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161. Development of a novel multi-penicillin assay and assessment of the impact of analyte degradation: lessons for scavenged sampling in antimicrobial pharmacokinetic study design. (Full text)

Development of a novel multi-penicillin assay and assessment of the impact of analyte degradation: lessons for scavenged sampling in antimicrobial pharmacokinetic study design. Penicillins are widely used to treat infections in children; however, the evidence is continuing to evolve in defining the optimal dosing. Modern pediatric pharmacokinetic study protocols frequently favor opportunistic, "scavenged" sampling. This study aimed to develop a small-volume single assay for five major (...) penicillins and to assess the influence of sample degradation on inferences made using pharmacokinetic modeling, to investigate the suitability of scavenged sampling strategies. Using a rapid ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method, an assay for five penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, piperacillin, and flucloxacillin) in blood plasma was developed and validated. Penicillin stabilities were evaluated under different conditions. Using these data

2017 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

162. Phylogenetic distribution and expression of a penicillin-binding protein homologue, Ear and its significance in virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. (Full text)

Phylogenetic distribution and expression of a penicillin-binding protein homologue, Ear and its significance in virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause serious infections in humans. A plethora of known and putative virulence factors are produced by staphylococci that collectively orchestrate pathogenesis. Ear protein (Escherichia coli ampicillin resistance) in S. aureus is an exoprotein in COL strain, predicted

2017 Journal of Medical Microbiology PubMed abstract

163. Enhancing antibiotic stewardship by tackling 'spurious' penicillin allergy. (Abstract)

Enhancing antibiotic stewardship by tackling 'spurious' penicillin allergy. Approximately 90-99% of patients with a label of penicillin allergy (PenA) are not allergic when comprehensively investigated. An inaccurate label of PenA has major public health implications-longer hospital stay, more frequent hospital admissions, greater use of fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, cephalosporins and other expensive antibiotics resulting in significantly higher costs to the health service and predisposing

2017 Clinical and Experimental Allergy

164. A Multicenter Study Evaluating Ceftriaxone and Benzathine Penicillin G as Treatment Agents for Early Syphilis in Jiangsu, China. (Full text)

A Multicenter Study Evaluating Ceftriaxone and Benzathine Penicillin G as Treatment Agents for Early Syphilis in Jiangsu, China. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ceftriaxone and benzathine penicillin G (BPG) in nonpregnant, immunocompetent adults with early syphilis because there is a lack of clinical evidence supporting ceftriaxone as an alternative treatment for early syphilis without an human immunodeficiency virus coinfection.A randomized, open-label controlled study

2017 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

165. Impact of Penicillin Allergy on Empirical Carbapenem Use in Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections: An Antimicrobial Stewardship Opportunity. (Abstract)

Impact of Penicillin Allergy on Empirical Carbapenem Use in Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections: An Antimicrobial Stewardship Opportunity. Retrospective matched-cohort study evaluating association between penicillin allergy and empirical carbapenem use in gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSIs) and utility of antimicrobial stewardship interventions in reducing carbapenem utilization.Hospitalized adults with community-onset gram-negative BSI from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2015, at two (...) large community hospitals in Columbia, SC, were identified. Antimicrobial stewardship interventions targeting penicillin allergy and carbapenem utilization were fully implemented January 1, 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine impact of penicillin allergy and antimicrobial stewardship interventions on empirical carbapenem use. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate time to carbapenem deescalation in patients with penicillin allergy before and after interventions.Patients

2017 Pharmacotherapy

166. Cefazolin versus anti-staphylococcal penicillins for treatment of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a narrative review. (Full text)

Cefazolin versus anti-staphylococcal penicillins for treatment of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a narrative review. Anti-staphylococcal penicillins (ASPs) are recommended as first-line agents in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia. Concerns about their safety profile have contributed to the increased use of cefazolin. The comparative clinical effectiveness and safety profile of cefazolin versus ASPs for such infections remain unclear

2017 Clinical Microbiology and Infection PubMed abstract

167. Benzathine Penicillin G once-every-3-week prophylaxis for recurrent erysipelas a retrospective study of 132 patients. (Abstract)

Benzathine Penicillin G once-every-3-week prophylaxis for recurrent erysipelas a retrospective study of 132 patients. To evaluate effectivity, safety and patients' adherence to benzathine penicillin G (BPG) 1,200,000 units (1.2 MU) once-every-3-week intramuscularly prophylaxis for recurrent erysipelas.Patients with documented two or more erysipelas episodes in last two years who received at least one of 10 planned doses of BPG 1.2 MU intramuscularly between January 2009 and December 2015 were (...) ; 95% CI: 0.05-0.34; p < .01). In univariate analysis recurrence was significantly associated only with presence of any local risk factor concurrently with obesity (OR 3.40; 95% CI: 1.10-10.50; p < .05).Benzathine penicillin G 1.2 MU once every 3 weeks is an effective and well-tolerated prophylaxis of recurrent erysipelas with good patient adherence to the treatment. Further studies to determine the appropriate duration of prophylaxis are necessary.

2017 Journal of Dermatological Treatment

168. Removal of Penicillin G by combination of sonolysis and Photocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) process from aqueous solution: process optimization using RSM (Response Surface Methodology) (Full text)

Removal of Penicillin G by combination of sonolysis and Photocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) process from aqueous solution: process optimization using RSM (Response Surface Methodology) Penicillin G (PG) is used in a variety of infectious diseases, extensively. Generally, when antibiotics are introduced into the food chain, they pose a threat to the environment and can risk health outcomes. The aim of the present study was the removal of Penicillin G from an aqueous solution through (...) an integrated system of UV/ZnO and UV/WO3 with Ultrasound pretreatment.In this descriptive-analytical work dealing with the removal of Penicillin G from an aqueous solution, four significant variables, contact time (60-120 min), Penicillin G concentration (50-150 mg/L), ZnO dose (200-400 mg/L), and WO3 dose (100-200 mg/L) were investigated. Experiments were performed in a Pyrex reactor (batch, 1 Lit) with an artificial UV 100-Watt medium pressure mercury lamp, coupled with ultrasound (100 W, 40 KHz) for PG

2016 Electronic physician PubMed abstract

169. Conformational dynamics in penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, allosteric communication network and enablement of catalysis (Full text)

Conformational dynamics in penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, allosteric communication network and enablement of catalysis The mechanism of the β-lactam antibacterials is the functionally irreversible acylation of the enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking steps in the biosynthesis of their peptidoglycan cell wall. The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses one primary resistance mechanism. An enzyme, called penicillin-binding protein 2a

2017 Journal of the American Chemical Society PubMed abstract

170. Suppression and Synthetic-Lethal Genetic Relationships of ΔgpsB Mutations Indicate That GpsB Mediates Protein Phosphorylation and Penicillin-Binding Protein Interactions in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 (Full text)

Suppression and Synthetic-Lethal Genetic Relationships of ΔgpsB Mutations Indicate That GpsB Mediates Protein Phosphorylation and Penicillin-Binding Protein Interactions in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 GpsB regulatory protein and StkP protein kinase have been proposed as molecular switches that balance septal and peripheral (side-wall like) peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus); yet, mechanisms of this switching remain unknown. We report that ΔdivIVA mutations

2017 Molecular microbiology PubMed abstract

171. Alanine-501 Mutations in Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 from Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Structure, Mechanism, and Effects on Cephalosporin Resistance and Biological Fitness (Full text)

Alanine-501 Mutations in Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 from Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Structure, Mechanism, and Effects on Cephalosporin Resistance and Biological Fitness Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone and cefixime has increased markedly in the past decade. The primary cephalosporin resistance determinant is a mutated penA gene, which encodes the essential peptidoglycan transpeptidase, penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2). Decreased (...) -spectrum cephalosporins, we randomized codon 501 in a mosaic penA allele and transformed N. gonorrhoeae to increased cefixime resistance. Interestingly, only five substitutions of Ala501 (A501V, A501T, A501P, A501R, and A501S) that increased resistance and preserved essential transpeptidase function were isolated. To understand their structural implications, these mutations were introduced into the nonmosaic PBP2-6140CT, which contains four C-terminal mutations present in PBP2 from the penicillin

2017 Biochemistry PubMed abstract

172. Penicillin-Susceptible, Oxidase-Negative, Nonhemolytic, Nonmotile Bacillus megaterium in Disguise of Bacillus anthracis (Full text)

Penicillin-Susceptible, Oxidase-Negative, Nonhemolytic, Nonmotile Bacillus megaterium in Disguise of Bacillus anthracis Bacillus anthracis is a bacterial pathogen of major concern. The spores of this bacteria can survive harsh environmental conditions for extended periods and are well recognized as a potential bioterror weapon with significant implications. Accurate and timely identification of this Bacillus species in the diagnostic laboratory is essential for disease and public health

2017 Case reports in infectious diseases PubMed abstract

173. Interplay between Penicillin-binding proteins and SEDS proteins promotes bacterial cell wall synthesis (Full text)

Interplay between Penicillin-binding proteins and SEDS proteins promotes bacterial cell wall synthesis Bacteria utilize specialized multi-protein machineries to synthesize the essential peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall during growth and division. The divisome controls septal PG synthesis and separation of daughter cells. In E. coli, the lipid II transporter candidate FtsW is thought to work in concert with the PG synthases penicillin-binding proteins PBP3 and PBP1b. Yet, the exact molecular

2017 Scientific reports PubMed abstract

174. Low-dose penicillin exposure in early life decreases Th17 and the susceptibility to DSS colitis in mice through gut microbiota modification (Full text)

Low-dose penicillin exposure in early life decreases Th17 and the susceptibility to DSS colitis in mice through gut microbiota modification Antibiotic exposure in early life can lead to a significant change of the gut microbiota and may contribute to later onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the relationship between early-life antibiotic treatment and IBD is ambiguous, according to contradicting results of epidemiologic studies. In the present study, we demonstrated that low (...) -dose penicillin pre-treatment had a unique protective effect against mouse colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Low-dose penicillin also suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 in various intestinal tissues, and decreased the amount of Th17 cells in small-intestine lamina propria. Neither metronidazole nor enrofloxacin had a similar effect. We further confirmed that low-dose penicillin could cause specific changes of the gut microbiota, especially the eradication

2017 Scientific reports PubMed abstract

175. First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication with Vonoprazan, Clarithromycin, and Metronidazole in Patients Allergic to Penicillin (Full text)

First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication with Vonoprazan, Clarithromycin, and Metronidazole in Patients Allergic to Penicillin To assess the efficacy of 7-day first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication with vonoprazan (VPZ), clarithromycin (CAM), and metronidazole (MNZ) in patients with penicillin allergy.Patients with penicillin allergy, diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori infection and did not have history of Helicobacter pylori eradication, were eligible for the study. Twenty patients were (...) %) in the ITT and 82.7% (95% CI: 64.2-94.2%) in the PP analyses. Abdominal fullness was more frequent in VCM compared to PCM. However, all patients with VCM regimen had taken 100% of their course of medication.Triple therapy with VPZ, CAM, and MNZ is well tolerated and effective for eradicating Helicobacter pylori in patients allergic to penicillin. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000016335.

2017 Gastroenterology research and practice PubMed abstract

176. Novel Electrophilic Scaffold for Imaging of Essential Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae (Full text)

Novel Electrophilic Scaffold for Imaging of Essential Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae Peptidoglycan (PG) is a mesh-like heteropolymer made up of glycan chains cross-linked by short peptides and is the major scaffold of eubacterial cell walls, determining cell shape, size, and chaining. This structure, which is required for growth and survival, is located outside of the cytoplasmic membrane of bacterial cells, making it highly accessible to antibiotics. Penicillin-binding

2017 ACS chemical biology PubMed abstract

177. Penicillin induces alterations in glutamine metabolism in Streptococcus pneumoniae (Full text)

Penicillin induces alterations in glutamine metabolism in Streptococcus pneumoniae Penicillin is a bactericidal antibiotic that inhibits the synthesis of the peptidoglycan by targeting penicillin-binding proteins. This study aimed to assess through transcriptional profiling the stress response of S. pneumoniae strains after exposure to lethal penicillin concentrations to understand further the mode of action of penicillin. Two experimental designs (time-course and dose-response) were used (...) for monitoring the effect of penicillin on the transcriptional profile. The expression of some genes previously shown to be modulated by penicillin was altered, including ciaRH, pstS and clpL. Genes of the glnRA and glnPQ operons were among the most downregulated genes in the three strains. These genes are involved in glutamine synthesis and uptake and LC-MS work confirmed that penicillin treatment increases the intracellular glutamine concentrations. Glutamine conferred a protective role against penicillin

2017 Scientific reports PubMed abstract

178. UV Activation of Persulfate for Removal of Penicillin G Antibiotics in Aqueous Solution (Full text)

UV Activation of Persulfate for Removal of Penicillin G Antibiotics in Aqueous Solution Penicillin G (PG) is one of the most widely consumed antibiotics around the world. Release of PG in environment may lead to contamination of water resources. The aim of the present work is to assess feasibility of applying UV-activated persulfate process in removal of PG from aquatic environments. The study examined the effect of pH (3-11), persulfate initial concentration (0.5-3 mM), reaction time (15-90

2017 The Scientific World Journal PubMed abstract

179. Validation of β-lactam minimum inhibitory concentration predictions for pneumococcal isolates with newly encountered penicillin binding protein (PBP) sequences (Full text)

Validation of β-lactam minimum inhibitory concentration predictions for pneumococcal isolates with newly encountered penicillin binding protein (PBP) sequences Genomic sequence-based deduction of antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) has great potential to enhance the speed and sensitivity of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We previously developed a penicillin-binding protein (PBP) typing system and two methods (Random Forest (RF) and Mode MIC (MM)) that accurately predicted

2017 BMC genomics PubMed abstract

180. The Penicillin for the Emergency Department Outpatient treatment of CELLulitis (PEDOCELL) trial: update to the study protocol and detailed statistical analysis plan (SAP) (Full text)

The Penicillin for the Emergency Department Outpatient treatment of CELLulitis (PEDOCELL) trial: update to the study protocol and detailed statistical analysis plan (SAP) Cellulitis is a painful, potentially serious, infectious process of the dermal and subdermal tissues and represents a significant disease burden. The statistical analysis plan (SAP) for the Penicillin for the Emergency Department Outpatient treatment of CELLulitis (PEDOCELL) trial is described here. The PEDOCELL trial

2017 Trials Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

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