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Latest & greatest articles for Screening Bias
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Risk of bias from inclusion of patients who already have diagnosis of or are undergoing treatment for depression in diagnostic accuracy studies of screening tools for depression: systematic review. To investigate the proportion of original studies included in systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of screening tools for depression that appropriately exclude patients who already have a diagnosis of or are receiving treatment for depression and to determine whether (...) these systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluate possible bias from the inclusion of such patients.Systematic review.Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, ISI, SCOPUS, and Cochrane databases were searched from 1 January 2005 to 29 October 2009.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in any language that reported on the diagnostic accuracy of screening tools for depression.Only eight of 197 (4%) unique publications from 17 systematic reviews and meta-analyses specifically excluded patients who already had
Effect of verification bias on screening for prostate cancer by measurement of prostate-specific antigen. The sensitivity and specificity of a screening test are biased when disease status is not verified in all subjects and when the likelihood of confirmation depends on the test result itself. We assessed the screening characteristics of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement after correction for verification bias.Between 1995 and 2001, 6691 men underwent PSA-based screening (...) for prostate cancer. Of these men, 705 (11 percent) subsequently underwent biopsy of the prostate. Under the assumption that the chance of undergoing a biopsy depends only on the PSA-test result and other observed clinical variables, we used a mathematical model to estimate adjusted receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves.Adjusting for verification bias significantly increased the area under the ROC curve (i.e., the overall diagnostic performance) of the PSA test, as compared with an unadjusted