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Is there any significant difference in sensitivity of COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2) tests based on swabs from oropharyngeal (OP) vs nasopharyngeal (NP) sampling vs both? Comparative accuracy of oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs for diagnosis of COVID-19 - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website Comparative accuracy of oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs for diagnosis of COVID-19 March 26 (...) recommending collecting only nasopharyngeal swabs (NP), not NP and oropharyngeal swabs (OP). However, OP would be easier to do without training than NP, so one question is whether there is a significant difference in sensitivity between the two methods or using them in combination. SEARCH STRATEGY Search terms: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, wuhan coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, 2019nCoV, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, swab, diagnosis, diagnostic, test, sensitivity Databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus
Effect of a Single Aspirin Dose Prior to Fecal Immunochemical Testing on TestSensitivity for Detecting Advanced Colorectal Neoplasms: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin are widely used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Observational studies suggested that sensitivity of fecal immunochemical tests for detecting advanced neoplasms could be increased by acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), especially among men.To evaluate the potential to increase sensitivity (...) containing 300 mg of aspirin (n = 1208) or placebo (n = 1214) 2 days before fecal sampling for fecal immunochemical test.The primary outcome was sensitivity of a quantitative fecal immunochemical test at 2 predefined cutoffs (10.2 and 17-μg Hb/g stool) for detecting advanced neoplasms (colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma).Among 2422 randomized patients (mean [SD] age, 59.6 [7.9] years; 1219, 50%, men), 2134 were included in the analysis (78% for primary screening colonoscopy, 22% for diagnostic
The sensitivity and specificity of platelet autoantibody testing in immune thrombocytopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of a diagnostic test Essentials The diagnosis of ITP is based on a platelet count < 100 × 109 L-1 and exclusion of other causes. There are no standard tests or biomarkers to diagnose ITP. The sensitivity of platelet autoantibody testing is low (53%). The specificity is high (> 90%). A positive autoantibody test can be useful to rule in ITP but a negative does (...) not rule out ITP. SUMMARY: Background Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a low platelet count and an increased risk of bleeding. The sensitivity and specificity of platelet autoantibody tests is variable and their utility is uncertain. Objective The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of platelet autoantibody tests in the diagnosis of ITP. Methods Ovid Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched from inception until 31
Clinical chemistry score versus high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and T tests alone to identify patients at low or high risk for myocardial infarction or death at presentation to the emergency department Testing for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) may assist triage and clinical decision-making in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome; however, this could result in the misclassification of risk because of analytical variation (...) or laboratory error. We sought to evaluate a new laboratory-based risk-stratification tool that incorporates tests for hs-cTn, glucose level and estimated glomerular filtration rate to identify patients at risk of myocardial infarction or death when presenting to the emergency department.We constructed the clinical chemistry score (CCS) (range 0-5 points) and validated it as a predictor of 30-day myocardial infarction (MI) or death using data from 4 cohort studies involving patients who presented
Soluble interleukin-2 receptor is a sensitive diagnostic test in adult HLH Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2r) is an important disease marker in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), but there are no published data on its diagnostic value in adults. We conducted a single-center retrospective study of 78 consecutive adults who had sIL-2r measured for suspected HLH. Serum sIL-2r levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (adult reference range, 241-846 U/mL (...) ). There were 38 patients with HLH and 40 with a non-HLH diagnosis (such as sepsis, liver disease, histiocyte disorders, autoimmune disease, leukemia, or lymphoma). The receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that sIL-2r is a good to excellent diagnostic test for adult HLH, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.90 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.97) compared with AUC 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.88) for ferritin. The optimal threshold for sIL-2r was 2515 U/mL (sensitivity, 100
Patient selection for high sensitivity cardiac troponin testing and diagnosis of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study. Objective To evaluate how selection of patients for high sensitivity cardiac troponin testing affects the diagnosis of myocardial infarction across different healthcare settings.Design Prospective study of three independent consecutive patient populations presenting to emergency departments.Setting Secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the United Kingdom (...) and United States.Participants High sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations were measured in 8500 consecutive patients presenting to emergency departments: unselected patients in the UK (n=1054) and two selected populations of patients in whom troponin testing was requested by the attending clinician in the UK (n=5815) and the US (n=1631). The final diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury was independently adjudicated.Main outcome measures Positive predictive value
The Use of Very Low Concentrations of High-sensitivity Troponin T to Rule Out Acute Myocardial Infarction Using a Single Blood Test Recent single-center and retrospective studies suggest that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) could be immediately excluded without serial sampling in patients with initial high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels below the limit of detection (LoD) of the assay and no electrocardiogram (ECG) ischemia.We aimed to determine the external validity of those (...) findings in a multicenter study at 12 sites in nine countries.TRAPID-AMI was a prospective diagnostic cohort study including patients with suspected cardiac chest pain within 6 hours of peak symptoms. Blood drawn on arrival was centrally tested for hs-cTnT (Roche; 99th percentile = 14 ng/L, LoD = 5 ng/L). All patients underwent serial troponin sampling over 4-14 hours. The primary outcome, prevalent AMI, was adjudicated based on sensitive troponin I (Siemens Ultra) levels. Major adverse cardiac events
Validation of NICE diagnostic guidance for rule out of myocardial infarction using high-sensitivity troponin tests To validate the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommended algorithms for high-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) assays in adults presenting with chest pain.International post hoc analysis of three prospective, observational studies from tertiary hospital emergency departments. The primary endpoint was cardiac death or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within 24
Demonstration of the test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 as a measure of functional recovery post burn injury: a cross-sectional repeated measures study design Lower limb burns can significantly delay recovery of function. Measuring lower limb functional outcomes is challenging in the unique burn patient population and necessitates the use of reliable and valid tools. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability, sensitivity (...) , and internal consistency of Sections 1 and 3 of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 (LLFI-10) questionnaire for measuring functional ability in patients with lower limb burns over time.Twenty-nine adult patients who had sustained a lower limb burn injury in the previous 12 months completed the test-retest procedure of the study. In addition, the minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated for Section 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10. Section 1 is focused on the activity limitations experienced by patients
[High-sensitivity troponin T testing and coronary computed tomography angiography for rapid diagnosis of chest pain in the emergency department]. To determine the probability of finding significant coronary lesions, the time to diagnosis, and the safety of a new diagnostic approach based on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) testing followed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with chest pain of possible coronary origin. The method was compared with our (...) hospital emergency department's standard practice.Unblinded randomized controlled trial in a tertiary level university hospital between February 2011 and April 2013. We included emergency patients with chest pain and nondiagnostic electrocardiographic findings. Patients were assigned randomly to the new approach (hsTnT assay, followed by CCTA if the assay findings were negative) or the conventional approach (fourth generation TnT assay and, if negative, followed by an exercise stress test). Invasive
The benefit of D-Dimer testing to decide on stopping anticoagulation after a first unprovoked VTE: a matter of sex or of testsensitivity? 26317262 2015 10 27 2015 08 31 0301-1526 44 5 2015 Sep VASA. Zeitschrift fur Gefasskrankheiten VASA The benefit of D-Dimer testing to decide on stopping anticoagulation after a first unprovoked VTE: a matter of sex or of testsensitivity? 399 10.1024/0301-1526/a000461 Czihal Michael M 1 Munich, Germany. Reinecke Holger H eng Journal Article Multicenter Study (...) Randomized Controlled Trial Switzerland Vasa 0317051 0301-1526 0 Anticoagulants 0 Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products 0 fibrin fragment D IM Adult Anticoagulants therapeutic use Blood Coagulation Blood Coagulation Tests methods Female Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products metabolism Germany epidemiology Humans Incidence Male Risk Factors Sex Factors Venous Thromboembolism blood epidemiology prevention & control 2015 8 29 6 0 2015 9 1 6 0 2015 10 28 6 0 ppublish 26317262 10.1024/0301-1526/a000461
Sensitivity and specificity of a urinary screening test used in an emergency setting to detect abnormal first trimester pregnancies To evaluate the performance of a commercial urinary test to screen for abnormal first trimester pregnancies in women presenting to an emergency room.In this prospective observational cohort, women with a confirmed first trimester pregnancy (gestational age <12 weeks) provided a urine sample for diagnosing the viability of their gestation. Pregnancy viability (...) and location testing were confirmed by ultrasound and/or laparoscopy.From 815 eligible patients for the study, 12 were excluded for not having a confirmed pregnancy (n = 6) or were lost to follow-up (n = 6). A total of 803 patients underwent testing and completed follow-up. The pretest probability of an abnormal pregnancy was 44% (9% for ectopic pregnancy and 35% for miscarriage). The test had the following parameters to identify an abnormal first-trimester pregnancy (sensitivity, 13%; 95% confidence
Myocardial infarction (acute): Early rule out using high-sensitivity troponin tests (Elecsys Troponin T high-sensitive, ARCHITECT STAT High Sensitive Troponin-I and AccuTnI+3 assays) My Myocardial infarction (acute ocardial infarction (acute): Early rule ): Early rule out using high-sensitivity troponin tests out using high-sensitivity troponin tests (Elecsys T (Elecsys T roponin T high-sensitiv roponin T high-sensitive, e, AR ARCHITECT ST CHITECT STA AT High Sensitiv T High Sensitive e T T (...) good relations. Nothing in this guidance should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties. Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. Myocardial infarction (acute): Early rule out using high-sensitivity troponin tests (Elecsys Troponin T high-sensitive, ARCHITECT STAT High
Immunochemical Fecal Occult Blood Testing Is Equally Sensitive for Proximal and Distal Advanced Neoplasia Fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is increasingly used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We aimed to estimate its diagnostic accuracy in invitational population screening measured against colonoscopy.Participants (50-75 years) in an invitational primary colonoscopy screening program were asked to complete one sample FIT before colonoscopy. We estimated FIT sensitivity, specificity (...) and specificity of FIT75 for advanced neoplasia were 33% (95% CI: 25-42) and 96% (95% CI: 94-97). At FIT100, 71 screenees (6%) had a positive test result. The sensitivity and specificity of FIT100 were for advanced neoplasia 31% (95% CI: 23-40) and 97% (95% CI: 96-98), and for CRC 75% (95% CI: 36-96) and 95% (95% CI: 93-96). The area under curve for detecting advanced neoplasia was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.64-0.76). FIT had a similar sensitivity for proximal and distal advanced neoplasia at cutoffs of 50 (38% vs. 37
Usefulness of diastolic time measured on electrocardiogram to improve sensitivity and specificity of exercise tolerance tests The current exercise tolerance test (ETT) criteria predominantly assess changes in ST-segment deviation (i.e., a systolic component of the cardiac cycle). Because diastolic dysfunction precedes that of systolic dysfunction during myocardial ischemia and most coronary flow is diastolic, the addition of electrocardiographic markers of diastolic time might improve the ETT (...) sensitivity and specificity for detecting significant coronary artery disease. Among consecutive patients who had an ETT and subsequently underwent coronary angiography, we evaluated the diastolic time by assessing the TP and TQ segments and TP/RR and TQ/RR ratios in each ETT stage. Coronary artery disease was defined angiographically as significant (≥70% lumen occlusion), intermediate (>50% but <70% lumen occlusion), or nonsignificant (≤50% lumen occlusion). Of the 48 study patients, hypertension