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1. Molecular Testing of Solid and Hematologic Tumors and Malignancies

Testing for Hematologic Malignancy 19 Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) Genetic Testing 19 Solid Tumor Testing 20 NTRK Fusion Testing 20 PIK3CA Testing 21 Breast Cancer 21 Lung Cancer 23 Cell-Free Tumor Testing 24 Cancer of Unknown Primary/Occult Neoplasm 25 Pancreatic Cancer 25 Prostate Cancer 26 Thyroid Cancer 27 Cancer Screening 28 Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules 28 Colorectal Cancer Screening 29 Professional Society Guidelines 30 PROPRIETARY Guidelines developed by, and used with permission from (...) may not be all inclusive) ? Anal cancer ? Burkitt Lymphoma/diffuse noncleaved-cell lymphoma ? Cervical cancers ? Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma ? Follicular lymphoma ? Head and neck cancers ? Kidney cancer ? Malignant pleural mesothelioma ? Merkle cell carcinoma ? Neuroendocrine and adrenal tumors - including gastrointestinal and lung ? Non-epithelial ovarian cancers or borderline epithelial tumors (low malignant potential) ? Occult primary ? Pancreatic cancer ? Prostate cancer - post-diagnosis

2020 AIM Specialty Health

2. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Molecular Testing of Solid and Hematologic Tumors and Malignancies

or Thrombocytosis 17 Primary Myelofibrosis 18 Genetic Testing for Hematologic Malignancy 18 Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) Genetic Testing 18 Solid Tumor Testing 19 NTRK Fusion Testing 19 PIK3CA Testing 20 Breast Cancer 20 Lung Cancer 22 Cell-Free Tumor Testing 23 Cancer of Unknown Primary/Occult Neoplasm 23 Pancreatic Cancer 24 Prostate Cancer 25 Thyroid Cancer 26 Cancer Screening 26 Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules 26 Colorectal Cancer Screening 28 Professional Society Guidelines 29 PROPRIETARY Guidelines (...) . All Rights Reserved. 6 ? Hepatobiliary cancer ? Kidney cancer ? Malignant pleural mesothelioma ? Merkle cell carcinoma ? Multiple myeloma ? Neuroendocrine and adrenal tumors - including gastrointestinal and lung ? Non-epithelial ovarian cancers or borderline epithelial tumors (low malignant potential) ? Occult primary ? Pancreatic cancer ? Prostate cancer - post-diagnosis gene expression classifiers ? Skin cancer - basal and squamous cell ? Small cell lung cancer ? T-cell lymphoma: cutaneous

2020 AIM Specialty Health

3. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Molecular Testing of Solid and Hematologic Tumors and Malignancies

as outlined in the criteria in the NCCN ® Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines ® ), Prostate Cancer Early Detection. Confirmed Malignancy Gene expression or molecular profiling assays for confirmed prostate tumors are not medically necessary. Thyroid Cancer Confirmed or Highly-Suspected Thyroid Cancer BRAF V600E mutation analysis is medically necessary in cases with confirmed or highly-suspected follicular thyroid carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma (...) Use Criteria 3 National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN®) Criteria* 4 Polycythemia Vera 5 Essential Thrombocythemia or Thrombocytosis 5 Primary Myelofibrosis 5 Breast Cancer 6 Cancer of Unknown Primary/Occult Neoplasm 7 Prostate Cancer 7 Screening 7 Confirmed Malignancy 7 Thyroid Cancer 7 Confirmed or Highly-Suspected Thyroid Cancer 7 Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodule 7 Colorectal Cancer Screening 8 CPT Codes 8 Background 12 Myeloproliferative Disorders 12 Polycythemia Vera 12

2019 AIM Specialty Health

4. Characterization of efficacy and toxicity after high-dose pelvic reirradiation with palliative intent for genitourinary second malignant neoplasms or local recurrences after full-dose radiation therapy in the pelvis: A high-volume cancer center experience Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Median initial external beam RT dose was 64 Gy (range, 30-75.6 Gy). The median time between initial RT and re-RT was 9.5 years (range, 0.2-32 years). At the time of re-RT, there were 16 local recurrences and 12 second malignant neoplasms together comprising 16 bladder, 10 prostate, 1 ureteral, and 1 penile cancer. Indications for re-RT were pain and bleeding/hemorrhage. The median equivalent sphere diameter planning target volume for re-RT was 8.6 cm (range, 4.7-16.3 cm). Given the severity (...) Characterization of efficacy and toxicity after high-dose pelvic reirradiation with palliative intent for genitourinary second malignant neoplasms or local recurrences after full-dose radiation therapy in the pelvis: A high-volume cancer center experience The use of large-field external beam reirradiation (re-RT) after pelvic radiation therapy (RT) for genitourinary (GU) cancers has not been reported. We report the results of such treatment in patients with either symptomatic GU second

2017 Advances in radiation oncology

5. Hyperfibrinolysis in Patients with Solid Malignant Neoplasms: A Systematic Review. (Abstract)

, and furthermore included a correlation between biochemical marker and clinical outcome. In total, 12 studies were included. All studies were case reports including a total of 21 patients. Prostate cancer was the most frequently represented cancer type (76%), and the majority of cancer patients had metastatic disease (81%). Spontaneous bleeding was the clinical presentation in the majority of patients (76%), and the most frequently localization for the bleedings was subcutaneous. Antifibrinolytic agents were (...) the most commonly used treatment and ceased bleedings in 80% of patients. Three patients died of uncontrolled bleedings. In conclusion, primary hyperfibrinolysis induced by solid malignant neoplasms is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that should be considered, especially in patients with metastatic disease presenting with serious, spontaneous subcutaneous bleedings. A standardized diagnostic strategy is strongly needed.Thieme. All rights reserved.

2020 Seminars In Thrombosis And Hemostasis

6. Nine primary malignant neoplasms-involving the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, prostate, and external ear canal-without microsatellite instability: a case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nine primary malignant neoplasms-involving the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, prostate, and external ear canal-without microsatellite instability: a case report. Although cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasms are increasing, reports of more than three or four primary metachronous malignant neoplasms are extremely rare. Moreover, very few publications have provided a genetic mutational analysis or have evaluated risk factors associated with such neoplasms. We present an extremely (...) is extremely rare, the present case of nine primary malignancies with no associated microsatellite instability and no apparent predisposing hereditary conditions, is extraordinary. Our case study shows that it is possible for up to nine sporadic neoplasms to occur, and efficient disease management requires diligent screening and early detection.

2018 BMC Cancer

7. Prostatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Controlled for Cancer Grade and Tumor Volume Does Not Have an Independent Effect on Adverse Radical Prostatectomy Outcomes Compared to Usual Acinar Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. (Abstract)

Prostatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Controlled for Cancer Grade and Tumor Volume Does Not Have an Independent Effect on Adverse Radical Prostatectomy Outcomes Compared to Usual Acinar Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. To study if prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) controlled by Grade Group (GG), PSA, and tumor volume (TV) is an independent predictor of adverse radical prostatectomy (RP) outcomes.One-hundred and twenty-eight PDA and 1141 acinar continuous RPs were studied. Each tumor nodule (TN

2020 Urology

8. Malignant jejunal gastrointestinal stromal tumor with history of prostate cancer: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Malignant jejunal gastrointestinal stromal tumor with history of prostate cancer: A case report. The problem of the coexistence of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with other neoplasms is complex, and carcinomas of prostate is one of the common types of GIST-associated cancers. Doubling time of GIST is about 3.9 months for high-risk GIST, and the treatment paradigm for GIST has required the integration of surgery and molecular therapy.A 70-year-old man with postoperative history (...) of prostate cancer experienced fast-growing malignant jejunal GIST with multiple peritoneal metastases within 1 year.Enhanced computed tomography (CT) detected a neoplasm of small intestine with multiple peritoneal nodules and postoperative pathology confirmed GIST.Oral imatinib after surgery, at 400 mg per day, was used for 4 years.The patient remains well, and the peritoneal nodules located in front of the rectum disappeared gradually.Physicians should be aware of possibility of GIST in patients

2019 Medicine

9. Management of Female Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumours

treatment Women who have residual masses at completion of chemotherapy should be offered resection even if the tumour markers are normal. 41 This is to exclude residual disease or any residual mature teratoma which can progress as mature teratoma growing syndrome in up to 30% of cases, and more rarely, over time, undergo malignant transformation into an incurable tumour type, such as squamous carcinoma. Early recognition of this syndrome is essential as it offers hope for curative resection and avoids (...) for female malignant germ cell tumors. Obstet Gynecol 2006;107: 1075–85. 6. Arora RS, Alston RD, Eden TO, Geraci M, Birch JM. Comparative incidence patterns and trends of gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumors in England, 1979 to 2003. Cancer 2012;118:4290–7. 7. Talerman A. Germ cell tumours of the ovary. In: Kurman RJ, editor. Blaustein’s Pathology of the Female Genital Tract. New York: Springer Verlag; 1994. p. 849. 8. Tewari K, Cappuccini F , Disaia PJ, Berman ML, Manetta A, Kohler MF . Malignant

2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

10. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Molecular Testing of Solid and Hematologic Tumors and Malignancies

Tumor Testing 10 Breast Cancer 10 Lung Cancer 12 Cell-Free Tumor Testing 13 Cancer of Unknown Primary/Occult Neoplasm 14 Prostate Cancer 14 Thyroid Cancer 15 Cancer Screening 15 Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules 15 Colorectal Cancer Screening 16 Professional Society Guidelines 18 Selected References 19 Revision History 20 PROPRIETARY Guidelines developed by, and used with permission from, Informed Medical Decisions, Inc. © 2017 Informed Medical Decisions, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 Scope This document (...) • Prostate Cancer Early Detection • Soft Tissue Sarcoma • Lung Cancer See more specific criteria below for: • Myeloproliferative neoplasms • Breast cancer • Cell-Free Tumor Testing • Cancer of Unknown Primary/Occult NeoplasmProstate Cancer (confirmed, not screening) • Thyroid Cancer and Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules • Colorectal Cancer Screening Polycythemia Vera JAK2 mutation testing is medically necessary for the diagnosis of polycythemia vera when both of the following conditions are met: • Genetic

2017 AIM Specialty Health

11. Skene's Gland Adenocarcinoma: Borrowing from Prostate Cancer Experience for the Evaluation and Management of a Rare Malignancy. (Abstract)

Skene's Gland Adenocarcinoma: Borrowing from Prostate Cancer Experience for the Evaluation and Management of a Rare Malignancy. To determine if adenocarcinoma of the Skene's glands in women, which has a histological and immunohistochemical appearance similar to prostate cancer, can be evaluated and managed with the same tools we use for prostate cancer.Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) kinetics, 3D multiparametric (MP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluciclovine F-18 positron emission (...) of Skene's gland adenocarcinoma, we can employ many of the tools at our disposal for the evaluation and management of prostate cancer to benefit the women found to have this malignancy.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.

2020 Urology

12. Prostatic stromal tumors of uncertain malignant potential. (Abstract)

Prostatic stromal tumors of uncertain malignant potential. We present a 53-year-old man with a multilocular solid and cystic mass measuring 19 cm on cross-sectional imaging. After undergoing pelvic mass excision, final histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of primary prostatic stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP). Prostatic STUMPs are rare mesenchymal tumors with diverse histological patterns. They are distinct from prostatic stromal sarcomas as they do not behave (...) aggressively, although some may occasionally demonstrate local recurrence after resection. Due to their unpredictable malignant potential, lack of correlation between histologic patterns, and sarcomatous differentiation, these patients warrant surgical excision and close follow-up.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.

2019 Urology

13. Neovascular PSMA expression is a common feature in malignant neoplasms of the thyroid Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neovascular PSMA expression is a common feature in malignant neoplasms of the thyroid PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen) is physiologically expressed in normal prostate tissue and over expressed in prostate cancer cells, therefore constituting a potential target for antibody-based radioligand therapy. Very recent imaging findings reported PSMA-PET/CT uptake in various thyroid lesions. We were therefore encouraged to systematically analyse PSMA expression in different benign and malignant (...) thyroid lesions.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PSMA expression in 101 thyroid lesions, while neovasculature was identified by CD34 immunostaining.PSMA expression in the neovasculature was significantly more frequent in malignant tumors (36/63; 57.1%) compared to benign diseases (5/38; 13.2%; p = 0.0001). In addition, PSMA expression levels in the neovasculature of poorly and undifferentiated thyroid cancers were significantly higher compared to differentiated thyroid tumors (p = 0.021

2018 Oncotarget

14. Padeliporfin (Tookad) - prostate cancer / Prostatic Neoplasms

the Committee, issued a positive opinion for granting a marketing authorisation to Tookad on 14 September 2017. 2. Scientific discussion 2.1. Problem statement 2.1.1. Disease or condition Tookad is indicated as monotherapy for adult patients with previously untreated, unilateral, low-risk, adenocarcinoma of the prostate with a life expectancy = 10 years and: - Clinical stage T1c or T2a, - Gleason Score = 6, based on high-resolution biopsy strategies, - PSA = 10 ng/mL, - 3 positive cancer cores (...) Padeliporfin (Tookad) - prostate cancer / Prostatic Neoplasms 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5520 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact 14 September 2017 EMA/644309/2017 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report TOOKAD International non-proprietary name: padeliporfin Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/004182/0000 Note Assessment report

2017 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

15. Tumour metabolism and its unique properties in prostate adenocarcinoma. (Abstract)

Tumour metabolism and its unique properties in prostate adenocarcinoma. Anabolic metabolism mediated by aberrant growth factor signalling fuels tumour growth and progression. The first biochemical descriptions of the altered metabolic nature of solid tumours were reported by Otto Warburg almost a century ago. Now, the study of tumour metabolism is being redefined by the development of new molecular tools, tumour modelling systems and precise instrumentation together with important advances (...) adenocarcinoma are likely to stem from the distinct metabolism of the prostatic epithelium from which it emerges. Normal prostatic epithelium employs comparatively glycolytic metabolism to sustain physiological citrate secretion, whereas prostate adenocarcinoma consumes citrate to power oxidative phosphorylation and fuel lipogenesis, enabling tumour progression through metabolic reprogramming. Current data suggest that the distinct metabolic aberrations in prostate adenocarcinoma are driven by the androgen

2020 Nature reviews. Urology

16. Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of prostate in a young adult: A case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of prostate in a young adult: A case report. Prostate sarcoma has been reported to represent 0.7% of primary prostate malignancies. Leiomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma are the most common sarcomas of the prostate. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) of the prostate is very rare.A 22-year-old man presented with gross hematuria and voiding difficulty for 2 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 6-cm mass in the left lobe (...) . However, chest CT showed multiple lung metastases a month after prostatectomy. A chemotherapeutic regimen of doxorubicin and ifosfamide was administered.The best response to chemotherapy was partial response. After several courses of chemotherapy, he died 9 months after the surgery.Primary prostate sarcoma and even MPNST are extremely rare. MPNST of the prostate has seldom been reported. This report may help diagnose and manage the disease.

2018 Medicine

17. Malignant tumours in urban Ghana: evidence from the city of Kumasi. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Malignant tumours in urban Ghana: evidence from the city of Kumasi. Data from population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) are a useful resource for estimating the incidence of cancers. PBCR data is useful in the planning and implementation of cancer prevention and control strategies. Ghana's plan for control of non-communicable diseases recognises the need for good quality data to facilitate the attainment of set goals.We reviewed data from the Kumasi Cancer Registry for the year 2015. Data (...) collected included clinical and demographic information, laboratory reports and source of case information. Data was entered into the Canreg-5 software. Data was initially analysed using Canreg-5 to estimate the incidence and age standardised rates (ASR) for various tumours. Data was also exported to Microsoft Excel for further analysis using Epi Info version 7.1.4. Microsoft Excel was used to generate charts and graphs. Aggregated data for the years 2013 and 2014 were also analysed for trends in cancer

2019 BMC Cancer

18. PTEN loss in prostatic adenocarcinoma correlates with specific adverse histologic features (intraductal carcinoma, cribriform Gleason pattern 4 and stromogenic carcinoma). (Abstract)

PTEN loss in prostatic adenocarcinoma correlates with specific adverse histologic features (intraductal carcinoma, cribriform Gleason pattern 4 and stromogenic carcinoma). The loss of PTEN tumor suppressor gene is one of the most common somatic genetic aberrations in prostate cancer (PCa) and is frequently associated with high-risk disease. Deletion or mutation of at least one PTEN allele has been reported to occur in 20% to 40% of localized PCa and up to 60% of metastases. The goal (...) tumor stroma as previously described: the presence of carcinoma associated stromal response with epithelial to stroma ratio of greater than 50% reactive stroma.Eight-eight (34%) cases exhibited PTEN loss while 172 (66%) had intact PTEN. PTEN loss was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with increasing GG, poorly formed glands (74% of total cases with loss vs 49% of intact), and three well-validated unfavorable pathological features: intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) (69% of total cases

2019 Prostate

19. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder with coexisting prostate adenocarcinoma: two cases report and literature review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Small cell carcinoma of the bladder with coexisting prostate adenocarcinoma: two cases report and literature review. Primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is a rare disease of the genitourinary tract and reported limitedly. SCCB is very aggressive and always mixed with other histologic components, but coexistence of SCCB and prostate adenocarcinoma is extremely rare.Two aged males (72 and 58 years) were included in this study. Both of them presented with gross hematuria as initial (...) symptom. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated protruding lesions in the urinary bladder. Pathological examination after radical cystectomy and prostatectomy showed the concurrence of SCCB and prostate adenocarcinoma. One patient died of liver and lung metastasis 8 months after surgery, and the other patient was still alive after 19 months of follow-up.In this paper, we reported two unusual cases of coexistence of SCCB and prostate adenocarcinoma, and reviewed relative literatures with respect

2020 BMC Urology

20. A rare case of malignant solitary fibrous tumor in prostate with review of the literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

a homogeneous morphology: part of the neoplasm (about 50%) showed the features of a conventional solitary fibrous tumor, while the remaining part showed the features of a malignant solitary fibrous tumor. In addition, the case is the first malignant solitary fibrous tumor reaching a huge diameter of 20 cm and replacing all prostatic parenchyma. Interestingly, normal prostatic parenchyma was observed on left-lobe trans-rectal needle-core biopsies, but was totally absent in surgical specimen. Since radical (...) -like vessels. In some fields the neoplasm was characterized by a high mitotic index and evident cellular atypia. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for CD34, bcl2, CD99, STAT6 and partially for PgR. The neoplasm was diagnosed as a malignant solitary fibrous tumor.The differential diagnosis of spindle cells tumors arising in the prostrate is broad and includes lesions of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, primary prostatic lesions such as stromal tumors of uncertain malignant

2017 Diagnostic pathology

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