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Latest & greatest articles for HIV Course
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HIV-Positive Women Taking Lifelong Antiretroviral Therapy Report Better Adherence Than Women Taking Short-Course Prophylaxis During and After Pregnancy Under PMTCT Program Option A in Lusaka, Zambia HIV-positive women's adherence to antiretrovirals is critical for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We aimed to establish if mothers taking triple lifelong antiretroviral therapy report higher adherence compared to mothers taking short-course prophylaxis under Option A in Lusaka, Zambia.In (...) short-course prophylaxis.Women on lifelong therapy may have better adherence compared to women on short course prophylaxis because they knew their positive status for longer or were symptomatic with HIV-related disease. The lifelong therapy regimen may be easier for women to follow, particularly because they are required to give the infant prophylaxis for a shorter duration of time.Our results indicate that lifelong triple antiretroviral therapy has the potential to promote better drug adherence
Short-course antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. Short-course antiretroviral therapy (ART) in primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may delay disease progression but has not been adequately evaluated.We randomly assigned adults with primary HIV infection to ART for 48 weeks, ART for 12 weeks, or no ART (standard of care), with treatment initiated within 6 months after seroconversion. The primary end point was a CD4+ count of less than 350 cells per cubic millimeter (...) a greater interval between ART initiation and the primary end point the closer that ART was initiated to estimated seroconversion (P=0.09), and 48-week ART conferred a reduction in the HIV RNA level of 0.44 log(10) copies per milliliter (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.64) 36 weeks after the completion of short-course therapy. There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, death, or serious adverse events.A 48-week course of ART in patients with primary
Women's reasons for not participating in follow up visits before starting short course antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV: qualitative interview study. To find out why pregnant women who receive HIV-1 positive test results and are offered short course antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent transmission of HIV from mother to child do not participate in necessary follow up visits before starting prophylaxis.Qualitative interview study.A programme (...) aiming to prevent transmission of HIV from mother to child at a public antenatal clinic in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.Purposive sample of 27 women who had received HIV-1 positive test results and were invited to return for monthly follow up visits before starting prophylaxis with zidovudine at 36 weeks' gestation, but who had either refused or discontinued the visits. None of the women started prophylaxis.Most of the women explained their non-participation in follow up visits by referring to negative
Efficacy of three short-course regimens of zidovudine and lamivudine in preventing early and late transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda (Petra study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Large reductions in transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child have been achieved in more-developed countries due to the use of antiretrovirals. Short-course regimens, suitable for resource-poor countries, have also been shown to significantly reduce (...) peripartum HIV-1 transmission. We assessed the efficacy of short-course regimens with zidovudine and lamivudine in a predominantly breastfeeding population.We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in South Africa, Uganda, and Tanzania. Between June, 1996, and January, 2000, HIV-1-infected mothers were randomised to one of four regimens: A, zidovudine plus lamivudine starting at 36 weeks' gestation, followed by oral intrapartum dosing and by 7 days' postpartum dosing of mothers
2002LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Short-course zidovudine for perinatal HIV-1 transmission in Bangkok, Thailand: a randomised controlled trial. Bangkok Collaborative Perinatal HIV Transmission Study Group. Many developing countries have not implemented the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 076 zidovudine regimen for prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission because of its complexity and cost. We investigated the safety and efficacy of short-course oral zidovudine administered during late pregnancy and labour.In a randomised, double (...) -24.2) on placebo (p=0.006; efficacy 50.1% [15.4-70.6]). Between enrolment and delivery, women in the zidovudine group had a mean decrease in viral load of 0.56 log. About 80% of the treatment effect was explained by lowered maternal viral concentrations at delivery.A short course of twice-daily oral zidovudine was safe and well tolerated and, in the absence of breastfeeding, can lessen the risk for mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission by half. This regimen could prevent many HIV-1 infections during
1999LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Short-course oral zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, CÃ´te d'Ivoire: a randomised trial. In Africa, the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection is high. Short-course perinatal oral zidovudine might decrease the rate of transmission. We assessed the safety and efficacy of such a regimen among HIV-1-seropositive breastfeeding women in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.From April, 1996, to February, 1998, all consenting, eligible HIV-1-seropositive (...) . The estimated risk of HIV-1 transmission in the placebo and zidovudine groups were 21.7% and 12.2% (p=0.05) at 4 weeks, and 24.9% and 15.7% (p=0.07) at 3 months. Efficacy was 44% (95% CI -1 to 69) at age 4 weeks and 37% (-5 to 63) at 3 months.Short-course oral zidovudine was safe, well tolerated, and decreased mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 at age 3 months. Substantial efforts will be needed to ensure successful widespread implementation of such a regimen.
Short-course prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons: a decision and cost-effectiveness analysis Short-course prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons: a decision and cost-effectiveness analysis Short-course prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons: a decision and cost-effectiveness analysis Rose D N Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief (...) mortality rate in HIV-infected patients after diagnosis of active tuberculosis increased to 35% (range: 20 - 35). The effectiveness of prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of active tuberculosis: 12-month course of isoniazid prophylaxis, 83% (range: 50 - 90); (a) isoniazid daily for 6 months, 67% (range: 23 - 86); (b) isoniazid twice weekly for 6 months, 75% (range: 30 - 85); (c) isoniazid and rifampin daily for 3 months, 60% (range: 14 - 82); (d) isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide daily for 3 months