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13201. Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Penicillin concentrations in serum, milk, and urine following intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of increasing doses of procaine penicillin G in lactating dairy cows. Eight healthy, non-pregnant, crossbred Holstein dairy cows (557-682 kg) within their first 3 months of lactation (13-21.5 kg of milk/day) were used. Cows were kept in tie stalls for the whole experiment. The 8 cows were randomly assigned to 2 (IM and SC) 4 x 4 balanced Latin square design experiments. Doses of procaine (...) penicillin G (PPG) (300000 IU/mL) in each square were 7000, 14000, 21000 and 28000 IU/kg and were injected IM or SC once daily for 5 consecutive days. Volumes of PPG per site of injection never exceeded 20 mL. Blood was collected to determine the Cmax, Tmax, and AUC; urine and milk were also taken to measure the persistence of PPG in these fluids. Results show that serum Cmax and Tmax were only slightly affected by increasing the doses or the route of administration, whereas the AUC was linearly

2001 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

13202. Biochemistry and Comparative Genomics of SxxK Superfamily Acyltransferases Offer a Clue to the Mycobacterial Paradox: Presence of Penicillin-Susceptible Target Proteins versus Lack of Efficiency of Penicillin as Therapeutic Agent Full Text available with Trip Pro

Biochemistry and Comparative Genomics of SxxK Superfamily Acyltransferases Offer a Clue to the Mycobacterial Paradox: Presence of Penicillin-Susceptible Target Proteins versus Lack of Efficiency of Penicillin as Therapeutic Agent The bacterial acyltransferases of the SxxK superfamily vary enormously in sequence and function, with conservation of particular amino acid groups and all-alpha and alpha/beta folds. They occur as independent entities (free-standing polypeptides) and as modules linked (...) to other polypeptides (protein fusions). They can be classified into three groups. The group I SxxK D,D-acyltransferases are ubiquitous in the bacterial world. They invariably bear the motifs SxxK, SxN(D), and KT(S)G. Anchored in the plasma membrane with the bulk of the polypeptide chain exposed on the outer face of it, they are implicated in the synthesis of wall peptidoglycans of the most frequently encountered (4-->3) type. They are inactivated by penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics acting

2002 Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

13203. Mutations in ponA, the Gene Encoding Penicillin-Binding Protein 1, and a Novel Locus, penC, Are Required for High-Level Chromosomally Mediated Penicillin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mutations in ponA, the Gene Encoding Penicillin-Binding Protein 1, and a Novel Locus, penC, Are Required for High-Level Chromosomally Mediated Penicillin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Chromosomally mediated penicillin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae occurs in part through alterations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and a decrease in outer membrane permeability. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of transformation of a penicillin-susceptible strain of N. gonorrhoeae (...) to high-level penicillin resistance have not been clearly elucidated. Previous studies suggested that alterations in PBP 1 were involved in high-level penicillin resistance. In this study, we identified a single amino acid mutation in PBP 1 located 40 amino acids N terminal to the active-site serine residue that was present in all chromosomally mediated resistant N. gonorrhoeae (CMRNG) strains for which MICs of penicillin were > or = 1 microg/ml. PBP 1 harboring this point mutation (PBP 1*) had

2002 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

13204. Unexplained reduced microbiological efficacy of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G and of oral penicillin V in eradication of group a streptococci from children with acute pharyngitis. (Abstract)

Unexplained reduced microbiological efficacy of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G and of oral penicillin V in eradication of group a streptococci from children with acute pharyngitis. To evaluate the efficacy of oral penicillin V and intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) in eradicating group A streptococci from the upper respiratory tract.Two randomized, single-blind, multicenter antibiotic efficacy trials in children using recommended doses of either oral penicillin V (...) or intramuscular BPG for treatment of acute-onset pharyngitis associated with isolation of group A streptococci were conducted. Throat examinations and cultures were obtained at enrollment and on days 5 to 8, 10 to 14, and 29 to 31.Thirty-five percent of 284 evaluable patients treated with oral penicillin V and 37% of BPG-treated patients were microbiologic treatment failures at either 10 to 14 or 29 to 31 days.Although these findings do not provide sufficient evidence to change current treatment

2001 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

13205. Bacterial resistance to penicillin G by decreased affinity of penicillin-binding proteins: a mathematical model. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bacterial resistance to penicillin G by decreased affinity of penicillin-binding proteins: a mathematical model. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis have very similar mechanisms of resistance to penicillin G. Although penicillin resistance is now common in S. pneumoniae, it is still rare in N. meningitidis. Using a mathematical model, we studied determinants of this difference and attempted to anticipate trends in meningococcal resistance to penicillin G. The model predicted

2003 Emerging Infectious Diseases

13206. Penicillin-binding protein 1A, 2B, and 2X alterations in Canadian isolates of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Penicillin-binding protein 1A, 2B, and 2X alterations in Canadian isolates of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Alterations within the penicillin-binding domain of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x were determined for 15 Canadian isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. All penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates showed a variety of PBP 2X substitutions and contained a Thr445-Ala change after the PBP 2B SSN motif. Only isolates for which (...) penicillin MICs were > or =0.5 micro g/ml had PBP 1A alterations near the STMK and SRN motifs. Sequence analysis revealed identical PBP 1A, PBP 2B, and PBP 2X substitution patterns among all isolates for which penicillin MICs were > or =1 micro g/ml.

2002 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

13207. Diversity of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae circulating in Iceland after the introduction of penicillin-resistant clone Spain(6B)-2. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diversity of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae circulating in Iceland after the introduction of penicillin-resistant clone Spain(6B)-2. After the introduction and extensive dissemination of the multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clone Spain(6B)-2 between 1989 and the early to mid-1990s, the prevalence of pneumococcal isolates expressing intermediate resistance to penicillin, mainly of capsular types 6, 19, and 23, also began to increase in Iceland. The purpose (...) had genetic backgrounds also detected abroad. The major mechanism of dissemination of penicillin resistance in Iceland appears to be the repeated introduction of multiple lineages, followed by clonal spread.

2002 Journal of Infectious Diseases

13208. Penicillin skin testing in advance of need: multiyear follow-up in 568 test result-negative subjects exposed to oral penicillins. (Abstract)

Penicillin skin testing in advance of need: multiyear follow-up in 568 test result-negative subjects exposed to oral penicillins. There are few published data on adverse drug reactions and/or resensitization associated with oral penicillin use in penicillin allergy history-positive/penicillin skin test-negative individuals during routine clinical care with multiyear follow-up.We sought to provide long-term follow-up data on the type, severity, and frequency of adverse reactions associated (...) with oral penicillin use in individuals who have histories of penicillin "allergy" yet also have negative results on penicillin skin tests done in advance of need. We also aimed to repeat testing on individuals with penicillin-associated adverse reactions.Medical records were reviewed for penicillin use and associated adverse reactions in all 568 penicillin skin test-negative individuals who had received at least 1 course of oral penicillin after testing but before December 31, 2001, during routine care

2003 Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

13209. Penicillin concentrations in sera and tonsils after intramuscular administration of benzathine penicillin G to children. (Abstract)

Penicillin concentrations in sera and tonsils after intramuscular administration of benzathine penicillin G to children. The optimal regimen of benzathine penicillin G for secondary prevention of rheumatic fever is controversial. Data from serum pharmacokinetic studies do not fully agree on the period of protection after drug administration. Data from concentration of penicillin in tonsils may provide additional information.To evaluate penicillin concentrations in palatine tonsils and in sera 1 (...) , 10, 14 and 21 days after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin G 40,000 IU/kg, 58 children between 4 and 12 years of age with chronic tonsillitis and indication for tonsillectomy were given the study drug 1, 10, 14 or 21 days before surgery. Blood and tonsil samples were obtained during surgery, and penicillin concentrations were determined microbiologically by the agar well diffusion technique.Mean serum penicillin concentrations 1, 10, 14 and 21 days after drug administration were

2003 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

13210. Penicillin V and rifampin for the treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: a randomized trial of 10 days penicillin vs 10 days penicillin with rifampin during the final 4 days of therapy. (Abstract)

Penicillin V and rifampin for the treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: a randomized trial of 10 days penicillin vs 10 days penicillin with rifampin during the final 4 days of therapy. To improve the bacteriologic and clinical cure rates of streptococcal pharyngitis, 79 children were randomly assigned to receive penicillin V alone for 10 days (39 patients) or penicillin for the same duration and rifampin during the last 4 days of penicillin therapy (40 patients). Eleven patients given (...) penicillin had evidence of bacteriologic failure (including eight with relapse of clinical illness) on repeat cultures done 4 to 7 days after treatment, whereas there were no failures in children given combination therapy (P = 0.0015). All eight symptomatic children improved with penicillin-rifampin therapy and subsequent cultures were negative, whereas three asymptomatic children continued to harbor group A streptococci even after combination therapy. Antibody response by antistreptolysin O

1985 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

13211. Clindamycin vs penicillin for anaerobic lung infections. High rate of penicillin failures associated with penicillin-resistant Bacteroides melaninogenicus. (Abstract)

Clindamycin vs penicillin for anaerobic lung infections. High rate of penicillin failures associated with penicillin-resistant Bacteroides melaninogenicus. Thirty-seven adult patients with anaerobic lung infections (27 lung abscesses and 10 necrotizing pneumonias) were submitted to transthoracic needle-aspiration and/or bronchoscopic specimen brush cultures before therapy and thereafter in all cases considered to be failures. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either clindamycin, 600 mg (...) intravenously every 6 hours, or penicillin G, 2 million U every 4 hours for no less than 8 days, until clinical and radiological improvement became apparent. Treatment was continued orally with clindamycin, 300 mg every 6 hours, or penicillin V, 750 mg every 6 hours, until completing a minimum of 4 weeks. Ten of the 47 anaerobes initially isolated from the lung (nine Bacteroides melaninogenicus and one Bacteroides capillosus) were resistant to penicillin, but none were resistant to clindamycin. Five

1990 Archives of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

13212. Trial of co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin G and benzathin penicillin + procaine penicillin G in the treatment of childhood pneumonia. (Abstract)

Trial of co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin G and benzathin penicillin + procaine penicillin G in the treatment of childhood pneumonia. This study, which aimed to assess the results of three different regimens in the treatment of pneumonia, was carried out at the Pediatric Outpatient Department of Capa Children's Hospital in Istanbul on 151 patients aged between 4 months and 14 years. The first group (n = 46) received co-trimoxazole orally for 10 days and the second group (n = 63 (...) ) procaine penicillin G in intramuscularly for 10 days. Benzathin penicillin G combined with procaine penicillin G was given to the third group (n = 42) as a single dose intramuscularly. While the best results were obtained with penicillin procaine G, no statistically significant difference was found between this regimen and co-trimoxazole therapy (chi 2 = 0.305023 P = 0.5). We suggest that co-trimoxazole is easy to administer and cost effective in the ambulatory treatment of pneumonia in children.

1994 Journal of tropical pediatrics

13213. Penicillin allergy: anti-penicillin IgE antibodies and immediate hypersensitivity skin reactions employing major and minor determinants of penicillin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Penicillin allergy: anti-penicillin IgE antibodies and immediate hypersensitivity skin reactions employing major and minor determinants of penicillin. 300 children considered to have had adverse reactions to penicillin were examined. Informed consent was obtained from the parents. Skin tests were conducted by the scratch/prick and intradermal techniques, using benzylpenicilloyl polylysine conjugate and a mixture of minor determinants of penicillin. Specific anti-penicillin IgE antibodies were (...) estimated by the radioallergosorbent test. There was a good correlation between the two methods. The overall frequency of positive tests was 19%. 11 children showed cutaneous reactivity only to the minor determinants mixture. Positive results were found more often in those with accelerated adverse reactions, particularly anaphylaxis, serum sickness, angio-oedema, or urticaria. The validity of penicillin-negative results was confirmed by drug challenge in 56 subjects, only 2 of whom showed a slight skin

1980 Archives of Disease in Childhood

13214. Effects of Amino Acid Alterations in Penicillin-Binding Proteins (PBPs) 1a, 2b, and 2x on PBP Affinities of Penicillin, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Cefditoren, Cefuroxime, Cefprozil, and Cefaclor in 18 Clinical Isolates of Penicillin-Susceptible, -Intermedia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Amino Acid Alterations in Penicillin-Binding Proteins (PBPs) 1a, 2b, and 2x on PBP Affinities of Penicillin, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Cefditoren, Cefuroxime, Cefprozil, and Cefaclor in 18 Clinical Isolates of Penicillin-Susceptible, -Intermedia Amino acid alterations in or flanking conserved motifs making up the active binding sites of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 1a, 2b, and 2x of pneumococci were correlated with changes in affinities of penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin (...) , cefditoren, cefuroxime, cefprozil, and cefaclor for these PBPs. Four penicillin-susceptible (PSSP), eight penicillin-intermediate (PISP), and six penicillin-resistant (PRSP) pneumococci were studied by DNA sequencing of the penicillin-binding sites of the pbp1a, -2x, and -2b genes of strains and by determining 50% inhibitory concentrations of the seven agents for PBP1a, -2x, and -2b. Two PSSP strains had alterations in PBP2x (L(546)-->V) (one strain) or PBP2b (T(445)-->A) (one strain). All eight PISP

2002 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

13215. Efficacy of intramammary treatment with procaine penicillin G vs. procaine penicillin G plus neomycin in bovine clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible, gram-positive bacteria--a double blind field study. (Abstract)

Efficacy of intramammary treatment with procaine penicillin G vs. procaine penicillin G plus neomycin in bovine clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible, gram-positive bacteria--a double blind field study. The efficacy of intramammary treatments containing procaine penicillin G alone (treatment A) or a combination of procaine penicillin G and neomycin (treatment B) was compared in treating clinical bovine mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible in vitro to penicillin G (...) . Both treatments were supplemented with a single intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin G on the first day of treatment. The study was carried out using a double blind design on commercial dairy farms in Southern Finland. A total of 56 quarters were treated with treatment A and 61 with treatment B. The cure rates for both treatments were equal, which suggests that the use of the penicillin G-aminoglycoside combination does not increase the efficacy of the treatment over that achieved

2003 Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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