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1. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

(smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure [BP], and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, healthcare administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) produces immense health and economic burdens in the United (...) States and globally. The Statistical Update also presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease [CHD], heart failure [HF], valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral arterial disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs). Since 2007, the annual versions of the Statistical Update have

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2019 American Heart Association

2. Frayar, D.C., Ervin, R.B. Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Adults: United States, 2007–2010. NCHS Data Brief, No. 114, February 2013. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2013 (PubMed)

Frayar, D.C., Ervin, R.B. Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Adults: United States, 2007–2010. NCHS Data Brief, No. 114, February 2013. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2013 24167755 2014 05 02 2014 09 01 2156-5376 4 5 2013 Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) Adv Nutr Frayar, D.C., Ervin, R.B. Caloric intake from fast food among adults: United States, 2007-2010. NCHS Data Brief, No. 114, February 2013. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2013. 578 (...) 10.3945/an.113.003889 McGuire Shelley S Washington State University School of Biological Sciences, Pullman, WA. eng Journal Article 2013 09 05 United States Adv Nutr 101540874 2161-8313 IM Adult African Americans Age Factors Aged Aged, 80 and over Body Mass Index Diet economics ethnology Energy Intake Fast Foods adverse effects economics Humans Mexican Americans Middle Aged National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.) Nutrition Surveys Obesity economics epidemiology ethnology etiology Risk Factors

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2013 Advances in Nutrition

3. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association

; and the dedicated staff of the Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion; the National Center for Health Statistics; and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute for their valuable comments and contributions. FOOTNOTES The views expressed in this document are those of the au- thors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Na- tional Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the National Institutes of Health; the US Department of Health and Human Services; or the US Department of Veterans Affairs (...) Classification of Diseases ICD-9-CM International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification, 9th Revision ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision MEPS Medical Expenditure Panel Survey MI myocardial infarction NAMCS National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey NCHS National Center for Health Statistics NHAMCS National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHDS National Hospital Discharge Survey NHIS National Health Interview

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2017 American Heart Association

4. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics?2016 Update

MEPS Medical Expenditure Panel Survey MI myocardial infarction NAMCS National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey NCHS National Center for Health Statistics NHAMCS National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHDS National Hospital Discharge Survey NHHCS National Home and Hospice Care Survey NHIS National Health Interview Survey NHLBI National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute NINDS National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke NNHS (...) and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee Originally published 16 Dec 2015 Circulation. 2016;133:e38–e360 You are viewing the most recent version of this article. Previous versions: Table of Contents Summary e39 1. About These Statistics e46 2. Cardiovascular Health e49 Health Behaviors 3. Smoking/Tobacco Use e68 4. Physical Inactivity e78 5. Nutrition e89 6. Overweight and Obesity e110 Health Factors and Other Risk Factors 7. Family History and Genetics e121 8. High Blood Cholesterol and Other Lipids e127 9

2014 American Heart Association

5. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics?2012 Update

(National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute computation based on National Center for Health Statistics annual data). Chapter 23 reviews current estimates of direct and indirect healthcare costs related to CVDs, stroke, and related conditions using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. The total direct and indirect cost of CVD and stroke in the United States for 2008 is estimated to be $297.7 billion. This figure includes health expenditures (direct costs, which include the cost of physicians and other (...) None None Daniel T. Lackland Medical University of South Carolina None None None None None None None Judith H. Lichtman Yale School of Medicine None None None None None None None Lynda D. Lisabeth University of Michigan NHLBI ; NINDS None None None None None None Donald M. Lloyd-Jones Northwestern University None None None None None None None Diane M. Makuc National Center for Health Statistics, CDC None None None None None None None Gregory M. Marcus UCSF Astellas ; Baylis Medical None None None

2012 American Heart Association

6. Shields M., Carroll M.D., Ogden C.L. Adult Obesity Prevalence in Canada and the United States. NCHS Data Brief no. 56, Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2011 (PubMed)

Shields M., Carroll M.D., Ogden C.L. Adult Obesity Prevalence in Canada and the United States. NCHS Data Brief no. 56, Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2011 22332078 2012 05 31 2012 07 02 2156-5376 2 4 2011 Jul Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) Adv Nutr Shields M., Carroll M.D., Ogden C.L. adult obesity prevalence in Canada and the United States. NCHS data brief no. 56, Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2011. 368-9 10.3945/an.111.000497 McGuire (...) Shelley S School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. eng Comparative Study Journal Article 2011 06 28 United States Adv Nutr 101540874 2161-8313 IM Canada epidemiology Humans National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.) Obesity epidemiology United States epidemiology 2012 2 15 6 0 2012 2 15 6 0 2012 6 1 6 0 ppublish 22332078 10.3945/an.111.000497 000497 PMC3125686

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2011 Advances in Nutrition

7. Obesity in children

. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts for the United States: improvements to the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics version. Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):45-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11773541?tool=bestpractice.com Worldwide, the definition of overweight and obesity changes; however, a BMI >85th percentile is defined as overweight or at risk for overweight in the US and UK, a BMI ≥95th percentile is variably defined as obesity or overweight, and a BMI >99th (...) Obesity in children Obesity in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Obesity in children Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2019 Summary Behavioural and environmental factors are primarily responsible for the dramatic increase in obesity in the past two decades, although genes play an important role in regulation of body weight. Calculating body mass index (BMI) is the most widely

2019 BMJ Best Practice

8. Obesity in children

. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts for the United States: improvements to the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics version. Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):45-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11773541?tool=bestpractice.com Worldwide, the definition of overweight and obesity changes; however, a BMI >85th percentile is defined as overweight or at risk for overweight in the US and UK, a BMI ≥95th percentile is variably defined as obesity or overweight, and a BMI >99th (...) Obesity in children Obesity in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Obesity in children Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2019 Summary Behavioural and environmental factors are primarily responsible for the dramatic increase in obesity in the past two decades, although genes play an important role in regulation of body weight. Calculating body mass index (BMI) is the most widely

2018 BMJ Best Practice

9. Cancer statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2015. (PubMed)

of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among Hispanics in 2015, there will be an estimated 125,900 new cancer cases diagnosed and 37,800 cancer deaths. For all cancers combined, Hispanics have 20% lower incidence rates and 30% lower death rates compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs); however, death rates are slightly higher among Hispanics during adolescence (aged 15-19 years). Hispanic cancer rates vary by country of origin and are generally (...) Cancer statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2015. Cancer is the leading cause of death among Hispanics/Latinos, who represent the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, accounting for 17.4% (55.4 million/318 million) of the total US population in 2014. Every 3 years, the American Cancer Society reports on cancer statistics for Hispanics based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association

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2015 CA: a cancer journal for clinicians

10. Trends in Obesity and Severe Obesity Prevalence in US Youth and Adults by Sex and Age, 2007-2008 to 2015-2016 (PubMed)

Trends in Obesity and Severe Obesity Prevalence in US Youth and Adults by Sex and Age, 2007-2008 to 2015-2016 29570750 2018 05 16 2018 11 14 1538-3598 319 16 2018 04 24 JAMA JAMA Trends in Obesity and Severe Obesity Prevalence in US Youth and Adults by Sex and Age, 2007-2008 to 2015-2016. 1723-1725 10.1001/jama.2018.3060 Hales Craig M CM National Center for Health Statistics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland. Fryar Cheryl D CD National Center for Health (...) Statistics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland. Carroll Margaret D MD National Center for Health Statistics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland. Freedman David S DS National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. Ogden Cynthia L CL National Center for Health Statistics, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland. eng Letter

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2018 JAMA

11. Ethical Considerations for the Care of Patients With Obesity

to be comprehensive. Referral to these resources does not imply the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ endorsement of the organization, the organization’s website, or the content of the resource. The resources may change without notice. References McGuire S. Shields M., Carroll M.D., Ogden C.L. adult obesity prevalence in Canada and the United States. NCHS data brief no. 56, Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2011. Adv Nutr 2011;2:368–9. Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard (...) Cardiol 2014;63:3029]. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;63:2985–3023. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, McDowell MA, Flegal KM. Obesity among adults in the United States—no statistically significant change since 2003–2004. NCHS Data Brief 2007;(1):1–8. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011–2014. NCHS Data Brief 2015;(219):1–8. Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016. NCHS Data

2019 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

12. Weight Loss to Prevent Obesity-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Adults: Behavioral Interventions

. 21. Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF). CPSTF findings for obesity. The Community Guide website. . Accessed July 31, 2018. 22. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA . 2014;311(8):806-14. 23. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2016: With Chartbook on Long-term Trends in Health. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2017. Report 2017-1232. 24. Flegal KM (...) Needs and Gaps Further research is needed to examine the effects of interventions for obesity on longer-term weight and health outcomes (eg, cardiovascular outcomes), including data on important subpopulations (eg, older adults, racial/ethnic groups, or persons who are overweight). Psychosocial, quality of life, and patient-centered outcomes should continue to be evaluated in future studies. Well-designed pragmatic trials and improved reporting of intervention characteristics to enable evaluation

2018 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

13. Cancer statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2012. (PubMed)

and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2012, an estimated 112,800 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed and 33,200 cancer deaths will occur among Hispanics. In 2009, the most recent year for which actual data are available, cancer surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death among Hispanics. Among US Hispanics during the past 10 years of available data (2000-2009), cancer incidence rates declined by 1.7% per year among men and 0.3% per year among women, while cancer (...) Cancer statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2012. Hispanics/Latinos are the largest and fastest growing major demographic group in the United States, accounting for 16.3% (50.5 million/310 million) of the US population in 2010. In this article, the American Cancer Society updates a previous report on cancer statistics for Hispanics using incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries

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2012 CA: a cancer journal for clinicians

14. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guidelines for Comprehensive Medical Care of Patients with Obesity

; CSS]; 4 [EL 3; SS]; 5 [EL 3; SS]). Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys show that roughly 2 of 3 United States (U.S.) adults have overweight or obesity, and 1 of 3 adults has obesity (1 [EL 3; SS]; 2 [EL 2; MNRCT]; 3 [EL 3; CSS]). The impact of obesity on morbidity, mortal- ity, and health care costs is profound. Obesity and weight- related complications exert a huge burden on patient suf- fering and social costs (6 [EL 3; SS]; 7 [EL 3; SS]). Obesity is estimated to add (...) ) Appropriate statistics Logical Selection bias Incompleteness Appropriate blinding Validity Using surrogate endpoints (especially in “first-in-its-class” intervention) Sample size (beta error) Null hypothesis versus Bayesian statisticsAACE/ACE Obesity CPG, Endocr Pract. 2016;22(Suppl 3) 9 guidelines for clinical practice. Individual patient circum- stances and presentations obviously differ, and ultimately, clinical management choices should be based on individual patients ’ best interests, including

2016 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

15. Identification of Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Populations

to have >100 million diabetic people by the year 2030. CVD is the number 1 cause of death worldwide. These grim statistics highlight the need for accurate identification of overweight and obese adults who are at high risk for obesity-related illnesses. Accurate identification of such people allows healthcare professionals, policymakers, and others to target prevention and treatment programs to those at the highest risk of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the tools and measures currently (...) , the American Diabetes Association. Overdiagnosis of Obesity in Some Groups People who are muscular but do not have excess adiposity have higher BMI, which allows a number of people to be inappropriately diagnosed as obese. Ode et al demonstrated in their study of athletes and nonathletes that the specificity of elevated BMI to diagnose excess adiposity in male varsity athletes, who have higher muscle mass, was only 27%. Using NHANES III data, Burkhauser and Cawley compared BMI with total body fat and %BF

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2015 American Heart Association

16. Effect of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on hypertriglyceridemia in pediatric patients with obesity. (PubMed)

, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study involving pediatric patients (10-16 years old) with obesity and hypertriglyceridemia was conducted. The National Center for Health Statistics (CDC) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) ≥95th percentile. Subjects with triglyceride concentrations ranging from 150 to 1000 mg/dL were randomized into two groups: those receiving omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) (n = 65) and those receiving a placebo (n = 65) for 12 weeks (...) Effect of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on hypertriglyceridemia in pediatric patients with obesity. Background The beneficial effects of treating hypertriglyceridemic adults with omega-3 fatty acids have been reported. However, information regarding omega-3 treatment of pediatric patients is limited. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of administering omega-3 fatty acids (3 g/day for 12 weeks) to children/adolescents with obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. Methods A randomized

2019 Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

17. Asthma and Obesity Diet Versus Exercise

asthmatic children. To calculate the HOMA-IR we will use the following formula: fasting glucose (mmol/L) x fasting insulin (mIU/L)/22.5. Weight in kilograms [ Time Frame: Baseline visit and and post intervention at 13 to 15 weeks ] Weight in kilograms will be obtained by standardized scale and weight values will be evaluated using standard National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. Height in centimeters [ Time Frame: Baseline visit and and post intervention at 13 to 15 weeks ] Height (...) will be measured using stadiometer and evaluated by standard National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Layout table

2018 Clinical Trials

18. Challenges for Overweight and Obese Women

, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity among adults: United States, 2011–2012. NCHS Data Brief No. 131. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics; 2013. Available at: . Retrieved November 18, 2013. Raghuwanshi M, Kirschner M, Xenachis C, Ediale K, Amir J. Treatment of morbid obesity in inner-city women. Obes Res 2001;9:342–7. Ogden CL, Lamb MM, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. Obesity and socioeconomic status in adults: United States 1988–1994 and 2005–2008. NCHS Data Brief No. 50. Hyattsville (MD (...) ): National Center for Health Statistics; 2010. Available at: . Retrieved November 13, 2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult obesity facts. Available at: . Retrieved November 13, 2013. Vital signs: state-specific obesity prevalence among adults —United States, 2009. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2010;59:951–5. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2000;894:i-xii, 1

2014 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

19. Severe Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Identification, Associated Health Risks, and Treatment Approaches

obesity that functionally define a group of children and adolescents with markedly worse healthcare issues lack robust epidemiological data because of the relatively new need for this category and other statistical issues. However, some work has been done to determine whether variations by age, race/ethnicity, and poverty exist in categories of severe obesity ( ). Table 1. Summary of Epidemiological Data With Application of Different Cut Points to Define Severe Obesity BMI ≥99th Percentile BMI ≥120 (...) with high medical and psychosocial risks. Introduction Despite recent data suggesting that the rate of increase of obesity among children and adolescents has slowed and overall prevalence has possibly begun to plateau, , a worrisome trend has emerged in the form of severe pediatric obesity. As the fastest-growing subcategory of obesity in children and adolescents, , , severe obesity afflicts between 4% and 6% of all youth in the United States and has both immediate and long-term health consequences

2013 American Heart Association

20. Appropriate Chemotherapy Dosing for Obese Adult Patients With Cancer

among obese patients receiving full weight–based doses. Most data indicate that myelosuppression is the same or less pronounced among the obese than the non-obese who are administered full weight–based doses. Clinicians should respond to all treatment-related toxicities in obese patients in the same ways they do for non-obese patients. The use of fixed-dose chemotherapy is rarely justified, but the Panel does recommend fixed dosing for a few select agents. The Panel recommends further research (...) in this Executive Summary The full guideline with methodology, comprehensive discussions of the literature, full reference list, Data Supplements, evidence tables, and clinical tool and resources can be found at . Patient information is available at . METHODS Section: Panel Composition An Expert Panel met once in person and considered data from a systematic review and interacted through e-mail throughout draft development. The Panel authored recommendations for clinicians who treat obese patients with cancer

2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines

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