Neurosurg Focus. Vol 22. United States2007:E9. Stone J, Gruber TJ, Rozzelle CJ. Healthcare savings associated with reduced infection rates using antimicrobial suture (...) bacterial catheter-related infection. Journal of neurosurgery. 1997;87(2):247-251. Pattavilakom A, Kotasnas D, Korman TM, Xenos C, Danks A. Duration of in vivo antimicrobial activity of antibiotic-impregnated cerebrospinal fluid catheters. In: Neurosurgery. Vol 58. United States2006:930-935; discussion 930-935. Albanese A, De Bonis P, Sabatino G, et al. Antibiotic-impregnated ventriculo-peritoneal shunts in patients at high risk of infection. Acta neurochirurgica. 2009;151(10):1259-1263. Aryan HE

2020 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

2. ClearGuard HD Antimicrobial Barrier Cap for preventing haemodialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections

port or vascular access device catheter hub before and after accessing the system using 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol. The hub should be cleaned for 15 seconds and allowed to dry before access. If the manufacturer's recommendations prohibit the use of alcohol with their catheter, an aqueous solution of chlorhexidine gluconate should be considered. The recommendations also state that antibiotic lock solutions and systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis should not be used routinely to prevent (...) ClearGuard HD Antimicrobial Barrier Cap for preventing haemodialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections ClearGuard HD Antimicrobial Barrier Cap for preventing haemodialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections Medtech innovation briefing Published: 3 November 2020 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/mib234 pathways Summary Summary • The technology technology described in this briefing is ClearGuard HD Antimicrobial Barrier Cap. It is a central venous catheter cap with chlorhexidine acetate coated

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

3. Antimicrobial prescribing: imipenem with cilastatin and relebactam

information. Imipenem with cilastatin and relebactam (Recarbrio, Merck Sharp & Dohme B.V) is given intravenously and is a combination of a broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic (imipenem); an inhibitor of dehydropeptidase-I, the renal enzyme that metabolises and inactivates imipenem (cilastatin); and a beta-lactamase inhibitor (relebactam). Only imipenem has antibacterial activity. Imipenem with cilastatin and relebactam has a marketing authorisation for treating infections caused by aerobic gram-negative (...) Antimicrobial prescribing: imipenem with cilastatin and relebactam Antimicrobial prescribing: imipenem with cilastatin and relebactam Evidence summary Published: 28 October 2020 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/es30 pathways Product overview Product overview The content of this evidence summary was up-to-date in October 2020. See summaries of product characteristics (SPCs), British national formulary (BNF) or the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) or NICE websites for up-to-date

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

4. Antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters for preventing neonatal bloodstream infection: the PREVAIL RCT Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters for preventing neonatal bloodstream infection: the PREVAIL RCT Antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters for preventing neonatal bloodstream infection: the PREVAIL RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find

2020 NIHR HTA programme

5. Human and animal bites: antimicrobial prescribing

and committee details 27 Human and animal bites: antimicrobial prescribing (NG184) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 27Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for human and animal bites (excluding insect bites) in adults, young people and children aged 72 hours and over. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 3-page visual summary (...) ), that you are unfamiliar with. For a short explanation of why the committee made these recommendations, see the rationale section on assessment. For more details, see the evidence review. Human and animal bites: antimicrobial prescribing (NG184) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 27Antibiotic prophylaxis for uninfected bites Antibiotic prophylaxis for uninfected bites Human bites Human bites 1.1.4 Do

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

6. A Randomized Trial Comparing Antibiotics with Appendectomy for Appendicitis. (Abstract)

A Randomized Trial Comparing Antibiotics with Appendectomy for Appendicitis. Antibiotic therapy has been proposed as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of appendicitis.We conducted a pragmatic, nonblinded, noninferiority, randomized trial comparing antibiotic therapy (10-day course) with appendectomy in patients with appendicitis at 25 U.S. centers. The primary outcome was 30-day health status, as assessed with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire (scores (...) range from 0 to 1, with higher scores indicating better health status; noninferiority margin, 0.05 points). Secondary outcomes included appendectomy in the antibiotics group and complications through 90 days; analyses were prespecified in subgroups defined according to the presence or absence of an appendicolith.In total, 1552 adults (414 with an appendicolith) underwent randomization; 776 were assigned to receive antibiotics (47% of whom were not hospitalized for the index treatment) and 776

2020 NEJM

7. Appendectomy versus antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis. (Abstract)

Appendectomy versus antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis. This Cochrane review has been withdrawn. The Cochrane review is out of date and included a retracted article in the analysis. Withdrawn by Cochrane Colorectal Group. A new update is expected. The editorial group responsible for this previously published document have withdrawn it from publication.Copyright © 2020 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2020 Cochrane

8. Insect bites and stings: antimicrobial prescribing

bites and stings 5 T erms used in the guideline 7 Rationales 9 Assessment and advice 9 Treatment 9 Referral and seeking specialist advice 10 Context 12 Summary of the evidence 13 Antibiotics for infected arthropod bites in adults 13 Oral antihistamines for uninfected mosquito bites in adults 14 Antihistamines for uninfected mosquito bites in children 15 Treatments for uninfected brown recluse spider bites 15 Insect bites and stings: antimicrobial prescribing (NG182) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved (...) . Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 16Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for insect and spider bites and stings in adults, young people and children aged 72 hours and over, including those that occurred while travelling outside the UK. It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 1-page visual summary of the recommendations. The recommendations in this guideline

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

9. Prophylactic anti-staphylococcal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic anti-staphylococcal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review.To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus (...) aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested the following hypotheses to investigate whether prophylaxis: 1. improves clinical status, lung function and survival; 2. leads to fewer isolates of Staphylococcus aureus; 3. causes adverse effects (e.g. diarrhoea, skin rash, candidiasis); 4. leads to fewer isolates of other common pathogens from respiratory secretions; 5. leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and colonisation of the respiratory tract with Pseudomonas

2020 Cochrane

10. Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidance on the Treatment of Antimicrobial Resistant Gram-Negative Infections

, antimicrobial resistant pathogens caused more than 2.8 million infections and over 35,000 deaths annually in the United States from 2012 through 2017, according to the 2019 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Antibiotic Resistant Threats Report [2]. The selection of effective antibiotics for the treatment of infections by resistant pathogens is challenging [3]. Although there has been an increase in the availability of novel antibiotics to combat resistant infections in recent years [3 (...) will be disseminated on multiple platforms and updated as new data emerge. Treatment of antimicrobial resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections was chosen as the initial topic for a guidance document. The overarching goal of this guidance document is to assist clinicians – including those with and without infectious diseases expertise – in selecting antibiotic therapy for infections caused by ESBL-E, CRE, and DTR- P. aeruginosa . Future iterations of this document will address other resistant pathogens

2020 Infectious Diseases Society of America

11. FSRH CEU Response to study: Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives

FSRH CEU Response to study: Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives 1 FSRH CEU Response to study: Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives 19 August 2020 The BMJ Evidence Based Medicine Journal has published a paper 1 suggesting that antibiotics may lessen the effectiveness of hormonal (...) contraception. The authors used the ‘Yellow Cards’ system where clinicians and patients can report adverse drug side-effects to the UK’s drug and medical devices regulator, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Data between 1963 and July 2018 was analysed and researchers compared the number of unintended pregnancies reported in 74,623 Yellow Cards for antibiotics in general and in 32,872 for enzyme-inducing drugs with those reported in 65,578 other types of drugs in users of oral

2020 Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare

12. Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays to protect healthcare workers when undertaking aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) on patients without suspected or confirmed Covid-19 infection

, prevent tooth decay and reduce plaque formation. In some countries they are recommended as a hygiene measure during the regular cold and flu season. Many mouthwashes with some antimicrobial activity can be purchased over the counter, and others are available on prescription. The antimicrobial agents and effectiveness vary and whilst most have some antibacterial properties a few are also antiviral. Similar topical antimicrobial solutions may be administered via the nose using a nasal spray (...) Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays to protect healthcare workers when undertaking aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) on patients without suspected or confirmed Covid-19 infection Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays to protect healthcare workers when undertaking aerosol‐generating procedures (AGPs) on patients without suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 infection - Burton, MJ - 2020 | Cochrane Library Cookies Our site uses cookies to improve your experience

2020 Cochrane

13. Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays administered to patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 infection to protect healthcare workers treating them

of the intervention Mouthwashes are oral rinsing solutions: many are in common use to manage halitosis, prevent tooth decay and reduce plaque formation. In some countries they are recommended as a hygiene measure during the regular cold and flu season. Many mouthwashes with some antimicrobial activity can be purchased over the counter, and others are available on prescription. The antimicrobial agents and effectiveness vary and whilst most have some antibacterial properties a few are also antiviral. Similar (...) Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays administered to patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 infection to protect healthcare workers treating them Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays administered to patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 infection to improve patient outcomes and to protect healthcare workers treating them - Burton, MJ - 2020 | Cochrane Library Cookies Our site uses cookies to improve your experience. You can find out more about

2020 Cochrane

14. Use of antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays by healthcare workers to protect them when treating patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19

season. Many mouthwashes with some antimicrobial activity can be purchased over the counter, and others are available on prescription. The antimicrobial agents and effectiveness vary and whilst most have some antibacterial properties a few are also antiviral. Similar topical antimicrobial solutions may be administered via the nose using a nasal spray, or by direct irrigation or douching (administered by sniffing a solution through each nostril and spitting it out). How the intervention might work (...) Use of antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays by healthcare workers to protect them when treating patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 Use of antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays by healthcare workers to protect them when treating patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 infection - Burton, MJ - 2020 | Cochrane Library Cookies Our site uses cookies to improve your experience. You can find out more about our use of cookies in About Cookies, including

2020 Cochrane

15. Antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) affects 4% to 12% of women of reproductive age. The main intervention for acute PID is broad-spectrum antibiotics administered intravenously, intramuscularly or orally. We assessed the optimal treatment regimen for PID.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic regimens to treat PID.In January 2020, we searched the Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Infections Review Group's Specialized (...) Register, which included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from 1944 to 2020, located through hand and electronic searching; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; four other databases; and abstracts in selected publications.We included RCTs comparing antibiotics with placebo or other antibiotics for the treatment of PID in women of reproductive age, either as inpatient or outpatient treatment. We limited our review to a comparison of drugs in current use that are recommended by the 2015 US Centers for Disease

2020 Cochrane

16. Association of Nonoperative Management Using Antibiotic Therapy vs Laparoscopic Appendectomy With Treatment Success and Disability Days in Children With Uncomplicated Appendicitis. (Abstract)

Association of Nonoperative Management Using Antibiotic Therapy vs Laparoscopic Appendectomy With Treatment Success and Disability Days in Children With Uncomplicated Appendicitis. Nonoperative management with antibiotics alone has the potential to treat uncomplicated pediatric appendicitis with fewer disability days than surgery.To determine the success rate of nonoperative management and compare differences in treatment-related disability, satisfaction, health-related quality of life (...) with antibiotics alone (nonoperative group, n = 370) or urgent (≤12 hours of admission) laparoscopic appendectomy (surgery group, n = 698).The 2 primary outcomes assessed at 1 year were disability days, defined as the total number of days the child was not able to participate in all of his/her normal activities secondary to appendicitis-related care (expected difference, 5 days), and success rate of nonoperative management, defined as the proportion of patients initially managed nonoperatively who did

2020 JAMA

17. Perioperative antibiotics for preventing post-surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Perioperative antibiotics for preventing post-surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk for infections due to the complexity of surgical procedures combined with the impact of immunosuppression. No consensus exists on the role of antibiotics for surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients.To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antimicrobial agents for preventing surgical site infections in solid (...) antibiotics in preventing surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients at any time point after transplantation.Two authors independently determined study eligibility, assessed quality, and extracted data. Primary outcomes were surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Other outcomes included urinary tract infections, pneumonias and septicaemia, death (any cause), graft loss, graft rejection, graft function, adverse reactions to antimicrobial agents, and outcomes identified

2020 Cochrane

18. Outcome of Immediate Versus Early Antibiotics in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Outcome of Immediate Versus Early Antibiotics in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Outcome of Immediate Versus Early Antibiotics in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving (...) at most: Send even when there aren't any new results Optional text in email: Save Cancel Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel Your RSS Feed Name of RSS Feed: Number of items displayed: Create RSS Cancel RSS Link Copy Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation Review Ann Emerg Med Actions . 2020 Jun 24;S0196-0644(20)30337-1. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.04.042. Online ahead of print. Outcome of Immediate Versus Early Antibiotics in Severe Sepsis

2020 EvidenceUpdates

19. Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a multi-system disease characterised by the production of thick secretions causing recurrent pulmonary infection, often with unusual bacteria. This leads to lung destruction and eventually death through respiratory failure. There are no antibiotics in development that exert a new mode of action and many of the current antibiotics are ineffective in eradicating the bacteria once chronic infection (...) is established. Antibiotic adjuvants - therapies that act by rendering the organism more susceptible to attack by antibiotics or the host immune system, by rendering it less virulent or killing it by other means, would be a significant therapeutic advance. This is an update of a previously published review.To determine if antibiotic adjuvants improve clinical and microbiological outcome of pulmonary infection in people with cystic fibrosis.We searched the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register which is compiled

2020 Cochrane

20. Effect of Probiotic Use on Antibiotic Administration Among Care Home Residents: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Probiotic Use on Antibiotic Administration Among Care Home Residents: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Probiotics are frequently used by residents in care homes (residential homes or nursing homes that provide residents with 24-hour support for personal care or nursing care), although the evidence on whether probiotics prevent infections and reduce antibiotic use in these settings is limited.To determine whether a daily oral probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (...) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 compared with placebo reduces antibiotic administration in care home residents.Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of 310 care home residents, aged 65 years and older, recruited from 23 care homes in the United Kingdom between December 2016 and May 2018, with last follow-up on October 31, 2018.Study participants were randomized to receive a daily capsule containing a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp

2020 JAMA