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Latest & greatest articles for antibiotic resistance
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prevent ill health and promote wellbeing as part of their everyday practice. The information below will help front-line health and care staff use their trusted relationships with patients, families and communities to promote the benefits of preventing antimicrobialresistance ( of ‘All Our Health’ topics. Infections that cannot be treated continue to develop. The rapid spread of multidrug resistant organisms means that we may not be able to treat everyday infections or diseases with antibiotics (...) in the near future. Many existing antimicrobials are becoming less effective as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi are adapting and becoming resistant to medicines. Inappropriate use of these valuable medicines has also added to the problem. Without effective antibiotics, even minor surgery and routine operations could become high risk procedures if serious infections can’t be treated. Access the antimicrobialresistance e-learning session An is now available to use. and 5 Year Action Plan set out
to be more effective in haematology/oncology, although there were only three studies in this setting. What does current guidance say on this issue? NICE guidelines from 2015 recommend that commissioners and healthcare providers should establish an antibiotic stewardship programme across all care settings. This should include monitoring antimicrobial prescribing, local resistance patterns and incidence of concerning infections such as Clostridium difficile. They are in the process of producing 30 (...) combination, reducing antibioticresistance by 66% (IR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.54). Interventions seemed to be more effective in haematology/oncology, although there were only three studies in this setting. What does current guidance say on this issue? NICE guidelines from 2015 recommend that commissioners and healthcare providers should establish an antibiotic stewardship programme across all care settings. This should include monitoring antimicrobial prescribing, local resistance patterns and incidence
Tailored Helicobacter pylori eradication based on prior intake of macrolide antibiotics allows the use of triple therapy with optimal results in an area with high clarithromycin resistance. the previous intake of macrolide antibiotics is associated with a failure to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with clarithromycin-containing regimens. However, the standard triple therapy achieves eradication rates of over 90% in patients without a previous use of macrolides in our health area (...) in more than half of the patients from a health area with a high level of clarithromycin resistance.
Decontamination Strategies and Bloodstream Infections With Antibiotic-Resistant Microorganisms in Ventilated Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash, selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD), and selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on patient outcomes in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibioticresistance are unknown.To determine associations between CHX 2%, SOD, and SDD and the occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infections (...) with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) and 28-day mortality in ICUs with moderate to high levels of antibiotic resistance.Randomized trial conducted from December 1, 2013, to May 31, 2017, in 13 European ICUs where at least 5% of bloodstream infections are caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Patients with anticipated mechanical ventilation of more than 24 hours were eligible. The final date of follow-up was September 20, 2017.Standard care was daily CHX 2
Resolution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with a PROSE device for enhanced targeted antibiotic delivery To report the resolution of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with use of a prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) device for enhanced targeted delivery of moxifloxiacin.A 62-year-old female presented with a 3-day history of pain, photophobia, and declining vision in left eye. The patient had a 2-year history of binocular (...) therapy. Frequent dosing to the PROSE reservoir is likely to increase fluoroquinolone bioavailability and may represent a valuable approach to overcome antibioticresistance.
Uropathogen Resistance and Antibiotic Prophylaxis: A Meta-analysis Limited data exist regarding uropathogen resistance in randomized controlled trials of urinary tract infection (UTI) prevention and antibiotic prophylaxis.To assess the effect of prophylaxis on developing a multidrug-resistant first recurrent UTI among children with vesicoureteral reflux.Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialized Register through May 25, 2017.Randomized controlled trials of patients ≤18 years of age (...) treated with prophylaxis were more likely to have a multidrug-resistant infection (33% vs 6%, P < .001) and were more likely to receive broad-spectrum antibiotics (68% vs 49%, P = .004). Those receiving prophylaxis had 6.4 times the odds (95% confidence interval: 2.7-15.6) of developing a multidrug-resistant infection. One multidrug-resistant infection would develop for every 21 reflux patients treated with prophylaxis.Variables that may contribute to resistance such as medication adherence
better strategies to control the rise of antimicrobialresistant pathogens—a major global public health problem. Latin American countries have fewer restrictions on the sale of antimicrobial agents, and the existing . 3 This enables the self-diagnosing and self-medicating practices that many members of the Latino community are accustomed to. Furthermore, cultural beliefs and misconceptions regarding the purpose and function of antibiotics play a major role in their misuse among the Latino population (...) Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing AntibioticResistance in the US? Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing AntibioticResistance in the US? – Clinical Correlations Search Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing AntibioticResistance in the US? June 8, 2018 3 min read By Daniela Rebollo Salazar Peer Reviewed In the past ten years, the number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics has dramatically increased. The emergence of resistant microorganisms is a direct product
Pattern of AntimicrobialResistance among Bacterial Isolates from Urogenital Clinical Specimens: A Descriptive Study from the Buea Health District, Cameroon Antimicrobialresistance has become a global concern and is particularly affecting developing countries where infectious diseases and poverty are endemic. The effectiveness of currently available antimicrobials is decreasing as a result of increasing resistant strains among clinical isolates.The aim of this study was to determine (...) the resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from different clinical urogenital specimens at different hospitals in the Buea Health District, Cameroon.A retrospective study was conducted in three hospital laboratories in the Buea Health District, Cameroon, from June to August 2017. All culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test results of patients who presented at each of the laboratories for urine, vaginal swab or urethral swab cultures from January 2012 to December 2016 were included in the study. Data
Antibioticresistance patterns of urinary tract pathogens in Turkish children Knowledge of local antimicrobialresistance patterns is essential for evidence- based empirical antibiotic prescribing. We aimed to investigate the distribution and changes in causative agents of urinary tract infections in children and the resistance rates, and to recommend the most appropriate antibiotics.In this retrospective study, we evaluated causative agents and antimicrobialresistance in urine isolates from (...) the positive community from September 2014 to April 2016 in a single hospital in Ankara, Turkey.A total of 850 positive urine cultures were identified, of which 588 (69.2%) were from girls and 262 (30.8%) were from boys. Their mean age was 36.5 ± 45.0 months. The most common causative agent was Escherichia coli (64.2% of cases) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.9%). The overall resistance to ampicillin (62.6%), cephalothin (44.2%), co-trimoxazole (29.8%) and cefuroxime (28.7%) was significant
Epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant wound infections from six countries in Africa Little is known about the antimicrobial susceptibility of common bacteria responsible for wound infections from many countries in sub-Saharan Africa.We performed a retrospective review of microbial isolates collected based on clinical suspicion of wound infection between 2004 and 2016 from Mercy Ships, a non-governmental organisation operating a single mobile surgical unit in Benin, Congo, Liberia, Madagascar (...) surveillance should be a priority and local antimicrobialresistance profiles should be used to guide empiric antibiotic selection.
injections performed were 3.4 per patient. The most common organisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 6/14 (42.8%), Staphylococcus aureus in 5/14 (35.7%), Streptococcus sp in 2/14 (14.2%) and Bacillus sp in 1/14 (7.14%). In addition to vancomycin, resistance to multiple drugs (three or more groups of antibiotics) was found in all 14 cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed susceptibility to amikacin in 7/14 (50.0%), gatifloxacin in 6/14 (42.8%), moxifloxacin in 3/13 (23.0 (...) Endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin: Clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes To report the clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes of patients with endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin.Retrospective case series of all patients with culture-proven endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant
Precision antimicrobial therapeutics: the path of least resistance? The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has led to a decline in the efficacy of traditional antimicrobial therapy. The rise in resistance has been driven by widespread use, and in some cases misuse, of antibacterial agents in treating a variety of infections. A growing body of research has begun to elucidate the harmful effects of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy on the beneficial host microbiota. To combat these threats (...) with Crohn's disease (CD), in mouse models. While not without its challenges, antibiotic-sparing therapeutic approaches hold great promise in a variety of disease systems, including UTI, CD, otitis media (OM), and others. In this perspective we highlight the benefits, progress, and roadblocks to the development of precision antimicrobial therapeutics.
Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics at the An-Najah National University Hospital: a cross-sectional study. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered the most important determinant of treatment failure. Monitoring the evolution of antimicrobialresistance to common antibiotics is therefore of special importance for clinicians. The frequency of resistance to antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori isolates is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of H pylori (...) %). Metronidazole and clarithromycin were the least effective drugs, with resistance rates of 100% and 47%, respectively.H pylori isolates from the Palestinian patients included in this study were highly resistant to the traditional first-line antibiotics clarithromycin and metronidazole. However, fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin are still effective antimicrobial choices. This could be the result of the unjustified wide use of antibiotics in the Palestinian community and the use of clarithromycin-based therapy
Restricting the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals and its associations with antibioticresistance in food-producing animals and human beings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antibiotic use in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and agriculture has been linked to the rise of antibioticresistance globally. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the effect that interventions to reduce antibiotic use in food-producing animals have on the presence of antibiotic (...) -resistant bacteria in animals and in humans.On July 14, 2016, we searched electronic databases (Agricola, AGRIS, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Embase, Global Index Medicus, ProQuest Dissertations, Science Citation Index) and the grey literature. The search was updated on Jan 27, 2017. Inclusion criteria were original studies that reported on interventions to reduce antibiotic use in food-producing animals and compared presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria between intervention
Machine Learning Leveraging Genomes from Metagenomes Identifies Influential AntibioticResistance Genes in the Infant Gut Microbiome Antibioticresistance in pathogens is extensively studied, and yet little is known about how antibioticresistance genes of typical gut bacteria influence microbiome dynamics. Here, we leveraged genomes from metagenomes to investigate how genes of the premature infant gut resistome correspond to the ability of bacteria to survive under certain environmental (...) are those that encode subclass B2 beta-lactamases and transcriptional regulators of vancomycin resistance. This demonstrates that machine learning applied to genome-resolved metagenomics data can identify key genes for survival after antibiotics treatment and predict how organisms in the gut microbiome will respond to antibiotic administration. IMPORTANCE The process of reconstructing genomes from environmental sequence data (genome-resolved metagenomics) allows unique insight into microbial systems. We
Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Topical Antibiotics for the Treatment of Treatment-Resistant Impetigo: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Last updated: October (...) 4, 2018 Project Number: RA0968-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Reference List Result type: Report Question What is the clinical evidence regarding the use of topical antibiotics for the treatment of treatment-resistant impetigo? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the treatment of treatment resistant impetigo? Key Message One systematic review with meta-analyses, one non-randomized study, and one evidence-based guideline were identified regarding the clinical
’ defined by using the clinical breakpoints for resistance as specified by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing (EUCAST) or the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CSLI). 2. Increase in the incidence (rate) of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria established through the use of chlorhexidine identifying dosage form, exposure and specific population and / or setting. Antibiotic-resistant strain of bacteria through the use of chlorhexidine to be recorded. 3. Increases (...) to chlorhexidine in a specific population and / or setting. To address the question ‘Does exposure (different dosages, duration of use, and stratification of exposure) to any form of chlorhexidine increases the incidence and/or prevalence of antibiotic- resistant strains of bacteria in any person within different healthcare settings? ’ the outcomes included: ? ‘Resistance against antibiotics’ defined by using the clinical breakpoints for resistance as specified by the European Committee on Antimicrobial
Antimicrobialresistance and universal health coverage The WHO launched a Global Action Plan on antimicrobialresistance (AMR) in 2015. World leaders in the G7, G20 and the UN General Assembly have declared AMR to be a global crisis. World leaders have also adopted universal health coverage (UHC) as a key target under the sustainable development goals. This paper argues that neither initiative is likely to succeed in isolation from the other and that the policy goals should be to both provide (...) access to appropriate antimicrobial treatment and reduce the risk of the emergence and spread of resistance by taking a systems approach. It focuses on outpatient treatment of human infections and identifies a number of interventions that would be needed to achieve these policy goals. It then shows how a strategy for achieving key attributes of a health system for UHC can take into account the need to address AMR as part of a UHC strategy in any country. It concludes with a list of recommended
Deconstructing a multiple antibioticresistance regulation through the quantification of its input function Many essential bacterial responses present complex transcriptional regulation of gene expression. To what extent can the study of these responses substantiate the logic of their regulation? Here, we show how the input function of the genes constituting the response, i.e., the information of how their transcription rates change as function of the signals acting on the regulators, can serve (...) as a quantitative tool to deconstruct the corresponding regulatory logic. To demonstrate this approach, we consider the multiple antibioticresistance (mar) response in Escherichia coli. By characterizing the input function of its representative genes in wild-type and mutant bacteria, we recognize a dual autoregulation motif as main determinant of the response, which is further adjusted by the interplay with other regulators. We show that basic attributes, like its reaction to a wide range of stress or its