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261. Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: Guideline on

sup- plements may not have similar effects and are not considered “lifestyle”interventions. The Work Group focused on CVD risk factors to provide a free-standing Lifestyle document and to inform the Blood Cholesterol guideline (4) and the hypertension panel. It also recognized that RCTs examining the effects on hard outcomes (myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and CVD-related death) are dif?cult if not impossible to conduct for several reasons (e.g., long-term adherence to dietary (...) Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: Guideline on 2013 AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk q A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines Endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, American Pharmacists Association, American Society for Nutrition, American Society for Preventive Cardiology, American Society of Hypertension, Association

2013 American College of Cardiology

262. Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic): Guidelines For the Management of Patients With

or surgical), or prior amputation for lower extremity ischemia. (Level of Evidence: B) 3. 2011 Updated Recommendation: Clopidogrel (75 mg per day) is recommended as a safe and effective alternative antiplatelet therapy to aspirin to reduce the risk of MI, ischemic stroke, or vascular death in individuals with symptomatic atherosclerotic lower extremity PAD, including those with intermittent claudica- tionorCLI,priorlowerextremityrevascularization(endovascular or surgical), or prior amputation for lower (...) extremity revascularization (endovascular or surgical), or prior amputation for lower extremity ischemia. (Level of Evi- dence: A) 2. 2011UpdatedRecommendation: Aspirin, typically in daily doses of 75 to 325 mg, is recommended as safe and effective anti- platelet therapy to reduce the risk of MI, stroke, or vascular death in individuals with symptomatic atherosclerotic lower extremity PAD, including those with intermittent claudication or CLI, prior lower extremity revascularization (endovascular

2013 American College of Cardiology

263. The Importance of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the United States: The Need for a National Registry Full Text available with Trip Pro

published 7 Jan 2013 Circulation. 2013;127:652–662 You are viewing the most recent version of this article. Previous versions: Introduction The recent 2012 update of the Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics from the American Heart Association (AHA) emphasizes the continuing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States, with a prevalence of CVD nearing 40% in those approaching 60 years of age and exceeding 70% in older ages. Direct and indirect costs of CVD in the United States exceeded (...) of clinically referred subjects, including those from the Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic, , and Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, , have documented the importance of CRF as a predictor of mortality, demonstrating survival benefits in the range of 15% to 35% per MET achieved. The strength of the association between CRF and both CVD and all-cause mortality was recently underscored in an eloquent meta-analysis by Kodama et al. Data were extracted from 33 studies and nearly 103 000 participants. Compared

2013 American Heart Association

264. American Heart Association Guide for Improving Cardiovascular Health at the Community Level, 2013 Update Full Text available with Trip Pro

. AED indicates automatic external defibrillator; AHA, American Heart Association; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; CVD, cardiovascular disease; EPA, Environmental Protection Agency; MI, myocardial infarction; and TIA, transient ischemic attack. A major addition has been the listing of current programs ( ) that illustrate best practices at the national, regional, or local levels, including recommendations, methods, and tools to support strategic implementation to attain the goals of each (...) acute coronary syndromes and transient ischemic attack/stroke. The rationale for inclusion on this list of targeted behaviors includes a high relative risk for heart and stroke associated with them in those individuals who have not optimized these behaviors and factors, , significant room for their improvement in the general US population or specific communities, and evidence that these behaviors are modifiable. includes references to systematic reviews and previous AHA Scientific Statements, which

2013 American Heart Association

265. Beyond Medications and Diet: Alternative Approaches to Lowering Blood Pressure Full Text available with Trip Pro

strokes and ischemic heart disease events are attributable to high blood pressure (BP). , Given the monotonic relationship between cardiovascular events and BP even down to optimal levels (115/75 mm Hg), the global hypertension-related public health burden is enormous. An important component of the overall strategy to prevent the adverse health consequences of hypertension is the recommendation promulgated by formal guidelines for individuals to adopt lifestyle changes that reduce BP. Proven (...) , body mass index >25 kg/m 2 , BP >130/85 mm Hg, and/or a self-reported family history of hypertension). The effect of TM versus health education was also recently assessed in a randomized, controlled trial for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease among 201 blacks. During an average follow-up of 5.4 years, the primary end point (composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarctions, or stroke) was significantly reduced by 48% (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29–0.92) in the TM group

2013 American Heart Association

266. Overweight and Obesity in Adults: Guideline For the Management of

Overweight and Obesity in Adults: Guideline For the Management of 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults q A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society Endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, American Pharmacists Association, American Society for Nutrition, American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, American (...) Society reviewers’ RWI information is published in this document (Appendix 2). This document was approved for publication by the gov- erning bodies of the ACC, the AHA, and The Obesity So- ciety and is endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, American Pharmacists Association, American Society for Nutrition, American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, American Society for Preventive Cardiology, American So- ciety of Hypertension, Association

2013 American College of Cardiology

267. Heart Failure: Guideline For the Management of

. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the United States exceeds 20% of persons 20 years of age and 40% of those >40 years of age (103). The appropriate treatment of hyper- tension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia (104) can signi?cantly reduce the development of HF. Atherosclerotic Disease Patients with known atherosclerotic disease (e.g., of the coronary, cerebral, or peripheral blood vessels) are likely to develop HF, and clinicians should seek to control vascular risk factors in such patients (...) Heart Failure: Guideline For the Management of PRACTICE GUIDELINE 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/ American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines Developed in Collaboration With the American College of Chest Physicians, Heart Rhythm Society and International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation WRITING

2013 American College of Cardiology

268. Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults: Guideline on the Treatment of

potential for ASCVD risk-reduction bene?ts, adverse ef- fects, drug–drug interactions, and consider patient prefer- ences for treatment. This discussion also provides the opportunity to re-emphasize healthy-lifestyle habits and address other risk factors. Clinical ASCVD is de?ned by the inclusion criteria for the secondary-prevention statin RCTs (acute coronary syndromes,ahistoryofMI,stableorunstableangina, coronary or other arterial revascularization, stroke, tran- sient ischemic attack, or peripheral (...) Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults: Guideline on the Treatment of PRACTICE GUIDELINE 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults q A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines Endorsed by the American Academy of Physician Assistants, American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, American Pharmacists

2013 American College of Cardiology

269. Cardiovascular Risk: Guideline on the Assessment of

). Rather, the Work Group derived risk equations from community-based cohorts that are broadly represen- tative of the U.S. population of whites and African Americans, and the Work Group focused on estimation of ?rst hard ASCVD events (de?ned as ?rst occurrence of nonfatal myocardial infarction, CHD death, or fatal or nonfatal stroke) as the outcome of interest because they weredeemedtobeofgreaterrelevancetobothpatientsand providers. The focus on hard ASCVD, rather than CHD alone, is also consistent (...) with evidence reviewed in a statement from the AHA and American Stroke Associa- tion calling for the inclusion of ischemic stroke in the outcome of interest for CVD risk assessment (25). Numerous multivariable risk scores and equations have been derived and published (Appendix 6; for more details, see the Full Work Group Report supplement). As part of its deliberations, the Work Group considered pre- viously published risk scores with validation in NHLBI cohort data as one possible approach. However

2013 American College of Cardiology

270. Evidence-Based Guideline: Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Management of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

) Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (4) Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology & Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and Children’s Medical Center, Dallas, TX (5) Division of Critical Care Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, and Department of Anaesthesia, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (6) Neuromuscular and Neurogenetic Disorders of Childhood Section, Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (...) , National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (7) Cure Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (Cure CMD), Olathe, KS, and Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaiser Permanente South Bay Medical Center, Harbor City, CA (8) Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (9) Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (10) Department of Neurology, Driscoll Children’s Hospital, Corpus Christi, TX (11) Murdoch Childrens Research

2013 American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine

271. Evidence-based Guideline: Evaluation and managment of concussion in sports

(K.G.), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Neurology and Neurophysiology Associates, PC (S.M.), Philadelphia, PA; Neurological Surgery (G.M.), UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA; Department of Family Medicine (D.B.M.), Indiana University Center for Sports Medicine, Indianapolis; Department of Neurology (D.J.T.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (R.Z.), Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Massachusetts General (...) Traumatic Brain Injury Guideline Workgroup; has received funding for travel for invited lectures on traumatic brain injury (TBI)/concussion; has received royalties from Blackwell Publishing for Neurological Differential Diagnosis;has received honoraria for invited lectures on TBI/concussion; has received research support from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/NIH, University of California, Department of Defense (DOD), NFL Charities, Thrasher Research Foundation, Today’s

2013 American Epilepsy Society

272. Shoulder Pain and Mobility Deficits: Adhesive Capsulitis

, secondary adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder is defined by a relationship between a disease or pathology with 3 subcategories: sys- temic, extrinsic, and intrinsic. Systemic secondary adhesive capsulitis includes those patients with a history of diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease. Extrinsic secondary adhesive capsulitis includes patients whose pathology is not directly related to the shoulder, yet it results in a painful and stiff shoulder, such as with a cerebral vascular accident, intra (...) of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. CLASSIFICATION The terms adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder, and periar- thritis have been used for patients with shoulder pain and mobility deficits. Adhesive capsulitis will be used in these guidelines to describe both primary idiopathic adhesive cap- sulitis and secondary adhesive capsulitis related to systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders, as well as extrinsic or intrinsic factors, including cerebral vas- cular accident, proximal

2013 The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), Inc.

273. Sleep Apnea, Sleepiness, and Driving Risk: An Official ATS Clinical Practice Guideline

on “driving risk” assessments in “aging,” “psychiatric illness,” “epilepsy,” “car- diovasculardisease,”“diabetes,”“Alzheimer’sdisease,”“hyperten- sion,” “neurodegenerative disease,” “stroke,” “neurocognition,” and “rehabilitation medicine” was performed and referenced to the degree applicable to driving risks in chronic disease. Fourquestionsrequiredtheselectionofonecourseofaction fromamongseveralreasonableoptionsorapproaches.Eachwas answered by a recommendation that was supported by a prag- matic (...) ;recommendationsansweringsuchquestionsarecon- sideredbest-practicerecommendations(i.e.,“motherhoodstate- ments”), which do not require a systematic review of the literatureortheGRADEapproach.Insuchcases,acomprehen- sive but nonsystematic literature review was conducted. Key words for the literature search included “driving risk,” “sleep apnea,” “motor vehicle/automobile accidents/crashes,” “legal issues,” and “physician liability.” Subsearches were per- formed to assess the nonsleep literature. The following sources were searched

2013 American Thoracic Society

274. Bell's palsy

for Bell’s palsy has been identified. Other conditions may cause facial paralysis, including stroke, brain tumors, tumors of the parotid gland or infratemporal fossa, cancer involving the facial nerve, and systemic and infectious diseases, including zoster, sarcoidosis, and Lyme disease. , - Bell’s palsy is typically self-limited. Bell’s palsy may occur in men, women, and children but is more common in those 15 to 45 years old; those with diabetes, upper respiratory ailments, or compromised immune (...) , warrant careful management, but treatment results can be favorable. Long term, the disfigurement of the face due to incomplete recovery of the facial nerve can have devastating effects on psychological well-being and quality of life. With diminished facial movement and marked facial asymmetry, patients with facial paralysis can have impaired interpersonal relationships and may experience profound social distress, depression, and social alienation. There are a number of rehabilitative procedures

2013 American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

275. Deep Venous Thrombosis and Thromboembolism in Patients With Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries

are not recommended as a routine prophylactic measure, but are recommended for select patients who fail anticoagulation or who are not candidates for anticoagulation and/or mechanical devices. Diagnosis: Level III Duplex Doppler ultrasound, impedance plethysmography, venous occlusion plethysmography, venography, and the clinical examination are recommended for use as diagnostic tests for DVT in the spinal cord injured population. RATIONALE DVT and PE collectively considered as VTE are problems frequently (...) incidence of DVT in their control group compared to other series because of the aggressive physical therapy paradigm employed in their patients. Although they performed screening venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) with confirmatory venography weekly, the incidence of DVT was only 7% in both groups, suggesting that the treatments were equivalent in their study. This low incidence of DVT is substantially lower than that reported by 2 separate groups of investigators a decade later. , In 1992, Kulkarni

2013 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

276. Clinical Assessment Following Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Full Text available with Trip Pro

in Turkey . Scand J Rehabil Med . 2000 ; 32 ( 2 ): 87 – 92 . 30. Mahoney F , Barthel DW Functional evaluation: the Barthel Index . Md State Med J . 1965 ; 14 : 61 – 65 . 31. Shah S , Vanclay F , Cooper B Improving the sensitivity of the Barthel Index for stroke rehabilitation . J Clin Epidemiol . 1989 ; 42 ( 8 ): 703 – 709 . 32. Anderson K , Aito S , Atkins M , et al. Functional recovery measures for spinal cord injury: an evidence-based review for clinical practice and research . J Spinal Cord Med (...) .They used item response theory methods to determine the value of the use of ASIA motor score/subscores to predict motor Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument scores among a database of 4338 SCI patients discharged from inpatient rehabilitation between 1994 and 2003. They concluded that functional impairment following SCI is more accurately described by the use of separate upper- and lower-extremity ASIA motor scores rather than a single, total ASIA motor score. Similarly, in 2006, Graves et

2013 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

277. Evaluation and management of concussion in sports

, GA; and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (R.Z.), Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge. Jeffrey S. Kutcher From the Division of Pediatric Neurology (C.C.G.), Mattel Children's Hospital, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; Department of Neurology (J.S.K.), University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor; Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology (S.A.), Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (...) ; Neurology and Neurophysiology Associates, PC (S.M.), Philadelphia, PA; Neurological Surgery (G.M.), UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA; Department of Family Medicine (D.B.M.), Indiana University Center for Sports Medicine, Indianapolis; Department of Neurology (D.J.T.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (R.Z.), Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge. Stephen Ashwal

2013 American Academy of Neurology

278. Secondary Prevention After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Aspirin First discovered in 1897, aspirin irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclooxygenase-1. By decreasing thromboxane A2 production, aspirin prevents platelet aggregation, reducing the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and vascular death in patients with ischemic heart disease. , Over 30 years of experience has accrued with the use of aspirin after cardiac surgery, and essentially all patients undergoing CABG are candidates for long-term aspirin therapy. Aspirin inhibition of platelet (...) of clinical benefit, and a small increase in ischemic stroke was noted in the niacin group. Presented in 2013, the Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events (HPS2-THRIVE) trial yielded similarly disappointing results for niacin. In this trial, 25 673 patients with well-controlled LDL levels were randomized to extended-release niacin plus an antiflushing agent (laropiprant) or placebo. Niacin increased HDL by 14% but failed to reduce the primary clinical end point (fatal or nonfatal MI

2015 American Heart Association

279. Long-term Cardiovascular Toxicity in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Who Receive Cancer Therapy: Pathophysiology, Course, Monitoring, Management, Prevention, and Research Directions Full Text available with Trip Pro

). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly expressed in solid tumors and is critical in modulating important cellular and vascular processes. Bevacizumab binds to and inhibits VEGF activity. This drug can promote arterial thrombotic activity, and in a few patients (3.8% in 1 study), it induces MI, angina, heart failure, stroke, and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). These adverse effects were not dose related and occurred any time during treatment (median time, 3 months). The increased risk (...) The chemotherapeutic drugs noted below can cause ischemia in localized areas of the myocardium or a coronary artery syndrome. Antimetabolites (5-FU and Capecitabine). An ischemic syndrome (symptoms vary from angina pectoris to acute myocardial infarction [MI]) has been reported in up to 68% of adults after treatment with 5-FU. Signs of ischemia were observed within 2 to 5 days after patients began treatment and persisted for up to 48 hours after treatment. The risk of ischemia appears to be greater in patients

2013 American Heart Association

280. Prevention and Treatment of Thrombosis in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

, Christopher C. Erickson , Timothy F. Feltes , Elyse Foster , Kathleen Hinoki , Rebecca N. Ichord , Jacqueline Kreutzer , Brian W. McCrindle , Jane W. Newburger , Sarah Tabbutt , Jane L. Todd , Catherine L. Webb , and and on behalf of the American Heart Association Congenital Heart Defects Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Stroke Council Originally published 13 Nov 2013 Circulation (...) .Propensity to Coagulopathy in Adults With CHD 2641 5.Consequences of Thrombosis in Patients With CHD 2641 6.Thrombotic Complications Associated With Pediatric Cardiovascular Surgery 2641 7.Incidence, Treatment, and Prevention of Stroke 2642 7.1.Incidence, Treatment, and Prevention of Stroke in Children With CHD and Acquired Heart Disease 2642 7.1.1.Incidence and Risk Factors 2642 7.1.1.1.Stroke After the Fontan Operation 2642 7.1.1.2.Stroke in Neonates and Children With CHD 2643 7.1.1.3.Hemorrhage

2013 American Heart Association

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