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The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on aids or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Influence of computer-aided detection on performance of screening mammography. BACKGROUND: Computer-aided detection identifies suspicious findings on mammograms to assist radiologists. Since the Food and Drug Administration approved the technology in 1998, it has been disseminated into practice, but its effect on the accuracy of interpretation is unclear. METHODS: We determined the association between the use of computer-aided detection at mammography facilities and the performance of screening (...) mammography from 1998 through 2002 at 43 facilities in three states. We had complete data for 222,135 women (a total of 429,345 mammograms), including 2351 women who received a diagnosis of breast cancer within 1 year after screening. We calculated the specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value of screening mammography with and without computer-aided detection, as well as the rates of biopsy and breast-cancer detection and the overall accuracy, measured as the area under
Evolution of China's response to HIV/AIDS. Four factors have driven China's response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic: (1) existing government structures and networks of relationships; (2) increasing scientific information; (3) external influences that underscored the potential consequences of an HIV/AIDS pandemic and thus accelerated strategic planning; and (4) increasing political commitment at the highest levels. China's response culminated in legislation to control HIV/AIDS-the AIDS Prevention and
Male circumcision and HIV/AIDS: challenges and opportunities 17321321 2007 02 26 2007 03 01 2016 10 19 1474-547X 369 9562 2007 Feb 24 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Male circumcision and HIV/AIDS: challenges and opportunities. 708-13 Sawires Sharif R SR AIDS Policy Development Center, UCLA Program in Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. SSawires@mednet.ucla.edu Dworkin Shari L SL Fiamma Agnès (...) A Peacock Dean D Szekeres Greg G Coates Thomas J TJ eng P30 MH043520 MH NIMH NIH HHS United States P50 MH043520 MH NIMH NIH HHS United States P30 MH43520 MH NIMH NIH HHS United States Journal Article Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review England Lancet 2985213R 0140-6736 AIM IM N Engl J Med. 2002 Apr 11;346(15):1105-12 11948269 AIDS. 2000 Oct 20;14(15):2371-81 11089626 Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD003362 12917962 Lancet. 2004 Mar 27;363(9414):1039-40
Treatment for anemia in people with AIDS. BACKGROUND: Anemia is a common clinical disease in persons with HIV infection and is associated with poor prognosis. There is a need to assess the effects of anemia treatments, and to determine whether these interventions are beneficial. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of treatments for anemia in people with HIV infection and AIDS. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2005 (...) ), MEDLINE (1980-July 2005), EMBASE (1980-July 2005), LlLACS (1982 to July 2005), reference lists of relevant articles and contact with authors. See Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group search strategy. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials assessing the effects of treatments for anemia in people diagnosed with HIV infection. There were no age restrictions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Both authors independently assessed relevant studies for inclusion. Data extraction and quality assessment of relevant studies
Suicidality and violence in patients with HIV/AIDS. Suicidality and violence in patients with HIV/AIDS. | National Guideline Clearinghouse Search Sign In Username or Email * Password * Remember Me Don't have an account? Guideline Summary NGC:005459 This guideline summary has been withdrawn from NGC. Please update your bookmarks. View all withdrawn summaries in the . About NGC Guideline Summaries NGC's guidelines summaries contain information systematically derived from original guidelines. New
Computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography: analysis and review of the literature Computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography: analysis and review of the literature Computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography: analysis and review of the literature Saba L, Caddeo G, Mallarini G CRD summary This review evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity of pulmonary nodules computer-aided detection (CAD) in computed tomography (CT (...) ). The authors concluded that CAD was an accurate tool for the detection of pulmonary nodules as a useful second look for the physician. Given the numerous reporting flaws in this review, its conclusions cannot be considered reliable. Authors' objectives To evaluate the role and diagnostic sensitivity of the pulmonary nodules computer-aided detection (CAD) in computed tomography (CT). Searching The authors searched the MEDLINE via PubMed database for English-language studies published from January 2001
A systematic review of health-related quality of life hearing aids: final report of the American Academy of Audiology Task Force on the Health-Related Quality of Life Benefits of Amplication in Adults A systematic review of health-related quality of life hearing aids: final report of the American Academy of Audiology Task Force on the Health-Related Quality of Life Benefits of Amplication in Adults A systematic review of health-related quality of life hearing aids: final report of the American (...) Academy of Audiology Task Force on the Health-Related Quality of Life Benefits of Amplication in Adults Chisolm T H, Johnson C E, Danhauer J L, Portz L J, Abrams H B, Lesner S, McCarthy P A, Newman C W CRD summary This review concluded that hearing aids improve the health-related quality of life of adults. The quantity and quality of the included studies was limited, and some aspects of the review process were not reported. Despite this, the conclusions are likely to be reliable since the direction
Cost-effectiveness analysis of enfuvirtide (ENF) added to an optimized therapy compared with an optimized therapy in patients with HIV/AIDS Cost-effectiveness analysis of enfuvirtide (ENF) added to an optimized therapy compared with an optimized therapy in patients with HIV/AIDS Cost-effectiveness analysis of enfuvirtide (ENF) added to an optimized therapy compared with an optimized therapy in patients with HIV/AIDS Badia X, Lizan L, Magaz S, Alvarez Sanz C, Green J, Serrano D Record Status (...) assumptions about disease progression were taken from published mathematical models and subsequently validated by a panel of experts. Few details of these sources were given. For example, the decline in CD4+ cell count was taken from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and then projected through a published equation. The key clinical outcomes were the effects of treatment on CD4+ cell count and viral load. Monetary benefit and utility valuations: None. Measure of benefit: The summary benefit measure
Oral delta-9-THC (Marinol) for AIDS-related anorexia/weight loss Oral delta-9-THC (Marinol) for AIDS-related anorexia/weight loss | Therapeutics Initiative Independent Healthcare Evidence > > Oral delta-9-THC (Marinol) for AIDS-related anorexia/weight loss Background Information of the Condition Weight loss in AIDS patients results from loss of appetite (anorexia), wasting of muscle and adipose tissues (cachexia), and leads eventually in death. Adequate treatments are needed to prevent (...) malnutrition. The goals of therapy in AIDS patients who are anorexic and cachexic are to increase appetite, increase or maintain weight, and increase quality of life. Marinol, an oral Δ 9 -THC formulation, is a synthetic cannabinoid indicated previously as an anti-emetic in severe nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. It is available as 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg oral gel capsules. Smoked medical marijuana is intended for general use and symptom management in HIV/AIDS patients. Drug (Product
Economic evaluation of treatment administration strategies of ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV/AIDS patients in Thailand: a simulation study Economic evaluation of treatment administration strategies of ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV/AIDS patients in Thailand: a simulation study Economic evaluation of treatment administration strategies of ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV/AIDS patients in Thailand: a simulation study Teerawattananon K, Iewsakul (...) ) for the induction phase and oral (OR) for the maintenance phase (IV/OR); intravitreal injection (IVT); and intraocular implantation (IMP). The 'do-nothing' approach was used as a comparator. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population As this was a modelling study, the target population comprised HIV/AIDS patients suffering from either bilateral or unilateral CMVR. However, no further details of the target population were provided and no specific inclusion
Two decision aids for mode of delivery among women with previous caesarean section: randomised controlled trial. 17540908 2007 06 22 2007 06 27 2017 02 19 1756-1833 334 7607 2007 Jun 23 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Two decision aids for mode of delivery among women with previous caesarean section: randomised controlled trial. 1305 To determine the effects of two computer based decision aids on decisional conflict and mode of delivery among pregnant women with a previous caesarean section (...) ) and the decision analysis (-4.0, -6.5 to -1.5) groups had reduced decisional conflict compared with women in the usual care group. The rate of vaginal birth was higher for women in the decision analysis group compared with the usual care group (37% v 30%, adjusted odds ratio 1.42, 0.94 to 2.14), but the rates were similar in the information programme and usual care groups. Decision aids can help women who have had a previous caesarean section to decide on mode of delivery in a subsequent pregnancy
Googling for a diagnosis--use of Google as a diagnostic aid: internet based study. OBJECTIVE: To determine how often searching with Google (the most popular search engine on the world wide web) leads doctors to the correct diagnosis. DESIGN: Internet based study using Google to search for diagnoses; researchers were blind to the correct diagnoses. SETTING: One year's (2005) diagnostic cases published in the case records of the New England Journal of Medicine. CASES: 26 cases from the New
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a home-based AIDS care programme in rural Uganda. BACKGROUND: Poverty and limited health services in rural Africa present barriers to adherence to antiretroviral therapy that necessitate innovative options other than facility-based methods for delivery and monitoring of such therapy. We assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of HIV-infected people in a home-based AIDS care programme that provides the therapy and other AIDS care (...) be achieved in a home-based AIDS care programme in a resource-limited rural African setting. Health-care systems must continue to implement, evaluate, and modify interventions to overcome barriers to comprehensive AIDS care programmes, especially the barriers to adherence with antiretroviral therapy.
Reading aids for adults with low vision. BACKGROUND: The purpose of low vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual vision and low vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high power video magnifiers. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of reading aids (...) for adults with low vision. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SIGLE, LILACS, IndMed to July 2006 and the reference lists of relevant articles. We used the Science Citation Index to find articles that cited the included studies and contacted investigators and manufacturers of low vision aids. We handsearched the British Journal
Short-term risk of AIDS or death in people infected with HIV-1 before antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a longitudinal study. BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, data for short-term risk of AIDS or death, which might inform decisions about when to start antiretroviral therapy (ART), are scarce. Our aim was to investigate these risks in patients who had no access to ART or who were given zidovudine alone. METHODS: 6-month risks (%) of death, AIDS, and combined risk of AIDS and death (AIDS (...) , and 1.2% for greater than 350 cells per microL. The corresponding rates for WHO stage 3 were 10.8%, 4.3%, and 4.9% and for stage 4, 22.2%, 10.3%, and 13.8%. 52% (90) of deaths took place in patients without AIDS. 6-month risk of AIDS for WHO stages 1 and 2 was 3.5% for those with less than 200 cells per microL, 1.6% for 200-350 cells per microL, and zero for greater than 350 cells per microL. The corresponding rates for those with WHO stage 3 disease were 17.4%, 7.0%, and 2.2%. INTERPRETATION
Causes of death among persons with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: New York City. BACKGROUND: Monitoring the full spectrum of causes of death among persons with AIDS is increasingly important as survival improves because of highly active antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVE: To describe recent trends in deaths due to HIV-related and non-HIV-related causes among persons with AIDS, identify factors associated with these deaths, and identify leading causes of non-HIV-related (...) deaths. DESIGN: Population-based cohort analysis. SETTING: New York City. PATIENTS: All adults (age > or =13 years) living with AIDS between 1999 and 2004 who were reported to the New York City HIV/AIDS Reporting System and Vital Statistics Registry through 2004 (n = 68,669). MEASUREMENTS: Underlying cause of death on the death certificate. RESULTS: Between 1999 and 2004, the percentage of deaths due to non-HIV-related causes increased by 32.8% (from 19.8% to 26.3%; P = 0.015). The age-adjusted
Developing a quality criteria framework for patient decision aids: online international Delphi consensus process. OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of quality criteria for patient decision support technologies (decision aids). DESIGN AND SETTING: Two stage web based Delphi process using online rating process to enable international collaboration. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals from four stakeholder groups (researchers, practitioners, patients, policy makers) representing 14 countries reviewed evidence (...) presentation of options (3/3); using plain language (4/6); basing information on up to date evidence (7/7); and establishing effectiveness (8/8). CONCLUSIONS: Criteria were given the highest ratings where evidence existed, and these were retained. Gaps in research were highlighted. Developers, users, and purchasers of patient decision aids now have a checklist for appraising quality. An instrument for measuring quality of decision aids is being developed.
Treatment for adult HIV infection: 2006 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. CONTEXT: Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy are important for clinicians worldwide given the complexity of the field and the varied clinical situations in which these agents are used. The International AIDS Society-USA panel has updated its recommendations as warranted by new developments in the field. OBJECTIVE: To provide physicians and other human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinicians
Absorptive capacity and disbursements by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: analysis of grant implementation. BACKGROUND: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was launched in 2002 to attract and rapidly disburse money to fight these diseases. However, some commentators believe that poor countries cannot effectively use such resources to increase delivery of their health programmes-referred to as a lack of absorptive capacity. We aimed to investigate
HIV/AIDS epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. The HIV-1 pandemic is a complex mix of diverse epidemics within and between countries and regions of the world, and is undoubtedly the defining public-health crisis of our time. Research has deepened our understanding of how the virus replicates, manipulates, and hides in an infected person. Although our understanding of pathogenesis and transmission dynamics has become more nuanced and prevention options have expanded, a cure (...) or protective vaccine remains elusive. Antiretroviral treatment has transformed AIDS from an inevitably fatal condition to a chronic, manageable disease in some settings. This transformation has yet to be realised in those parts of the world that continue to bear a disproportionate burden of new HIV-1 infections and are most affected by increasing morbidity and mortality. This Seminar provides an update on epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention interventions pertinent to HIV-1.