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Latest & greatest articles for Japanese Encephalitis
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The changing epidemiology of Japaneseencephalitis and New data: the implications for New recommendations for Japaneseencephalitis vaccine The epidemiology of JapaneseEncephalitis and risk to the traveler has changed and continues to evolve. The spread of JapaneseEncephalitis virus into new environments, changes in agricultural practice and animal vectors, climate change, peri-urban growth, changes in international travel to Asia, personal risk factors, mosquito vector free transmission (...) , interactions with other flaviviruses and better information on infections without encephalitis and other factors make JapaneseEncephalitis an underappreciated risk. There has also been a change in the incidence of JapaneseEncephalitis cases that questions the current travel duration and geographic based recommendations. A safe, effective vaccine (Ixiaro) that may be administered in a short course regimen is now available in the United States without the risks of the previous vaccine. However, the vaccine
Expression of domain III of the envelope protein from GP-78: a Japaneseencephalitis virus Acute encephalitis caused by the Japaneseencephalitis virus (JEV) represents a growing epidemic and is a cause for concern in Southeast Asia. JEV is transmitted to humans through the bite of the Culicine mosquito species. The virus genome comprising of an RNA strand also encodes the envelope protein (E) which surrounds the virus. The E protein aids in fusion of virus with the cellular membrane
Effect of single dose of SA 14-14-2 vaccine 1 year after immunisation in Nepalese children with Japaneseencephalitis: a case-control study. In July, 1999, a single dose of live-attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japaneseencephalitis vaccine was given to children aged 1-15 years in the Terai region of Nepal. Cases of natural infection occurred almost immediately. Our aim was to assess the long-term protective effect of this vaccination.In 2000, this same population had a second seasonal exposure (...) to the virus. We therefore did a case-control study to measure the prevalence of vaccination against Japaneseencephalitis in 35 patients hospitalised for the disease 1 year after immunisation, and in age-sex matched village controls.Of 35 children resident in Bardiya and Banke districts admitted to the Bheri Zonal Hospital with serologically confirmed Japaneseencephalitis, only one had been vaccinated in 1999. In 430 age-sex matched village controls, 234 (54.4%) were vaccinated. We calculated a median
Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases during Japaneseencephalitis virus infection Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are widely implicated in modulating blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and affect the entry of peripheral immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). The expression of MMPs is tightly regulated at the level of gene transcription, conversion of pro-enzyme to active MMPs and by the action of tissue inhibitors (...) of metalloproteinases (TIMP). The crucial role of MMPs in inflammation indicates that perturbation of the MMP/TIMP balance decisively plays an important role in pathogenesis during viral encephalitis. The study was performed to evaluate the production of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 in the sera of JEV i.e. GP 78668A (GP-78) infected BALB/c mouse model of encephalitis and gel zymography was performed for MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. The estimation of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-3 in JEV-infected
Japaneseencephalitis: a review of clinical guidelines and vaccine availability in Asia Travelers to Asia are at risk for acquiring JapaneseEncephalitis (JEV), an arbovirus with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in vaccination resulting in vaccines with low rates of side effects have strengthened the rationale to vaccinate more travelers to this region, as reflected in many updated national guidelines for prevention of disease in travelers. Vaccines however still require (...) a complex pre-travel schedule and are costly, often leading to a requirement or desire for a vaccination option in the destination country. We explore current national guidelines for prevention of JapaneseEncephalitis and seek to provide information on availability of JEV vaccines in various Asian countries.
Japaneseencephalitis prevention in travellers clinical Reprinted from Aust RAli An F Amily Physici An Vol. 39, n o. 6, june 2010 389 Cora A Mayer Amy A Neilson Japaneseencephalitis Prevention in travellers Guinea; and in the outer torres strait islands of Australia (Table 1). it was first detected in the outer torres strait following three cases on Badu island, two of which were fatal. one known case in western cape york was acquired on the Australian mainland, and evidence of je has been (...) of white matter, thalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. m ore than 75% of Japaneseencephalitis (JE) is a serious arboviral disease caused by a flavivirus closely related to other flaviviruses such as West Nile, Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin (the latter two occur in Australia). Other well known flaviviral infections include yellow fever and dengue fever. 1 Japaneseencephalitis is thought to be the most common form of encephalitis in the world today. 2 j apanese encephalitis is a zoonosis
Vaccines for preventing Japaneseencephalitis. Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japaneseencephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact on acceptance and uptake.To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japaneseencephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity.In March 2007, we searched (...) the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japaneseencephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine), no intervention, or alternative Japaneseencephalitis vaccine.Authors independently extracted data and assessed methodological
Safety and immunogenicity of a Vero-cell-derived, inactivated Japaneseencephalitis vaccine: a non-inferiority, phase III, randomised controlled trial. Japaneseencephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in southeast Asia. Although no treatment is currently available, vaccination effectively prevents the disease. In a non-inferiority study, we aimed to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a novel, second-generation, inactivated candidate vaccine for JEV
Interferon alfa-2a in Japaneseencephalitis: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Japaneseencephalitis virus (JEV), although confined to Asia, causes about 35000-50000 cases and 10000 deaths every year, and is the most important cause of encephalitis worldwide. There is no known antiviral treatment for any flavivirus. Results from in-vitro studies and work in animals have shown inteferon alfa has antiviral activity on Japaneseencephalitis and other flaviviruses; therefore, we (...) aimed to assess the efficacy of inteferon alfa-2a in Japanese encephalitis.We did a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of interferon alfa-2a (10 million units/m2, daily for 7 days) in 112 Vietnamese children with suspected Japaneseencephalitis, 87 of whom had serologically confirmed infections. Our primary endpoints were hospital death or severe sequelae at discharge. Analysis was by intention to treat.Overall, 21 children (19%) died, and 17 (15%) had severe sequelae. Outcome
Cost-effectiveness of routine immunization to control Japaneseencephalitis in Shanghai, China Cost-effectiveness of routine immunization to control Japaneseencephalitis in Shanghai, China Cost-effectiveness of routine immunization to control Japaneseencephalitis in Shanghai, China Ding D, Kilgore P E, Clemens J D, Liu W, Xu Z Y Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) published studies: the annual incidence of Japaneseencephalitis; vaccination efficacy and adverse events per scheduled dose; fatality from Japaneseencephalitis; the percentage of Japaneseencephalitis cases with long-term disability; and the age-related disability adjustments. Study designs and other criteria for inclusion in the review Not reported. Sources searched to identify primary studies Not reported. Criteria used to ensure the validity of primary studies Not reported. Methods used to judge
Efficacy of single-dose SA 14-14-2 vaccine against Japaneseencephalitis: a case control study. In China, since 1989, an estimated 120 million children have been immunised with the SA 14-14-2 live-attenuated Japaneseencephalitis (JE) vaccine at ages 1, 2, and 6 years. A case-control study of licensed vaccine found two doses to be 98% effective. Subsequently, researchers found that single-dose vaccine efficacy was high; we aimed to confirm this result.During July 11-24, 1999, 160000 doses of JE (...) definition and were resident in villages receiving the vaccine. None of 20 JE cases had received JE vaccine compared with 326 of 557 age-sex matched village controls. The efficacy of a single dose of JE vaccine was 99.3% (CI 94.9-100%).A single dose of JE vaccine is highly efficacious in preventing Japaneseencephalitis when administered only days or weeks before exposure to infection.
Cost benefit analysis of Japaneseencephalitis vaccination program in Thailand Cost benefit analysis of Japaneseencephalitis vaccination program in Thailand Cost benefit analysis of Japaneseencephalitis vaccination program in Thailand Siraprapasiri T, Sawaddiwudhipong W, Rojanasuphot S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed (...) by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Administering the Japaneseencephalitis (JE) vaccination to children aged 18 months (given concurrently with the 4th dose of DTP, while the second dose administration would happen 1-2 weeks later) and 6 years (concurrently with the routine school immunisation programme). Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Children aged 18
Protection against Japaneseencephalitis by inactivated vaccines. Encephalitis caused by Japaneseencephalitis virus occurs in annual epidemics throughout Asia, making it the principal cause of epidemic viral encephalitis in the world. No currently available vaccine has demonstrated efficacy in preventing this disease in a controlled trial. We performed a placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized trial in a northern Thai province, with two doses of monovalent (Nakayama strain) or bivalent (...) (Nakayama plus Beijing strains) inactivated, purified Japaneseencephalitis vaccine made from whole virus derived from mouse brain. We examined the effect of these vaccines on the incidence and severity of Japaneseencephalitis and dengue hemorrhagic fever, a disease caused by a closely related flavivirus. Between November 1984 and March 1985, 65,224 children received two doses of monovalent Japaneseencephalitis vaccine (n = 21,628), bivalent Japaneseencephalitis vaccine (n = 22,080), or tetanus