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Top results for aids

401. National cross sectional study of views on sexual violence and risk of HIV infection and AIDS among South African school pupils.

National cross sectional study of views on sexual violence and risk of HIV infection and AIDS among South African school pupils. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the views of school pupils on sexual violence and on the risk of HIV infection and AIDS and their experiences of sexual violence. DESIGN: National cross sectional study. SETTING: 5162 classes in 1418 South African schools. PARTICIPANTS: 269,705 school pupils aged 10-19 years in grades 6-11. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Answers to questions about (...) sexual violence and about the risk of HIV infection and AIDS. RESULTS: Misconceptions about sexual violence were common among both sexes, but more females held views that would put them at high risk of HIV infection. One third of the respondents thought they might be HIV positive. This was associated with misconceptions about sexual violence and about the risk of HIV infection and AIDS. Around 11% of males and 4% of females claimed to have forced someone else to have sex; 66% of these males and 71

BMJ2004 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

402. Treatment for adult HIV infection: 2004 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel.

Treatment for adult HIV infection: 2004 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel. CONTEXT: Substantial changes in the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment have occurred in the last 2 years, prompting revision of the guidelines for antiretroviral management of adults with established HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: To update recommendations for physicians who provide HIV care regarding when to start antiretroviral therapy, what drugs to start with, when to change

JAMA2004

403. Estimating the global burden of HIV/AIDS: what do we really know about the HIV pandemic?

Estimating the global burden of HIV/AIDS: what do we really know about the HIV pandemic? The validity of UNAIDS/WHO estimates of the burden of HIV/AIDS is rightly questioned by politicians, scientists, and activists-especially since the 2003 estimates to be released in July, 2004, will show substantial drops in the burden of HIV/AIDS in several countries, and increases in others. However, the estimates are based on an explicit attempt to meet criteria we believe should guide the generation (...) of international morbidity and mortality figures. These criteria extend beyond the quality of the input data to include features of the estimation process such as transparency and participation. The 2003 estimates now include plausible ranges for estimates rather than a single best estimate. This reduces the chance that insignificant differences in estimates from different sources are given importance. Here, we describe the levels of uncertainty associated with the UNAIDS/WHO estimates of HIV/AIDS. We explain

Lancet2004

404. Scaling-up treatment for HIV/AIDS: lessons learned from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

Scaling-up treatment for HIV/AIDS: lessons learned from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The UN has launched an initiative to place 3 million people in developing countries on antiretroviral AIDS treatment by end 2005 (the 3 by 5 target). Lessons for HIV/AIDS treatment scale-up emerge from recent experience with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Expansion of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis through the multipartner mechanism known as the Green Light Committee (GLC) has enabled (...) gains in areas relevant to 3 by 5, including policy development, drug procurement, rational use of drugs, and the strengthening of health systems. The successes of the GLC and the obstacles it has encountered provide insights for building sustainable HIV/AIDS treatment programmes.

Lancet2004

405. Stable partnership and progression to AIDS or death in HIV infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: Swiss HIV cohort study.

Stable partnership and progression to AIDS or death in HIV infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: Swiss HIV cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between a stable partnership and clinical outcome in HIV infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of adults with HIV (Swiss HIV cohort study). SETTING: Seven outpatient clinics throughout Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: The 3736 patients (...) in the cohort who started HAART before 2002 (median age 36 years, 29% female, median follow up 3.6 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to AIDS or death (primary endpoint), death alone, increases in CD4 cell count of at least 50 and 100 above baseline, optimal viral suppression (a viral load below 400 copies/ml), and viral rebound. RESULTS: During follow up 2985 (80%) participants reported a stable partnership on at least one occasion. When starting HAART, 52% (545/1042) of participants reported a stable

BMJ2004 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

406. Interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS among adolescents in less developed countries: are they effective?

Interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS among adolescents in less developed countries: are they effective? Interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS among adolescents in less developed countries: are they effective? Interventions to prevent HIV/AIDS among adolescents in less developed countries: are they effective? Magnussen L, Ehiri J E, Ejere H O, Jolly P E CRD summary This review assessed interventions to prevent HIV and AIDS among adolescents in less developed countries. The authors concluded (...) that the interventions showed only limited success and that higher quality research is required. It was difficult to assess the strength of evidence underpinning these conclusions because of limitations in the reporting of the results and study quality. However, the recommendation for further research appears appropriate. Authors' objectives To assess the effects of interventions to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among adolescents in less developed countries

DARE.2004

407. Computer aided detection of breast cancer

Computer aided detection of breast cancer Computer aided detection of breast cancer Computer aided detection of breast cancer Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Computer aided detection of breast cancer. Bloomington MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (...) (ICSI) 2004: 18 Authors' objectives This review aims to assess the available evidence on the computer aided detection of breast cancer in mammography images. Authors' conclusions With regard to computer aided detection (CAD) of breast cancer, the ICSI Technology Assessment Committee finds: CAD causes no direct harm to patients. Misdiagnoses (false-positive or false-negative results) can lead to unnecessary follow-up testing, unnecessary patient anxiety, or delays in obtaining treatment. Lower

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2004

408. Model for simulation of HIV/AIDS and cost-effectiveness of preventing non-tuberculous mycobacterial (MAC)-disease

Model for simulation of HIV/AIDS and cost-effectiveness of preventing non-tuberculous mycobacterial (MAC)-disease Model for simulation of HIV/AIDS and cost-effectiveness of preventing non-tuberculous mycobacterial (MAC)-disease Model for simulation of HIV/AIDS and cost-effectiveness of preventing non-tuberculous mycobacterial (MAC)-disease Hoffmann T, Brunner H Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Three treatments for the prevention of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (MAC)-disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) were examined. The treatments were clarithromycin, azithromycin and rifabutin. Clarithromycin was given at a dosage of 1,000 mg/day

NHS Economic Evaluation Database.2004

409. Computer aided detection systems in mammography

Computer aided detection systems in mammography Computer aided detection systems in mammography: a breast cancer detection tool for women attending screening and/or diagnostic mammography services. Computer aided detection systems in mammography: a breast cancer detection tool for women attending screening and/or diagnostic mammography services. Bywood P, Newton S, Merlin T, Braunack-Mayer A, Hiller J E Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment (...) from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Bywood P, Newton S, Merlin T, Braunack-Mayer A, Hiller J E. Computer aided detection systems in mammography: a breast cancer detection tool for women attending screening and/or diagnostic mammography services. 2004 Authors' objectives

This Horizon Scanning Report is intended for the use of health planners and policy makers. It provides an assessment of the current state

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.2004

410. Effect of a decision aid on knowledge and treatment decision making for breast cancer surgery: a randomized trial.

Effect of a decision aid on knowledge and treatment decision making for breast cancer surgery: a randomized trial. 15280341 2004 07 28 2004 08 02 2016 10 17 1538-3598 292 4 2004 Jul 28 JAMA JAMA Effect of a decision aid on knowledge and treatment decision making for breast cancer surgery: a randomized trial. 435-41 The long-term results of randomized trials have demonstrated equivalent survival rates for mastectomy and breast-conserving therapy for the treatment of early stage breast cancer (...) . Consequently, the choice of treatment should be based on a patient's preferences. To evaluate the impact of a decision aid regarding the different surgical treatment options on patient decision making. A cluster randomized trial for which general surgeons in the communities of central-west, and eastern Ontario, Canada, were randomly assigned to use the decision aid or not in the surgical consultation. Patients received the decision aid or not based on the surgeon seen. Twenty surgeons participated

JAMA2004

411. Effect of a computer-based decision aid on knowledge, perceptions, and intentions about genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility: a randomized controlled trial.

Effect of a computer-based decision aid on knowledge, perceptions, and intentions about genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility: a randomized controlled trial. 15280342 2004 07 28 2004 08 02 2017 02 19 1538-3598 292 4 2004 Jul 28 JAMA JAMA Effect of a computer-based decision aid on knowledge, perceptions, and intentions about genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility: a randomized controlled trial. 442-52 As the availability of and demand for genetic testing for hereditary (...) cancers increases in primary care and other clinical settings, alternative or adjunct educational methods to traditional genetic counseling will be needed. To compare the effectiveness of a computer-based decision aid with standard genetic counseling for educating women about BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing. Randomized controlled trial conducted from May 2000 to September 2002. Outpatient clinics offering cancer genetic counseling at 6 US medical centers enrolled 211 women with personal or family

JAMA2004 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

412. Intrathecal ziconotide in the treatment of refractory pain in patients with cancer or AIDS: a randomized controlled trial.

Intrathecal ziconotide in the treatment of refractory pain in patients with cancer or AIDS: a randomized controlled trial. 14709577 2004 01 07 2004 01 14 2016 11 24 1538-3598 291 1 2004 Jan 07 JAMA JAMA Intrathecal ziconotide in the treatment of refractory pain in patients with cancer or AIDS: a randomized controlled trial. 63-70 Ziconotide (formerly SNX-111) selectively blocks N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels and may be effective in patients with pain that is refractory to opioid (...) therapy or those with intolerable opioid-related adverse effects. To assess the safety and efficacy of intrathecal ziconotide in patients with pain that is refractory to conventional treatment. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial conducted from March 12, 1996, to July 11, 1998, at 32 study centers in the United States, Australia, and the Netherlands. Patients were 111 individuals ages 24 to 85 years with cancer or AIDS and a mean Visual Analog Scale of Pain Intensity (VASPI) score of 50

JAMA2004

413. Food-aid cereals to reduce neurolathyrism related to grass-pea preparations during famine.

Food-aid cereals to reduce neurolathyrism related to grass-pea preparations during famine. Neurolathyrism is a spastic paraparesis that can be caused by excessive consumption of the drought-resistant grass pea (Lathyrus sativus). Devastating neurolathyrism epidemics have occurred during major famine crises in various parts of the world. We investigated in a case-control study the effects of food aid on risk of paralysis. Risk increased with consumption of boiled grass pea (adjusted odds ratio (...) 2.78, 95% CI 1.09-7.13 with cereals; 5.22, 2.01-13.55 without cereal) and raw unripe green grass pea (1.96, 1.16-3.31; p=0.011), but not with the fermented pancake, unleavened bread, and gravy preparations. In a correlational study there was an inverse relation between the number of new cases and the amount of food-aid cereals distributed per person. During famine, cereals and nutritional information should reach people before they have grass pea as the only food.

Lancet2003

414. Decline in mortality, AIDS, and hospital admissions in perinatally HIV-1 infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

Decline in mortality, AIDS, and hospital admissions in perinatally HIV-1 infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland. OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in demographic factors, disease progression, hospital admissions, and use of antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV. DESIGN: Active surveillance through the national study of HIV in pregnancy and childhood (NSHPC) and additional data from a subset of children in the collaborative HIV paediatric study (CHIPS). SETTING: United Kingdom (...) and Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 944 children with perinatally acquired HIV-1 under clinical care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes over time in progression to AIDS and death, hospital admission rates, and use of antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: 944 children with perinatally acquired HIV were reported in the United Kingdom and Ireland by October 2002; 628 (67%) were black African, 205 (22%) were aged > or = 10 years at last follow up, 193 (20%) are known to have died. The proportion of children presenting who

BMJ2003 Full Text: Link to full Text with Trip Pro

415. New variant famine: AIDS and food crisis in southern Africa.

New variant famine: AIDS and food crisis in southern Africa. Southern Africa is undergoing a food crisis of surprising scale and novelty. The familiar culprits of drought and mismanagement of national strategies are implicated. However, this crisis is distinct from conventional drought-induced food shortages with respect to those vulnerable to starvation, and the course of impoverishment and recovery. We propose that these new aspects to the food crisis can be attributed largely to the HIV/AIDS (...) epidemic in the region. We present evidence that we are facing a new variant famine. We have used frameworks drawn from famine theory to examine the implications. HIV/AIDS has created a new category of highly vulnerable households--namely, those with ill adults or those whose adults have died. The general burden of care in both AIDS-affected and non-AIDS-affected households has reduced the viability of farming livelihoods. The sensitivity of rural communities to external shocks such as drought has

Lancet2003

416. Hepatic injury in 12 patients taking the herbal weight loss AIDS Chaso or Onshido.

Hepatic injury in 12 patients taking the herbal weight loss AIDS Chaso or Onshido. BACKGROUND: The Chinese herbal dietary supplements Chaso and Onshido are marketed for weight loss in Japan. The safety of these weight loss aids is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe patients who developed liver injury while taking Chaso or Onshido. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Keio University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, and other hospitals in Japan. PATIENTS: 6 patients who took Chaso and 6 patients who took Onshido (...) before presenting with liver injury. MEASUREMENTS: Pathologic, clinical, and laboratory evaluations and chemical analysis of the herbal weight loss aids. RESULTS: All 12 patients developed acute liver injury characterized by a marked increase in serum liver chemistry values (mean alanine aminotransferase level, 1978 U/L [range, 283 to 4074 U/L]) after ingesting these products. Two patients developed fulminant hepatic failure: 1 patient required liver transplantation, and the other patient died. N

Annals of Internal Medicine2003

417. Overcoming the false dichotomy of curative vs palliative care for late-stage HIV/AIDS: "let me live the way I want to live, until I can't".

Overcoming the false dichotomy of curative vs palliative care for late-stage HIV/AIDS: "let me live the way I want to live, until I can't". Recent advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy have significantly reduced HIV-related mortality in the developed world, but mortality rates have plateaued, and AIDS remains a leading cause of serious illness and death for young adults. The chronic nature of the HIV disease course and the increasing burden of cumulative HIV-related morbidity (...) manageable chronic disease, yet at the same time has resulted in a more narrow focus and a de facto separation between disease-specific "curative" and symptom-specific "palliative" care for patients with HIV/AIDS. As patients survive longer in the latter stages of progressive HIV disease, they may in fact have increasing need for comprehensive symptom management as well as wide-ranging need for psychosocial, family, and care planning support. In the HAART era, the false dichotomy of curative vs

JAMA2003

418. Decline in the AIDS and death rates in the EuroSIDA study: an observational study.

Decline in the AIDS and death rates in the EuroSIDA study: an observational study. BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), little is known about whether changes in HIV-1 mortality and morbidity rates have been sustained. We aimed to assess possible changes in these rates across Europe. METHODS: We analysed data for 9803 patients in 70 European HIV centres including ones in Israel and Argentina. Incidence rates of AIDS or death were calculated (...) for overall and most recent CD4 count in 6-monthly periods and in three treatment eras (pre-HAART, 1994-1995; early-HAART, 1996-1997; and late-HAART, 1998-2002). FINDINGS: The incidence of AIDS or death fell after September, 1998, by 8% per 6-month period (rate ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.95, p<0.0001). When AIDS and death were analysed separately, the incidence of all deaths during the late-HAART era was significantly lower than that during the early-HAART era in patients whose latest CD4 count was 20

Lancet2003

419. The effectiveness of computer-aided, self-instructional programs in dental education: a systematic review of the literature

The effectiveness of computer-aided, self-instructional programs in dental education: a systematic review of the literature The effectiveness of computer-aided, self-instructional programs in dental education: a systematic review of the literature The effectiveness of computer-aided, self-instructional programs in dental education: a systematic review of the literature Rosenberg H, Grad H A, Matear D W CRD summary This review compared the effectiveness of computer-aided learning (CAL (...) ) programmes of dental education with other teaching methods. The authors concluded that CAL is as effective as other methods of teaching. Not all studies reported statistically significant results favouring CAL, but potential reasons for differing results among studies were not discussed. This diminishes the strength of the evidence. Authors' objectives To compare the effectiveness of computer-aided learning (CAL) programmes of dental education with other teaching methods. Searching MEDLINE, the Cochrane

DARE.2003