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Walking Aids for Enabling Activity and Participation: A Systematic Review. In this systematic literature review, we examined whether and how walking aids (i.e., canes, crutches, walkers, and rollators) enable activity and participation among adults with physical disabilities. Medline, Embase, all EBM reviews, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were used to identify studies published since 2008. Quantitative and qualitative designs were included. Data regarding participants (...) , assistive device use, outcome measures, and domains of participation were extracted. Two reviewers independently rated the level of evidence and methodological quality of the studies. Outcomes were categorized per types of walking aids and activity and participation domains. Thirteen studies were included. Two studies involved canes, four pertained to rollators, and seven dealt with multiple types of walking aids. Mobility was the most frequently examined domain of activity and participation. Both
Effectiveness of decision aids on smoking cessation in adult patients: a systematic review protocol. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of the use of decision aids in a shared decision-making encounter between any healthcare provider and adult patients who smoke, compared to standard education on smoking cessation, in any healthcare setting.Specifically, the review questions are: What is the effectiveness of the use of decision aids in a shared decision-making
CRACKCast Episode 132 – HIV/AIDS CRACKCast Episode 132 – HIV/AIDS - CanadiEM CRACKCast Episode 132 – HIV/AIDS In , , by Adam Thomas December 4, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 124 (9th Ed.), HIV/AIDS. Next time you look after an HIV/AIDS patient on shift, this episode will have you covered! Shownotes – Rosen’s In Perspective Box 124.2: Dermatologic and Mucocutaneous Manifestations of WHO Stage 4 HIV Disease Chronic herpes simplex virus ulcers Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (...) Figure 124.4 for a graphic representation of the natural history of untreated HIV.  Define AIDS CDC definition: “a CD4+ cell count below 200 cells/μL or the presence of an AIDS-defining condition.” At this level, immune dysfunction is severe and, without ART, survival is short. Those with a CD4+ cell count below 50 cells/μL have advanced AIDS and are at much higher risk for death and development of opportunistic infections. Some infections are so common in patients with AIDS that primary
Problematizing official narratives of HIV and AIDS education in Scotland and Zimbabwe When human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are framed within an intersectional approach, they have the potential to transform understandings of social justice within the curriculum and education policy and practice in general. Yet, this transformative potential is often hampered by official narratives that fail to position HIV and AIDS as an integral component (...) of overlapping systems of oppression, domination and discrimination. This article explores how official HIV and AIDS narratives tend to promote systemic injustice and inequality within education policy and practice in both Scotland and Zimbabwe, despite their good intents. We frame our argument within a transformative education discourse which seeks to create participatory and emancipatory HIV-related messages at school, tertiary and community levels. Using a narrative enquiry design, a Foucauldian
On the periphery of HIV and AIDS: Reflections on stress as experienced by caregivers in a child residential care facility in South Africa Few researchers have investigated how female caregivers of institutionalised children, especially those affected by HIV and AIDS, experience stress. The role played by caregivers cannot be overemphasised; yet caregivers who work in institutions caring for orphaned and/or abandoned children affected by HIV and AIDS, are often marginalised and on the periphery (...) of the HIV and AIDS pandemic. The implication is that insufficient attention or consideration is given to the importance of the role they play in these children's lives. The objective of the study was to explore how female caregivers of institutionalised children affected by HIV and AIDS experience stress. A qualitative research project with a case study design was conducted. The purposively selected participants from a previously identified care facility were seven females in the age ranges of 35-59
Deep learning for cardiac computer-aided diagnosis: benefits, issues & solutions Cardiovascular diseases are one of the top causes of deaths worldwide. In developing nations and rural areas, difficulties with diagnosis and treatment are made worse due to the deficiency of healthcare facilities. A viable solution to this issue is telemedicine, which involves delivering health care and sharing medical knowledge at a distance. Additionally, mHealth, the utilization of mobile devices for medical (...) care, has also proven to be a feasible choice. The integration of telemedicine, mHealth and computer-aided diagnosis systems with the fields of machine and deep learning has enabled the creation of effective services that are adaptable to a multitude of scenarios. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of heart disease diagnosis and management, especially within the context of rural healthcare, as well as discuss the benefits, issues and solutions of implementing deep learning
Invisible work: Child work in households with a person living with HIV/AIDS in Central Uganda HIV/AIDS has led to increased mortality and morbidity, negatively impacting adult labour especially in HIV/AIDS burdened Sub-Saharan Africa. There has been some exploration of the effects of HIV/AIDS on paid child labour, but little empirical work on children's non-paid child work. This paper provides quantitative evidence of how child and household-level factors affect children's involvement in both (...) domestic and family farm work for households with a person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) compared to non-PLWHA households using the 2010/2011 Centre for Health Economics Uganda HIV questionnaire Survey.Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic modelling is used to explore child and household-level factors that affect children's work participation.This research reveals greater demands on the labour of children in PLWHA households in terms of family farm work especially for boys. Results highlight
Computerized Decision Aids for Shared Decision Making in Serious Illness: Systematic Review. Shared decision making (SDM) is important in achieving patient-centered care. SDM tools such as decision aids are intended to inform the patient. When used to assist in decision making between treatments, decision aids have been shown to reduce decisional conflict, increase ease of decision making, and increase modification of previous decisions.The purpose of this systematic review is to assess (...) the impact of computerized decision aids on patient-centered outcomes related to SDM for seriously ill patients.PubMed and Scopus databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the impact of computerized decision aids on patient-centered outcomes and SDM in serious illness. Six RCTs were identified and data were extracted on study population, design, and results. Risk of bias was assessed by a modified Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for Quality Assessment of Randomized
Ascitic Fluid/Serum Bilirubin Ratio as an aid in Preoperative Diagnosis of Choleperitoneum in a Neglected Case of Spontaneous Common Bile Duct Perforation Spontaneous perforation of extrahepatic biliary system is a rare and potentially fatal cause of acute abdomen. Clinical presentation is as biliary peritonitis. This condition is rarely suspected as a cause of peritonitis preoperatively and correct diagnosis is made during surgery. If suspected, diagnosis can be made by various imaging (...) , Singh SK, Saha S. Ascitic Fluid/Serum Bilirubin Ratio as an aid in Preoperative Diagnosis of Choleperitoneum in a Neglected Case of Spontaneous Common Bile Duct Perforation. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(2):185-187.
Exploration of reproductive healthcare needs among adult men regarding sexual transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS One of the most important public health issues is men's sexual and reproductive health. Men are the most important counterparts in the prevention of sexual transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. A low level of men's referral to utilize healthcare services and the stigmatization of reporting sexually transmitted diseases in society due to cultural issues calls for the designation (...) educational empowerment," "appropriate sociocultural background with advocacy," "organizing sexual needs based on sexual ethics, religious doctrine and women's empowerment," and "meeting men's preventive, caring and welfare needs."Because men's reproductive health is intertwined with public health, data collected regarding men's healthcare needs with the consideration of social and cultural factors can be used for designing strategies for reducing the incidence/prevalence rates of STDs and HIV/AIDS.
Hearing aids for mild to moderate hearing loss in adults. The main clinical intervention for mild to moderate hearing loss is the provision of hearing aids. These are routinely offered and fitted to those who seek help for hearing difficulties. By amplifying and improving access to sounds, and speech sounds in particular, the aim of hearing aid use is to reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss and improve participation in everyday life.To evaluate the effects of hearing aids for mild (...) to moderate hearing loss in adults.The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; the Cochrane Register of Studies Online; MEDLINE; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 23 March 2017.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of hearing aids compared to a passive or active control in adults with mild to moderate hearing loss.We used the standard methodological procedures
Life skills as a behaviour change strategy in the prevention of HIV and AIDS: Perceptions of students in an open and distance learning institution The prevention of HIV and AIDS, especially amongst young people, is very important, as they are the future leaders. South Africa carries a high burden of the HIV and AIDS disease, and efforts at the prevention of the disease need to be intensified. University students are also at risk, and prevention efforts need to be intensified to ensure (...) will not make them vulnerable to the HIV and AIDS infection.
Contemporary HIV/AIDS research: Insights from knowledge management theory Knowledge management as a field is concerned with the management of knowledge, including the management of knowledge in research processes. Knowledge management theory has the potential to support research into problems such as HIV, antibiotic resistance and others, particularly in terms of aspects of scientific research related to the contribution of social science. To date, however, these challenges remain with us
TLR5 signaling in murine bone marrow induces hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and aids survival from radiation Administration of the bacterial protein flagellin to mice activates innate immune signaling that protects against an array of challenges, including ionizing radiation. Herein, we define the underlying mechanism for this protection. We report that flagellin treatment induces proliferation and mobilization of bone marrow cells that aid survival following irradiation
Spotlight: Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Patient Without AIDS, A Clinical Vignette Spotlight: Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Patient Without AIDS, A Clinical Vignette – Clinical Correlations Search Spotlight: Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Patient Without AIDS, A Clinical Vignette September 20, 2017 6 min read By Martin Fried, MD Peer reviewed Learning Objectives Why does impaired cellular immunity increase the risk for Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia (PJP)? How do acquired humoral immune deficiencies (...) weeks appears to be the MSKCC prophylactic policy that is then referenced-forward. Summary : Pneumocystis pneumonia is a life-threatening infection that was first recognized in the HIV-infected population. In the early days of the AIDS epidemic the prevalence of PCP in patients with low CD4+ T cell counts helped us understand the importance of cellular immunity in controlling the infection. The observed clinical differences between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with PCP clarified the role
New Opportunities in Exposure Assessment of Occupational Epidemiology: Use of Measurements to Aid Exposure Reconstruction in Population-Based Studies Exposure assessment efforts in population-based studies are increasingly incorporating measurements. The published literature was reviewed to identify the measurement sources and the approaches used to incorporate measurements into these efforts.The variety of occupations and industries in these studies made collecting participant-specific
Do Less Harm: Evaluating HIV Programmatic Alternatives in Response to Cutbacks in Foreign Aid. Resource-limited nations must consider their response to potential contractions in international support for HIV programs.To evaluate the clinical, epidemiologic, and budgetary consequences of alternative HIV program scale-back strategies in 2 recipient nations, the Republic of South Africa (RSA) and Côte d'Ivoire (CI).Model-based comparison between current standard (CD4 count at presentation of 0.260 (...) and most efficient alternatives for achieving budget cuts of 10% to 20% are applied, every year of life lost will save roughly $900 in HIV-related outlays in RSA and $600 to $900 in CI.Scale-back programs, when combined, may result in clinical and budgetary synergies and offsets.The magnitude and details of budget cuts are not yet known, nor is the degree to which other international partners might step in to restore budget shortfalls.Scaling back international aid to HIV programs will have severe