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ADHD (or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a neurodevelopmental type mental disorder. It is characterised two main categories of two types of behavioural problems:
hyperactivity and impulsiveness
Most people with ADHD have problems that fall into both categories, but it doesn’t have to be the case. If a person just has inattentiveness it is referred to as attention deficit disorder (ADD).
Methylphenidate is a commonly used medication used to treat patients suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methylphenidate is part of a group of drugs known as stimulants. Central nervous system stimulants help change the amounts of natural substances in the brain. But it is not the only intervention; others include Bupropion, exercise and CBT (Cognitive behavioural therapy).
Extensive ADHD research and case studies have been carried out over numerous years. Trip has unrivalled coverage of the evidence base including systematic reviews, clinical trials, clinical guidelines and case studies.
Studies are ongoing to assess the safety and effectiveness of stimulants used on children with ADHD and intellectual disabilities as well as in other populations and other interventions. Trip also includes ongoing controlled trials and ongoing systematic reviews (via the PROSPERO database).
Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder in adults Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder in adults - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder in adults Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: October 2018 Summary A common adult disorder, thought to be persistence of childhood attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD). Prevalence of 2% to 5% in the general (...) in combination with medication. Definition Adult attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, persisting into adulthood. Diagnosis can be made in either adulthood or childhood by 7 years of age (age limit increased in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition [DSM-5] to 12 years). Functional impairment is a criterion for diagnosis. Comorbid disorders are present in more than 75
Amphetamines for attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in adults. Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset disorder characterised by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD can persist into adulthood and can affects individuals' social and occupational functioning, as well as their quality of life and health. ADHD is frequently associated with other mental disorders such as substance use disorders and anxiety and affective disorders. Amphetamines (...) are used to treat adults with ADHD, but uncertainties about their efficacy and safety remain.To examine the efficacy and safety of amphetamines for adults with ADHD.In August 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, 10 other databases, and two trials registers, and we ran citation searches for included studies. We also contacted the corresponding authors of all included studies, other experts in the field, and the pharmaceutical company, Shire, and we searched the reference lists
are likely to help inform the design of future UK trials. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? A 2003 UK survey of over 10,000 children aged five to 15 years found that 3.62% of boys and 0.85% of girls had attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD). Many studies have shown increases in the prevalence of clinically diagnosed ADHD in the last couple of decades, especially in the US, but there are differences in how ADHD is diagnosed between countries. However, a small 2009 UK (...) . . Psychiatr Serv 2010;61:803–10. Telford C, Green C, Logan S, et al. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2013;48:337–44. Why was this study needed? A 2003 UK survey of over 10,000 children aged five to 15 years found that 3.62% of boys and 0.85% of girls had attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD). Many studies have shown increases in the prevalence of clinically diagnosed ADHD in the last couple of decades, especially in the US, but there are differences in how ADHD is diagnosed between countries
examination by a physician/medical doctor - Psychological 2016 10. Bupropion for attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder ( ADHD ) in adults. BACKGROUND: Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder ( ADHD ) is a prevalent neurobiological condition, characterised by behavioral and cognitive symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity and/or excessive activity. The syndrome is commonly accompanied by psychiatric comorbidities and is associated with educational and occupational underachievement.Although (...) in improving family and social relationships. On the other hand, it has frequent, sometimes severe, adverse effects. In practice, it is best to avoid guanfacine. The diagnosis of attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder in children is based on non-specific behavioural symptoms: inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. The disruptive impact on family 2017 17. ADHD in Children and Adolescents ADHD in Children and Adolescents -- Clinical Recommendation Welcome Search Search Specify your search
Nonpharmacologic Treatments for Attention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder: A Systematic Review Nonpharmacologic treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) encompass a range of care approaches from structured behavioral interventions to complementary medicines.To assess the comparative effectiveness of nonpharmacologic treatments for ADHD among individuals 17 years of age and younger.PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for relevant English (...) , including neurofeedback, cognitive training, cognitive behavioral therapy, child or parent training, dietary omega fatty acid supplementation, and herbal and/or dietary approaches. No new guidance was identified regarding the comparative effectiveness of nonpharmacologic treatments. Pooled results for omega fatty acids found no significant effects for parent rating of ADHD total symptoms (n = 411; standardized mean difference -0.32; 95% confidence interval -0.80 to 0.15; I2 = 52.4%; P = .10) or teacher
Association of Digital Media Use With Subsequent Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder Among Adolescents. Modern digital platforms are easily accessible and intensely stimulating; it is unknown whether frequent use of digital media may be associated with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD).To determine whether the frequency of using digital media among 15- and 16-year-olds without significant ADHD symptoms is associated with subsequent occurrence of ADHD (...) was defined as many times a day (yes/no) and was summed in a cumulative index (range, 0-14).Self-rated frequency of 18 ADHD symptoms (never/rare, sometimes, often, very often) in the 6 months preceding the survey. The total numbers of 9 inattentive symptoms (range, 0-9) and 9 hyperactive-impulsive symptoms (range, 0-9) that students rated as experiencing often or very often were calculated. Students who had reported experiencing often or very often 6 or more symptoms in either category were classified
Pharmacological treatment for attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders. This is an update of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 4, 2011.Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the comorbid psychiatric disorders that complicate tic disorders. Medications commonly used to treat ADHD symptoms include stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamine; non-stimulants, such as atomoxetine; tricyclic (...) antidepressants; and alpha agonists. Alpha agonists are also used as a treatment for tics. Due to the impact of ADHD symptoms on the child with tic disorder, treatment of ADHD is often of greater priority than the medical management of tics. However, for many decades, clinicians have been reluctant to use stimulants to treat children with ADHD and tics for fear of worsening their tics. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological treatments for ADHD in children with comorbid tic disorders on symptoms
to a change in prescribing of stimulants to children in BC. Despite concerns, stimulant drug treatment of childhood at- tention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) has increased worldwide over the last two decades. 1 The optimal manage- ment of this behavioral condition remains unknown and this is reflected in the wide variation of stimulant treatment by country, jurisdiction, income, race and ethnicity. 1,2 Children are particularly vulnerable to harms of long- term drug therapies and there should (...) Letter 2008; 69:1-2. http://ti.ubc.ca/letter69 4. Storebø OJ, Ramstad E, Krogh HB, et al. Methylpheni- date for children and adolescents with attentiondeficit hy- peractivity disorder (ADHD). Cochrane Database of Sys- tematic Reviews 2015, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD009885. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009885.pub2 5. Punja S, Shamseer L, Hartling L, et al. Amphetamines for atten- tion deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in children and adoles- cents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 2
Methylphenidate for attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents - assessment of adverse events in non-randomised studies. Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. The psychostimulant methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication to treat it. Several studies have investigated the benefits of methylphenidate, showing possible favourable effects on ADHD symptoms, but the true magnitude (...) as data from follow-up periods in RCTs. Participants had to have an ADHD diagnosis (from the 3rd to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or the 9th or 10th edition of theInternational Classification of Diseases, with or without comorbid diagnoses. We required that at least 75% of participants had a normal intellectual capacity (intelligence quotient of more than 70 points) and were aged below 20 years. We excluded studies that used another ADHD drug as a co
Risk of suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults with attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder: a nationwide longitudinal study Attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) increases the risk of suicidal behaviours through psychiatric comorbidities; however, a significant direct association has not been observed between ADHD and suicide attempts. Aims To evaluate the risk of suicide attempt in adolescents and young adults with ADHD.Using a nationwide, population-based insurance (...) claims database, this longitudinal cohort study enrolled 20 574 adolescents and young adults with ADHD and 61 722 age- and gender-matched controls between 2001 and 2009. Any suicide attempt was identified from enrolment to 31 December 2011. The association between ADHD medications and the likelihood of suicide attempt was assessed.ADHD was an independent risk factor for any suicide attempt (hazard ratio = 3.84, 95% CI = 3.19-4.62) and repeated suicide attempts (hazard ratio = 6.52, 95% CI = 4.46-9.53
Cognitive-behavioural interventions for attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in adults. Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, along with deficits in executive function, emotional regulation and motivation. The persistence of ADHD in adulthood is a serious clinical problem.ADHD significantly affects social interactions, study and employment performance.Previous studies (...) suggest that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) could be effective in treating adults with ADHD, especially when combined with pharmacological treatment. CBT aims to change the thoughts and behaviours that reinforce harmful effects of the disorder by teaching people techniques to control the core symptoms. CBT also aims to help people cope with emotions, such as anxiety and depression, and to improve self-esteem.To assess the effects of cognitive-behavioural-based therapy for ADHD in adults.In June
, Ph.D. AHRQ Publication No. 18-EHC005-EF January 2018 ii Key Messages Purpose of Review To update a previous review by comparing strategies to diagnose, treat, and monitor children and adolescents with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD). Key Messages • Evidence was insufficient on imaging or electroencephalogram to diagnose ADHD in children 7–17 years of age. • Little evidence adds to the 2011 report that found that methylphenidate is effective for children under age 6 with ADHD (...) . Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health Boston, MA Peter Jensen, M.D. Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN viii AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder: Diagnosis and Treatment in Children and Adolescents Structured Abstract Objectives. Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a common pediatric neurobehavioral disorder often treated in the primary care setting. This systematic review updates and extends two previous Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) systematic evidence reviews
Attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder medication and seizures Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of seizures, but there is uncertainty about whether ADHD medication treatment increases risk among patients with and without preexisting seizures.We followed a sample of 801,838 patients with ADHD who had prescribed drug claims from the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters databases to examine whether ADHD medication (...) increases the likelihood of seizures among ADHD patients with and without a history of seizures. First, we assessed overall risk of seizures among patients with ADHD. Second, within-individual concurrent analyses assessed odds of seizure events during months when a patient with ADHD received ADHD medication compared with when the same individual did not, while adjusting for antiepileptic medications. Third, within-individual long-term analyses examined odds of seizure events in relation to the duration
Computerized cognitive training in children and adolescents with attentiondeficit/hyperactivitydisorder as add-on treatment to stimulants: feasibility study and protocol description. Cognitive training has received increasing attention as a non-pharmacological approach for the treatment of attentiondeficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Few studies have assessed cognitive training as add-on treatment to medication in randomized placebo controlled trials (...) . The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the feasibility of implementing a computerized cognitive training program for ADHD in our environment, describe its main characteristics and potential efficacy in a small pilot study.Six ADHD patients aged 10-12-years old receiving stimulants and presenting residual symptoms were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to either a standard cognitive training program or a controlled placebo condition for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was core ADHD
Diagnoses of Cardiovascular Disease or Substance Addiction/Abuse in US Adults Treated for ADHD with Stimulants or Atomoxetine: Is Use Consistent with Product Labeling? Among US adults, utilization of pharmacotherapy for attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) has increased more than ninefold since 1995-1996. Potential contraindications to ADHD pharmacotherapy include serious cardiovascular disease (CVD) and, for stimulants, addictions and bipolar disorder (BPD).To assess the prevalence (...) of potential contraindications among adults treated with ADHD pharmacotherapy.A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using the Truven Health MarketScan® database. Subjects filled ≥ 1 prescription for atomoxetine or ≥ 1 stimulant in 2014-2015, were aged 18-64 years, commercially insured throughout observation, and diagnosed with ADHD on two or more medical claims. Diagnoses and medical procedures were measured in the 12 months prior to pharmacotherapy initiation. Metrics included serious CVD
2014, four systematic reviews (including pairwise meta-analyses and network meta-analyses of direct and indirect evidence), one randomized controlled trial, and one guideline have been published regarding the use of guanfacine hydrochloride extended-release (GXR) for the treatment of attentiondeficit-hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents.All included studies reported significant improvements in subjective ADHD rating scales as well as scales in executive function when using GXR (...) Guanfacine Hydrochloride Extended-Release for AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines Guanfacine Hydrochloride Extended-Release for AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Guanfacine Hydrochloride Extended-Release for AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost
controlled trial suggested that guanfacine hydrochloride extended-release (GXR) was safe and well-tolerated when added to an existing psychostimulant treatment for adults with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD). However, GXR did not differ from placebo with respect to clinical effectiveness. No evidence for the cost-effectiveness of GXR for the treatment of adults with ADHD was identified. One evidence-based guideline from the United Kingdom was identified that provides recommendations (...) Guanfacine Hydrochloride Extended-Release for the Treatment of AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder in Adults: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines Guanfacine Hydrochloride Extended-Release for the Treatment of AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder in Adults: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Guanfacine Hydrochloride Extended-Release for the Treatment of AttentionDeficit
Lisdexamfetamine Targets Amygdala Mechanisms That Bias Cognitive Control in Attention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder. Prefrontal-limbic circuits that form the neural architecture for emotion to influence behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) and represent a potentially important target of medication treatment that has not been substantively evaluated. This study tested the effect of the psychostimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine (...) dimesylate on amygdala activation and connectivity during the emotional bias of response execution and inhibition.Twenty-five adults with ADHD were scanned twice with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an emotional go/no-go task after 3 to 4 weeks of lisdexamfetamine treatment and 3 weeks off medication in a randomized, counterbalanced, hybrid crossover design. Drug, trial type, and face emotion (happy, sad, or neutral) were included as within-subjects factors