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penicillin

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13341. Identification of a group of Haemophilus influenzae penicillin-binding proteins that may have complementary physiological roles. (Full text)

Identification of a group of Haemophilus influenzae penicillin-binding proteins that may have complementary physiological roles. [35S]penicillin bound to different Haemophilus influenzae proteins in assays performed at 20, 37, or 42 degrees C. Penicillin-binding proteins 3a, 3b, 4, and 4' formed a group characterized by their affinity for moxalactam, cefotaxime, and piperacillin. Penicillin-binding protein 4' showed specific properties that may reflect its complementary role in septation.

1990 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

13342. The penicillins today. (Full text)

The penicillins today. 2196095 1990 08 23 2018 11 13 0959-8138 300 6735 1990 May 19 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ The penicillins today. 1289-90 Finch R R City Hospital, University of Nottingham. eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Review England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Penicillins AIM IM Bacterial Infections drug therapy Clinical Trials as Topic Humans Penicillin Resistance Penicillins therapeutic use 33 1990 5 19 1990 5 19 0 1 1990 5 19 0 0 ppublish 2196095 PMC1663030 Rev Infect Dis. 1983

1990 BMJ : British Medical Journal PubMed abstract

13343. Role of sodium in protection by extended-spectrum penicillins against tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity. (Full text)

Role of sodium in protection by extended-spectrum penicillins against tobramycin-induced nephrotoxicity. Salt depletion is known to potentiate aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity, while salt replacement attenuates it. Recent studies have shown that ticarcillin protects against tobramycin and gentamicin nephrotoxicity. It has been suggested that this protection is due to an interaction between ticarcillin and the aminoglycoside. However, it can also be explained by the salt load associated (...) of accumulation of the drug in the kidney, and (iv) an in vivo interaction between tobramycin and ticarcillin does not contribute to the protective effect of the penicillin but may influence concentrations in plasma, especially under conditions of severe renal impairment.

1990 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

13344. In vitro antibacterial activity and interactions with beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins of the new monocarbam antibiotic U-78608. (Full text)

In vitro antibacterial activity and interactions with beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins of the new monocarbam antibiotic U-78608. U-78608, a new monocarbam antibiotic, was evaluated for in vitro activity against 312 clinical isolates of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and subjected to several in vitro biochemical tests characterizing its interactions with beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). The antibacterial activity of the compound was compared directly

1990 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

13345. Further characterization of borderline methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and analysis of penicillin-binding proteins. (Full text)

Further characterization of borderline methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and analysis of penicillin-binding proteins. Eighty-nine Staphylococcus aureus strains were grouped according to their susceptibility or resistance to methicillin and oxacillin. The role of beta-lactamase in borderline methicillin resistance was confirmed by tests with beta-lactamase inhibitors, particularly when salt-supplemented medium was used. A penicillin-binding protein assay indicated that borderline

1990 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

13346. Penicillin concentrations in CSF during repository treatment for syphilis. (Full text)

Penicillin concentrations in CSF during repository treatment for syphilis. 2370068 1990 08 23 2018 11 13 0266-4348 66 3 1990 Jun Genitourinary medicine Genitourin Med Penicillin concentrations in CSF during repository treatment for syphilis. 227-8 Dunlop E M EM al-Egaily S S SS Houang E T ET eng Comment Letter England Genitourin Med 8503853 0266-4348 0 Penicillins IM Genitourin Med. 1988 Aug;64(4):223-5 3169752 Humans Penicillins cerebrospinal fluid therapeutic use Syphilis cerebrospinal fluid

1990 Genitourinary Medicine PubMed abstract

13347. Incidence of penicillin tolerance among blood culture isolates of Streptococcus sanguis, 1987-88. (Full text)

Incidence of penicillin tolerance among blood culture isolates of Streptococcus sanguis, 1987-88. Laboratories that reported isolations of Streptococcus sanguis from blood cultures to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC) Colindale were requested to submit strains to Bath Public Health Laboratory to allow the prevalence of penicillin tolerance within different biotypes of this species to be studied. One hundred and fifty one Streptococcus spp were received from 78 United Kingdom (...) laboratories in one year. Strains were identified using the API 20 Strep, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of penicillin were determined using the spiral gradient plate method. Penicillin tolerance was detected by spraying beta-lactamase over inoculated gradient plates, reincubating for 48 hours and counting the number of surviving organisms represented by colonies. There were 57 different API identification profiles encountered in the survey. Most S sanguis I/1 strains were penicillin tolerant

1991 Journal of Clinical Pathology PubMed abstract

13348. Comparison of the inoculum effects of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae on cefoxitin and other cephalosporins, beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, and the penicillin-derived components of these combinations. (Full text)

Comparison of the inoculum effects of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae on cefoxitin and other cephalosporins, beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, and the penicillin-derived components of these combinations. We compared the inoculum effects of 105 recent clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae on cefoxitin, other cephalosporins, aztreonam, and three beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam) and their penicillin-derived components. Piperacillin (...) and aztreonam showed the largest inoculum effect, and cefoxitin showed the smallest. The other cephalosporins tested (cefotetan, ceftizoxime, and ceftriaxone) showed an intermediate inoculum effect. In general, the inoculum effect was of greater magnitude for the penicillin and beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations than for the cephalosporins tested. Bactericidal activity was assayed and morphologic changes were monitored for selected strains exhibiting a large inoculum effect. MICs correlated

1991 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

13349. Synergistic killing of vancomycin-resistant enterococci of classes A, B, and C by combinations of vancomycin, penicillin, and gentamicin. (Full text)

Synergistic killing of vancomycin-resistant enterococci of classes A, B, and C by combinations of vancomycin, penicillin, and gentamicin. Using both high and low inocula for time-kill curves, we examined the antibiotic killing of clinical isolates of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (Enterococcus faecium, E. faecalis, and E. gallinarum) belonging to phenotypic resistance classes A, B, and C. None were resistant to high levels (greater than 500 mg/liter) of gentamicin. Vancomycin-penicillin

1991 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

13350. Penicillamine and penicillin can generate antigenic determinants on rat peritoneal cells in vitro. (Full text)

Penicillamine and penicillin can generate antigenic determinants on rat peritoneal cells in vitro. Conjugation of the protein-reactive drugs D-penicillamine (PA) and benzylpenicillin (BP) to immune cells to generate drug-derived antigenic determinants has been implicated in drug-induced allergies and autoimmunity. We have therefore developed an in vitro system to demonstrate and characterize the formation of cellular antigens by these drugs. Binding of PA and BP to rat peritoneal exudate cells

1991 Immunology PubMed abstract

13351. Penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease in Brent. (Full text)

Penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease in Brent. To assess compliance with oral penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease and identify possible reasons for poor compliance.Closed questionnaires given to parents of children with sickle cell disease and general practitioners in Brent. Urine samples from 23 children were tested for penicillin.Paediatric haematology clinic, Central Middlesex Hospital, and general practices in Brent.50 children (aged less than (...) or equal to 16) attending clinic with sickle cell disease over six months (33 HbSS, 12 HbSC, five HbS beta thalassaemia). 30 general practitioners: 15 with the greatest number of patients with sickle cell disease on the Brent register; 15 selected randomly from family practitioner committee's list.Reported compliance with and awareness of importance of penicillin prophylaxis. Results of urine tests for penicillin.31 parents claimed that their children received penicillin every day and 19

1991 BMJ : British Medical Journal PubMed abstract

13352. Allergy to penicillin: fable or fact? (Full text)

Allergy to penicillin: fable or fact? To assess whether, on the basis of one blood test, penicillin allergy might be excluded sufficiently for general practitioners to give oral penicillin to patients claiming a history of penicillin allergy.Prospective study of patients referred by general practitioners.Outpatient allergy clinic in a district general hospital.175 referred patients who gave a history of immediate type reaction to penicillin, of whom 144 attended as requested and 132 completed (...) the investigations.History and examination, serum radioallergosorbent test to phenoxymethylpenicillin and benzylpenicillin, and oral challenge with penicillin.Of 132 patients, four were confirmed to have penicillin allergy by the radioallergosorbent test and 128 had an oral penicillin challenge without ill effect.Most patients who gave a history of penicillin allergy are not so allergic, and their actual allergic state should be substantiated whenever feasible. For patients reporting minor or vague reactions negative

1991 BMJ : British Medical Journal PubMed abstract

13353. Penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease. (Full text)

Penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease. 2043823 1991 07 16 2018 11 13 0959-8138 302 6786 1991 May 18 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease. 1205-6 Konotey-Ahulu F I FI eng Comment Letter England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Penicillins AIM IM BMJ. 1991 Apr 27;302(6783):989-90 2039895 Anemia, Sickle Cell drug therapy Attitude of Health Personnel Child Humans Penicillins therapeutic use 1991 5 18 1991 5 18 0 1 1991 5 18 0 0

1991 BMJ : British Medical Journal PubMed abstract

13354. Allergy to penicillin. (Full text)

Allergy to penicillin. 2070117 1991 08 22 2018 11 13 0959-8138 302 6790 1991 Jun 15 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Allergy to penicillin. 1462-3 eng Comment Letter England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Penicillins AIM IM BMJ. 1991 May 4;302(6784):1051-2 1903664 Drug Hypersensitivity diagnosis etiology Humans Penicillins 1991 6 15 1991 6 15 0 1 1991 6 15 0 0 ppublish 2070117 PMC1670138 Clin Allergy. 1981 Mar;11(2):155-60 6786795 N Engl J Med. 1971 Jul 1;285(1):22-4 5089368 JAMA. 1964 Aug 24;189:599

1991 BMJ : British Medical Journal PubMed abstract

13355. Penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease. (Full text)

Penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease. 2059732 1991 08 08 2018 11 13 0959-8138 302 6789 1991 Jun 08 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Penicillin prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease. 1402 Milne R R eng Comment Letter England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 0 Penicillins AIM IM BMJ. 1991 Apr 27;302(6783):989-90 2039895 Anemia, Sickle Cell complications Bacterial Infections prevention & control Child Humans Patient Compliance Penicillins therapeutic use 1991 6 8 1991 6 8 0 1

1991 BMJ : British Medical Journal PubMed abstract

13356. Facilitation of penicillin haptenation to serum proteins. (Full text)

Facilitation of penicillin haptenation to serum proteins. Traditionally, penicillin binding to serum proteins was believed to be a passive chemical process; however, it appears to be facilitated by serum factors. The objectives of this in vitro investigation were to examine facilitated penicillin haptenation, to study the kinetics of haptenation, and to determine the nature of haptenation-facilitating factors. The model involved addition of [3H]benzylpenicillin to serum or albumin solutions (...) (at pH 7.3 to 7.4) and incubation at 37 degrees C for up to 72 h. The extent of penicillin binding to proteins in serum was found to be four- to fivefold higher than with solutions having comparable concentrations of purified albumin, total protein, or total immunoglobulin. Ultrafiltration of serum reduced penicillin binding to serum proteins substantially. An ultrafiltrable haptenation-facilitating factor(s) was found to be less than 0.5 kDa but was not calcium or magnesium. Finally, the extent

1993 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

13357. Treatment of streptococcal sore throat. Stick to penicillin or nothing. (Full text)

Treatment of streptococcal sore throat. Stick to penicillin or nothing. 8329931 1993 08 19 2018 11 13 0959-8138 306 6892 1993 Jun 12 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Treatment of streptococcal sore throat. Stick to penicillin or nothing. 1611-2 Little P P Morgan S S Williamson I I eng Comment Letter England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 804826J2HU Amoxicillin Z61I075U2W Penicillin V AIM IM BMJ. 1993 May 1;306(6886):1170-2 8499823 Amoxicillin therapeutic use Humans Penicillin V therapeutic use

1993 BMJ : British Medical Journal PubMed abstract

13358. Depletion of intramuscularly and subcutaneously injected procaine penicillin G from tissues and plasma of yearling beef steers. (Full text)

Depletion of intramuscularly and subcutaneously injected procaine penicillin G from tissues and plasma of yearling beef steers. Withdrawal periods required when doses of 24,000 IU and 66,000 IU of procaine penicillin G/kg body weight were administered to yearling beef steers by intramuscular injection daily for five consecutive days were investigated. These dosages are in excess of product label recommendations, but are in the range of procaine penicillin G dosages that have been administered (...) for the treatment of some feedlot bacterial diseases. The approved dose in Canada is 7,500 IU/kg body weight intramuscularly, once daily, with a withdrawal period of five days. Based on the tissue residue data from this study, the appropriate withdrawal period is ten days for the 24,000 IU/kg body weight dose and 21 days for the 66,000 IU/kg body weight dose when administered intramuscularly to yearling beef steers. In a related study, 18 yearling beef steers received 66,000 IU of procaine penicillin G/kg body

1993 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research PubMed abstract

13359. Teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus expresses a novel membrane protein and increases expression of penicillin-binding protein 2 complex. (Full text)

Teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus expresses a novel membrane protein and increases expression of penicillin-binding protein 2 complex. In the recent clinical trials of teicoplanin therapy of endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, at least one instance of the emergence of teicoplanin-resistant strains during therapy has been reported (G.W. Kaatz, S. M. Seo, N. J. Dorman, and S. A. Lerner, J. Infect. Dis 162:103-108, 1990). We have confirmed, using conventional electrophoresis (...) and increased expression of both polypeptides of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2 (PBP2) in 12873 relative to 12871 and the Tn551 mutants of 12873. This increased expression was not related to PBP2', since both strains were susceptible to oxacillin in 2% NaCl (MIC, < or = 0.25 microgram/ml) and cellular DNA from neither strain hybridized with a specific mec gene probe. Two independent Tn551 inserts have been mapped to a ca. 117-kb SmaI fragment of the chromosome. These data suggest the possibility

1993 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

13360. Morphological response of Bilophila wadsworthia to imipenem: correlation with properties of penicillin-binding proteins. (Full text)

Morphological response of Bilophila wadsworthia to imipenem: correlation with properties of penicillin-binding proteins. The penicillin-binding protein (PBP) patterns of six strains of Bilophila wadsworthia were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and subsequent fluorography of membrane preparations labelled with [3H]benzylpenicillin. The PBP profiles among the strains were similar; generally, seven to nine PBP-reactive bands could be visualized

1993 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

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