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Top results for aids

721. A controlled trial of fluconazole or amphotericin B to prevent relapse of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group and Mycoses Study Group. (Abstract)

A controlled trial of fluconazole or amphotericin B to prevent relapse of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group and Mycoses Study Group. After primary treatment for cryptococcal meningitis, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) require some form of continued suppressive therapy to prevent relapse.We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial that compared fluconazole (200 mg per day given orally (...) ) with amphotericin B (1 mg per kilogram of body weight per week given intravenously) in patients with AIDS who had completed primary therapy for cryptococcal meningitis with amphotericin B (greater than or equal to 15 mg per kilogram). To be eligible, patients had to have at least two negative cultures of cerebrospinal fluid immediately before randomization. The primary end point was relapse of cryptococcal disease as confirmed by biopsy or culture.Of 218 patients initially enrolled, 119 were assigned

1992 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

722. Ditiocarb sodium (diethyldithiocarbamate) therapy in patients with symptomatic HIV infection and AIDS. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. (Abstract)

Ditiocarb sodium (diethyldithiocarbamate) therapy in patients with symptomatic HIV infection and AIDS. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. We randomized 389 symptomatic patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to ditiocarb sodium (400 mg/m2 orally for 24 weeks) or a placebo. Patients were well balanced according to Centers for Disease Control (CDC) group, CD4+ cell number, and duration of disease prior to entry. Ten new acquired immunodeficiency (...) syndrome (AIDS)-defining opportunistic infections occurred in the treated patients and 21 in the controls. Reduction of new opportunistic infections in the ditiocarb group was significant in all patients (relative risk [RR], 0.44) and in patients with AIDS (CDC groups IV-C1 and IV-D) (RR, 0.12). The size of the effect of ditiocarb was maintained when data were reanalyzed after exclusion of a patient who progressed to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia who was not strictly CDC-defined (RR, 0.46), or when

1991 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

723. A controlled trial comparing foscarnet with vidarabine for acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. (Abstract)

A controlled trial comparing foscarnet with vidarabine for acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Most strains of herpes simplex virus that are resistant to acyclovir are susceptible in vitro to both foscarnet and vidarabine. We conducted a randomized trial to compare foscarnet with vidarabine in 14 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and mucocutaneous herpetic lesions that had been (...) . Although initial recurrences of herpes simplex infection after the index lesion had healed tended to be susceptible to acyclovir, acyclovir-resistant infection eventually recurred in every healed patient, a median of 42.5 days (range, 14 to 191) after foscarnet was discontinued.For the treatment of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex infection in patients with AIDS, foscarnet has superior efficacy and less frequent serious toxicity than vidarabine. Once the treatment is stopped, however; there is a high

1991 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

724. The effectiveness of drug abuse treatment: implications for controlling AIDS/HIV infection

The effectiveness of drug abuse treatment: implications for controlling AIDS/HIV infection The effectiveness of drug abuse treatment: implications for controlling AIDS/HIV infection The effectiveness of drug abuse treatment: implications for controlling AIDS/HIV infection Office of Technology Assessment Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. The agency responsible for the publication, formerly a member of INAHTA, has subsequently been disbanded (...) . No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Office of Technology Assessment. The effectiveness of drug abuse treatment: implications for controlling AIDS/HIV infection. Washington DC: U. S. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) 1990: 160 Authors' objectives To examine evidence on the effectiveness of drug abuse treatment, to evaluate its potential role in reducing the spread of HIV, and to compare it to other approaches to HIV prevention among

1990 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

725. A randomized controlled trial of a reduced daily dose of zidovudine in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. (Abstract)

A randomized controlled trial of a reduced daily dose of zidovudine in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. The initially tested dose of zidovudine for the treatment of patients with advanced disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) was 1500 mg. Although this dose is effective, it is associated with substantial toxicity.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a reduced dose, we conducted a randomized controlled trial in 524

1990 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

726. Recombinant human erythropoietin for patients with AIDS treated with zidovudine. (Abstract)

Recombinant human erythropoietin for patients with AIDS treated with zidovudine. Bone marrow suppression and anemia are frequent side effects of treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with zidovudine (formerly azidothymidine [AZT]). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of recombinant human erythropoietin (100 U per kilogram of body weight thrice weekly by intravenous bolus) in 63 patients with AIDS treated with zidovudine (29 (...) of endogenous erythropoietin. Serious side effects did not occur more often in the group treated with erythropoietin than in the placebo group. We conclude that recombinant human erythropoietin may be useful in patients with AIDS treated with zidovudine, although the indicators for its use remain to be clarified.

1990 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

727. Zidovudine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. A controlled trial in persons with fewer than 500 CD4-positive cells per cubic millimeter. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (Abstract)

Zidovudine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. A controlled trial in persons with fewer than 500 CD4-positive cells per cubic millimeter. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Zidovudine (AZT) is a potent inhibitor of the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and it has been shown to improve survival in advanced HIV disease. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial in adults with asymptomatic HIV (...) infection who had CD4+ cell counts of fewer than 500 per cubic millimeter on entry into the study. The subjects (92 percent male) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: placebo (428 subjects); zidovudine, 500 mg per day (453); or zidovudine, 1500 mg per day (457). After a mean follow-up of 55 weeks (range, 19 to 107), 33 of the subjects assigned to placebo had the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), as compared with 11 of those assigned to receive 500 mg of zidovudine (P = 0.002

1990 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

728. Locomotor disability in very elderly people: value of a programme for screening and provision of aids for daily living. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Locomotor disability in very elderly people: value of a programme for screening and provision of aids for daily living. To assess the prevalence of potentially reversible locomotor disabilities in elderly subjects and the cost effectiveness of providing aids for daily living.Population based randomised controlled trial of subjects aged greater than or equal to 85 living independently in an inner London borough.21 Electoral wards of the London Borough of Hackney.1255 Subjects aged greater than (...) or equal to 85 living in their own home whose names were obtained from general practitioner lists and cross checked against the electoral register, 511 of whom were subsequently found to be ineligible. Of the 744 remaining, those with disability on screening were randomised and allocated to an intervention group (36) or a control group (43), in which intervention was postponed until four weeks, after the follow up assessment. Subjects with aids supplied previously were excluded from the intervention

1990 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain

729. Prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia relapse by pentamidine aerosol in zidovudine-treated AIDS patients. (Abstract)

Prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia relapse by pentamidine aerosol in zidovudine-treated AIDS patients. To examine the efficacy and tolerance of pentamidine aerosol in the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) relapse in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) being treated with zidovudine, 51 patients who had had an episode of PCP in the previous 5 months were enrolled in a randomised controlled study. 25 patients (group I) received pentamidine (...) . They did not differ in proportions surviving. Bronchial intolerance was common (47%); no systemic side-effects of pentamidine were observed. Pentamidine aerosol thus seems to be effective in preventing PCP relapses in AIDS patients on zidovudine. The early termination of the trial prevented assessment of the long-term efficacy and safety of pentamidine given by aerosol.

1989 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

730. Prolonged zidovudine therapy in patients with AIDS and advanced AIDS-related complex. AZT Collaborative Working Group. (Abstract)

Prolonged zidovudine therapy in patients with AIDS and advanced AIDS-related complex. AZT Collaborative Working Group. We examined the long-term safety and efficacy of zidovudine therapy in 229 subjects with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex who previously participated in a placebo-controlled study of zidovudine. One hundred two placebo recipients (delayed treatment group) and 127 zidovudine recipients (original treatment group) were followed up while receiving (...) zidovudine therapy for a mean of 21 months. Survival rates for the original treatment group were 84.5% and 57.6% at 12 and 21 months, respectively; for the delayed treatment group, 78.8% and 64.6% at 12 and 21 months, respectively, and 78.8% and 47.5% at 12 and 21 months, respectively, for 77 subjects with AIDS and 93.0% and 71.8%, respectively, for 50 subjects with AIDS-related complex in the original treatment group. Adverse reactions decreased over time and newly observed toxic reactions were unusual

1989 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

731. Comparison of fluconazole and ketoconazole for oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS. (Abstract)

Comparison of fluconazole and ketoconazole for oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS. In a randomised, double-blind study the efficacy and toxicity of oral fluconazole 50 mg daily and ketoconazole 200 mg daily were compared for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC). 20 episodes (18 patients) were treated with fluconazole and 20 episodes (19 patients) with ketoconazole. Pretreatment clinical features (...) -treated patients had transient rises in alanine or aspartate aminotransferase. Fluconazole seemed more effective than ketoconazole in the treatment of oral thrush among AIDS and ARC patients.

1989 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

732. Survival experience among patients with AIDS receiving zidovudine. Follow-up of patients in a compassionate plea program. (Abstract)

Survival experience among patients with AIDS receiving zidovudine. Follow-up of patients in a compassionate plea program. Through a compassionate plea program (Treatment Investigational New Drug), 4805 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who previously had experienced Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) received zidovudine (Retrovir, formerly azidothymidine). Overall survival at 44 weeks after initiation of therapy was 73% (+/- 2.1%). A positive association was found between

1988 JAMA

733. Safety and efficacy of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. (Abstract)

Safety and efficacy of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. The safety and efficacy of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were evaluated. Sixty patients with a new diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma and no history of opportunistic infections were randomly assigned to receive 800 mg of sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg of trimethoprim

1988 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

734. The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (Abstract)

The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy of oral azidothymidine (AZT) in 282 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifested by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia alone, or with advanced AIDS-related complex. The subjects were stratified according to numbers of T cells with CD4 surface markers and were (...) , as compared with 24 receiving AZT. The base-line Karnofsky performance score and weight increased significantly among AZT recipients (P less than 0.001). A statistically significant increase in the number of CD4 cells was noted in subjects receiving AZT (P less than 0.001). After 12 weeks, the number of CD4 cells declined to pretreatment values among AZT recipients with AIDS but not amonG AZT recipients with AIDS-related complex. Skin-test anergy was partially reversed in 29 percent of subjects receiving

1987 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

735. The toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (Abstract)

The toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral azidothymidine (AZT) in 282 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex. Although significant clinical benefit was documented (N Engl J Med 1987; 317:185-91), serious adverse reactions, particularly bone marrow suppression, were observed. Nausea

1987 NEJM

736. Administration of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, an inhibitor of HTLV-III/LAV replication, to patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. (Abstract)

Administration of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, an inhibitor of HTLV-III/LAV replication, to patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. In a 6-week clinical trial 4 dose regimens of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), a thymidine analogue with potent anti-viral activity against HTLV-III in vitro, were examined in 19 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC). AZT was given intravenously for 2 weeks, then orally for 4 weeks at twice the intravenous

1986 Lancet