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181. Clonal Expansion of New Penicillin-Resistant Clade of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Clonal Complex 11, Australia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clonal Expansion of New Penicillin-Resistant Clade of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Clonal Complex 11, Australia. In Western Australia, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W clonal complex 11 became the predominant cause of invasive meningococcal disease in 2016. We used core-genome analysis to show emergence of a penicillin-resistant clade that had the penA_253 allele. This new penicillin-resistant clade might affect treatment regimens for this disease.

2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

182. <i>Mycobacterium abscessus</i> L,D-transpeptidases are susceptible to inactivation by carbapenems and cephalosporins but not penicillins. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mycobacterium abscessus L,D-transpeptidases are susceptible to inactivation by carbapenems and cephalosporins but not penicillins. As a growing number of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus are resistant to most antibiotics, new treatment options that are effective against these drug-resistant strains are desperately needed. The majority of the linkages in the cell wall peptidoglycan of M. abscessus are synthesized by nonclassical transpeptidases, namely, the l,d-transpeptidases (...) . Emerging evidence suggests that these enzymes represent a new molecular vulnerability in this pathogen. Recent studies have demonstrated that inhibition of these enzymes by the carbapenem class of β-lactams determines their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Here, we studied the interactions of β-lactams with two l,d-transpeptidases in M. abscessus, namely, LdtMab1 and LdtMab2, and found that both the carbapenem and cephalosporin, but not penicillin, subclasses of β-lactams inhibit

2017 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

183. Suppression and Synthetic-Lethal Genetic Relationships of ΔgpsB Mutations Indicate That GpsB Mediates Protein Phosphorylation and Penicillin-Binding Protein Interactions in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Suppression and Synthetic-Lethal Genetic Relationships of ΔgpsB Mutations Indicate That GpsB Mediates Protein Phosphorylation and Penicillin-Binding Protein Interactions in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 GpsB regulatory protein and StkP protein kinase have been proposed as molecular switches that balance septal and peripheral (side-wall like) peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus); yet, mechanisms of this switching remain unknown. We report that ΔdivIVA mutations

2017 Molecular microbiology

184. Conformational dynamics in penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, allosteric communication network and enablement of catalysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Conformational dynamics in penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, allosteric communication network and enablement of catalysis The mechanism of the β-lactam antibacterials is the functionally irreversible acylation of the enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking steps in the biosynthesis of their peptidoglycan cell wall. The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses one primary resistance mechanism. An enzyme, called penicillin-binding protein 2a

2017 Journal of the American Chemical Society

185. Morbidity in Pregnant Women Associated with Unverified Penicillin Allergies, Antibiotic Use, and Group B Streptococcus Infections Full Text available with Trip Pro

Morbidity in Pregnant Women Associated with Unverified Penicillin Allergies, Antibiotic Use, and Group B Streptococcus Infections The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently.To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history (...) of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS.Retrospective. All pregnant women who delivered live infants in Kaiser Permanente Southern California between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, were identified.Penicillin allergy status at delivery, delivery method, maternal and infant hospital utilization, peripartum antibiotic exposures, new antibiotic-associated adverse drug reactions, and new Clostridium difficile infections.There were 170,379 unique women who had 201,316 pregnancies during the study

2017 The Permanente journal

186. Peptidoglycan crosslinking preferences of Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-binding proteins have implications for treating MRSA Full Text available with Trip Pro

Peptidoglycan crosslinking preferences of Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-binding proteins have implications for treating MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a global public health problem. MRSA strains have acquired a non-native penicillin-binding protein called PBP2a that cross-links peptidoglycan when the native S. aureus PBPs are inhibited by β-lactams. It has been proposed that the native S. aureus PBPs can use cell wall precursors having different

2017 Journal of the American Chemical Society

187. Antibacterial Effects of Different Concentrations of Althaea officinalis Root Extract versus 0.2% Chlorhexidine and Penicillin on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus (In vitro) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibacterial Effects of Different Concentrations of Althaea officinalis Root Extract versus 0.2% Chlorhexidine and Penicillin on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus (In vitro) The aims of the present study were to determine and compare the effects of different concentrations of Althaea officinalis extract, 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and penicillin on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro.The laboratory study was done, for a period of 8 weeks. Minimum inhibitory (...) concentration (MIC) in the test tube, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) in a plate culture medium, and growth inhibition zone diameter methods were used to compare the antibacterial effects of 0.2% CHX, penicillin, and different concentrations of A. officinalis root extract. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 24 using ANOVA and t-test analysis.The results showed A. officinalis root extract had antibacterial effect, but significant differences were in MIC and MBC against L. acidophilus and S

2017 Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry

188. Novel Electrophilic Scaffold for Imaging of Essential Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Novel Electrophilic Scaffold for Imaging of Essential Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae Peptidoglycan (PG) is a mesh-like heteropolymer made up of glycan chains cross-linked by short peptides and is the major scaffold of eubacterial cell walls, determining cell shape, size, and chaining. This structure, which is required for growth and survival, is located outside of the cytoplasmic membrane of bacterial cells, making it highly accessible to antibiotics. Penicillin-binding

2017 ACS chemical biology

189. First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication with Vonoprazan, Clarithromycin, and Metronidazole in Patients Allergic to Penicillin Full Text available with Trip Pro

First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication with Vonoprazan, Clarithromycin, and Metronidazole in Patients Allergic to Penicillin To assess the efficacy of 7-day first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication with vonoprazan (VPZ), clarithromycin (CAM), and metronidazole (MNZ) in patients with penicillin allergy.Patients with penicillin allergy, diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori infection and did not have history of Helicobacter pylori eradication, were eligible for the study. Twenty patients were (...) %) in the ITT and 82.7% (95% CI: 64.2-94.2%) in the PP analyses. Abdominal fullness was more frequent in VCM compared to PCM. However, all patients with VCM regimen had taken 100% of their course of medication.Triple therapy with VPZ, CAM, and MNZ is well tolerated and effective for eradicating Helicobacter pylori in patients allergic to penicillin. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000016335.

2017 Gastroenterology research and practice

190. UV Activation of Persulfate for Removal of Penicillin G Antibiotics in Aqueous Solution Full Text available with Trip Pro

UV Activation of Persulfate for Removal of Penicillin G Antibiotics in Aqueous Solution Penicillin G (PG) is one of the most widely consumed antibiotics around the world. Release of PG in environment may lead to contamination of water resources. The aim of the present work is to assess feasibility of applying UV-activated persulfate process in removal of PG from aquatic environments. The study examined the effect of pH (3-11), persulfate initial concentration (0.5-3 mM), reaction time (15-90

2017 The Scientific World Journal

191. Penicillin induces alterations in glutamine metabolism in Streptococcus pneumoniae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Penicillin induces alterations in glutamine metabolism in Streptococcus pneumoniae Penicillin is a bactericidal antibiotic that inhibits the synthesis of the peptidoglycan by targeting penicillin-binding proteins. This study aimed to assess through transcriptional profiling the stress response of S. pneumoniae strains after exposure to lethal penicillin concentrations to understand further the mode of action of penicillin. Two experimental designs (time-course and dose-response) were used (...) for monitoring the effect of penicillin on the transcriptional profile. The expression of some genes previously shown to be modulated by penicillin was altered, including ciaRH, pstS and clpL. Genes of the glnRA and glnPQ operons were among the most downregulated genes in the three strains. These genes are involved in glutamine synthesis and uptake and LC-MS work confirmed that penicillin treatment increases the intracellular glutamine concentrations. Glutamine conferred a protective role against penicillin

2017 Scientific reports

192. Effects of low concentrations of erythromycin, penicillin, and virginiamycin on bacterial resistance development in vitro Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of low concentrations of erythromycin, penicillin, and virginiamycin on bacterial resistance development in vitro Distillers grains are co-products of the corn ethanol industry widely used in animal feed. We examined the effects of erythromycin, penicillin, and virginiamycin at low concentrations reflective of those detected in distillers grains on bacterial resistance selection. At 0.1 µg/ml erythromycin, macrolide-resistant mutants were induced in one Campylobacter coli and one (...) Enterococcus faecium strain, while these strains plus three additional C. coli, one additional E. faecium, and one C. jejuni also developed resistance when exposed to 0.25 µg/ml erythromycin. At 0.5 µg/ml erythromycin, a total of eight strains (four Campylobacter and four Enterococcus) obtained macrolide-resistant mutants, including two strains from each genus that were not selected at lower erythromycin concentrations. For penicillin, three of five E. faecium strains but none of five Enterococcus faecalis

2017 Scientific reports

193. Antibiotic resistance and gyrA mutation affect the efficacy of 10-day sitafloxacin-metronidazole-esomeprazole therapy for Helicobacter pylori in penicillin allergic patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance and gyrA mutation affect the efficacy of 10-day sitafloxacin-metronidazole-esomeprazole therapy for Helicobacter pylori in penicillin allergic patients Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication regimen has not been standardized for patients with penicillin allergy. We investigated the association between the efficacy of a 10-day sitafloxacin, metronidazole, and esomeprazole triple regimen and antibiotic resistance, in patients with penicillin allergy.Penicillin-allergic (...) %. Adverse events were reported in 31.6% of cases, all of which were mild and tolerable.Ten days of sitafloxacin and metronidazole triple therapy was safe and highly effective in eradicating H. pylori in penicillin-allergic patients. Double resistance to metronidazole and sitafloxacin was an important predicting factor for eradication failure. However, 10 days of the sitafloxacin and metronidazole triple therapy was highly effective if the strain was susceptible to either sitafloxacin or metronidazole.

2017 United European gastroenterology journal

194. Removal of Penicillin G by combination of sonolysis and Photocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) process from aqueous solution: process optimization using RSM (Response Surface Methodology) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Removal of Penicillin G by combination of sonolysis and Photocatalytic (sonophotocatalytic) process from aqueous solution: process optimization using RSM (Response Surface Methodology) Penicillin G (PG) is used in a variety of infectious diseases, extensively. Generally, when antibiotics are introduced into the food chain, they pose a threat to the environment and can risk health outcomes. The aim of the present study was the removal of Penicillin G from an aqueous solution through (...) an integrated system of UV/ZnO and UV/WO3 with Ultrasound pretreatment.In this descriptive-analytical work dealing with the removal of Penicillin G from an aqueous solution, four significant variables, contact time (60-120 min), Penicillin G concentration (50-150 mg/L), ZnO dose (200-400 mg/L), and WO3 dose (100-200 mg/L) were investigated. Experiments were performed in a Pyrex reactor (batch, 1 Lit) with an artificial UV 100-Watt medium pressure mercury lamp, coupled with ultrasound (100 W, 40 KHz) for PG

2016 Electronic physician

195. Penicillin-Susceptible, Oxidase-Negative, Nonhemolytic, Nonmotile Bacillus megaterium in Disguise of Bacillus anthracis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Penicillin-Susceptible, Oxidase-Negative, Nonhemolytic, Nonmotile Bacillus megaterium in Disguise of Bacillus anthracis Bacillus anthracis is a bacterial pathogen of major concern. The spores of this bacteria can survive harsh environmental conditions for extended periods and are well recognized as a potential bioterror weapon with significant implications. Accurate and timely identification of this Bacillus species in the diagnostic laboratory is essential for disease and public health

2017 Case reports in infectious diseases

196. Interplay between Penicillin-binding proteins and SEDS proteins promotes bacterial cell wall synthesis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interplay between Penicillin-binding proteins and SEDS proteins promotes bacterial cell wall synthesis Bacteria utilize specialized multi-protein machineries to synthesize the essential peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall during growth and division. The divisome controls septal PG synthesis and separation of daughter cells. In E. coli, the lipid II transporter candidate FtsW is thought to work in concert with the PG synthases penicillin-binding proteins PBP3 and PBP1b. Yet, the exact molecular

2017 Scientific reports

197. Alanine-501 Mutations in Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 from Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Structure, Mechanism, and Effects on Cephalosporin Resistance and Biological Fitness Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alanine-501 Mutations in Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 from Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Structure, Mechanism, and Effects on Cephalosporin Resistance and Biological Fitness Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone and cefixime has increased markedly in the past decade. The primary cephalosporin resistance determinant is a mutated penA gene, which encodes the essential peptidoglycan transpeptidase, penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2). Decreased (...) -spectrum cephalosporins, we randomized codon 501 in a mosaic penA allele and transformed N. gonorrhoeae to increased cefixime resistance. Interestingly, only five substitutions of Ala501 (A501V, A501T, A501P, A501R, and A501S) that increased resistance and preserved essential transpeptidase function were isolated. To understand their structural implications, these mutations were introduced into the nonmosaic PBP2-6140CT, which contains four C-terminal mutations present in PBP2 from the penicillin

2017 Biochemistry

198. Clarithromycin, trimethoprim, and penicillin and oxidative nucleic acid modifications in humans: randomised, controlled trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clarithromycin, trimethoprim, and penicillin and oxidative nucleic acid modifications in humans: randomised, controlled trials In vitro studies have demonstrated that formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the effect of bactericidal antibiotics. The formation of ROS is not restricted to bacteria, but also occurs in mammalian cells. Oxidative stress is linked to several diseases. This study investigates whether antibiotic drugs induce oxidative stress in healthy humans (...) as a possible mechanism for adverse reactions to the antibiotic drugs.This study contains information from two randomised, controlled trials. Participants underwent 1 week treatment with clarithromycin, trimethoprim, phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V), or placebo. Oxidative modifications were measured as 24-h urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), and plasma levels of malondialdehyde before and after treatment as a measurement of DNA

2017 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

199. Genomic Epidemiology of Penicillin-Nonsusceptible Pneumococci with Nonvaccine Serotypes Causing Invasive Disease in the United States Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genomic Epidemiology of Penicillin-Nonsusceptible Pneumococci with Nonvaccine Serotypes Causing Invasive Disease in the United States Conjugate vaccination against seven pneumococcal serotypes (PCV7) reduced disease prevalence due to antibiotic-resistant strains throughout the 2000s. However, diseases caused by resistant nonvaccine type (NVT) strains increased. Some of these emerging strains were derived from vaccine types (VT) that had changed their capsule by recombination. The introduction (...) of a vaccine targeting 13 serotypes (PCV13) in 2010 has led to concern that this scenario will repeat itself. We generated high-quality draft genomes from 265 isolates of NVT pneumococci not susceptible to penicillin (PNSP) in 2009 and compared them with the genomes of 581 isolates from 2012 to 2013 collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Of the seven sequence clusters (SCs) identified, three SCs fell into a single lineage

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

200. Treatment with penicillin G and hydrocortisone reduces ALS-associated symptoms: a case series of three patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment with penicillin G and hydrocortisone reduces ALS-associated symptoms: a case series of three patients Three male Caucasian patients with ALS were admitted to the hospital due to progressive dysphagia and dysarthria. During two 21-day courses of penicillin G and hydrocortisone, these patients' dysphagia and dysarthria resolved. The patient's other ALS-associated symptoms also improved, including respiratory function, coordination, walking, and muscle strength. This is the first report (...) of a treatment with a protocol for treating dysphagia, dysarthria, respiratory depression and other ALS-related symptoms. Furthermore, the observations are consistent with the recent hypothesis that the successful treatment of ALS symptoms with this treatment course in six patients with syphilitic ALS was not directly due to the treatment of syphilis; but that the administered penicillin G and/or hydrocortisone treated these patients' ALS symptoms due the off-target pharmacological activity of penicillin G

2017 F1000Research

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