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21. Reconciling COVID-19 death rate in the UK

at 2 pm every day; Deaths outside NHS services are not included. Reporting The Public Health England dashboard ( ) extracts data at 5 pm each day and reports the following day, so numbers visible on the 8 th April are current for the 7 th of April. NHS England releases data at 2 pm each day and reports daily count up to the previous day as well as a total figure. The ONS mortality statistics are compiled from information supplied when deaths are certified and registered as part of civil (...) Reconciling COVID-19 death rate in the UK Reconciling COVID-19 death data in the UK - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website Reconciling COVID-19 death data in the UK April 8, 2020 Jason Oke, Carl Heneghan How many people have died from COVID-19 in the UK? You’d think this was an easy question to answer, but you would be wrong. There are numerous places in which you can find this data

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

22. Five Don'ts to Prevent Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) and Death - part 1

? for many days is risky, but it can be endured for one day. Moreover, at 42? , infection is not the cause of death. In reality, body temperature does not increase higher than 41? in infection. Rather, it tends to become higher when it recurs after once lowered with antipyretics. (2)Strong antipyretics aggravate infection and increase mortality by 10 to 20 folds. A highly fatal disease, in which infection such as influenza or chickenpox was followed by encephalitis Cited from ref [1]MED CHECK April 2020 (...) not kill the virus, but rather the virus needs to produce more cytokines for the virus to multiply, resulting in a cytokine storm. Figure 9: The mortality risk increases with early use of corticosteroids (1) From ref. [13] The survival rates of mice were compared when dexamethasone was started 1, 3, 4, and 8 days post-infection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and control mice treated with saline (phosphate buffer saline: PBS) starting 1 day post-infection. The greatest risk of death was observed when

2020 Med Check - The Informed Prescriber

23. Five Don'ts to Prevent Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) and Death - part 2

, bleeding with melena. In addition, intestinal bacteria can enter the blood stream through injured mucosal membranes and be translocated throughout the body, causing severe systemic infections (bacteremia and sepsis). During the last influenza season (2018/19), 4.27 million patients with influenza were prescribed with Xofluza. Total 37 death cases were reported by doctors who suspected these deaths may be related to the drug. Mortality rate is at least 1 in 120,000. For those over 60 years of age (...) , mortality rate was 1 in 80,000. There were no reports of deaths among 3 million inhaler users, such as Relenza and Inavir. .Page 22 · MED CHECK April 2020/ Vol.6 No.17 The novel coronavirus is transmitted not only from the respiratory tract such as the lungs, but also from the mouth and enters the gastrointestinal tract. If the intestine is injured with Xofluza, intestinal mucosa is easily infected with novel coronaviruses. As described in detail in the next section, the enzyme called ACE2, which acts

2020 Med Check - The Informed Prescriber

24. Global Covid-19 Case Fatality Rates

such as coinfection, more inadequate healthcare, patient demographics (i.e., older patients might be more prevalent in countries such as Italy); There may be increased rates of smoking or comorbidities amongst the fatalities. Differences in how deaths are attributed to Coronavirus: dying with the disease (association) is not the same as dying from the disease (causation). China: In China, the CFR was (17% for cases from 1 to 10 January) and reduced to 0.7% for patients with symptom onset after 1 February (...) of an acute coronary syndrome; depression of the myocardium can worsen heart failure, and inflammation can unmask heart arrhythmias. Seasonal influenza infections can increase CVD deaths significantly, and community-level rises in Influenza-like illness (ILI) lead to rises in CVD mortality: from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China~: Those with coronavirus symptoms in Wuhan, China, had a 1.4% (95% CI, 0.9% to 23.1%) chance of dying, 29th February, the crude CFR case risk, outside Hubei was 0.85

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

25. COVID-19: The Chain Ladder Method to estimate deaths not yet reported

COVID-19: The Chain Ladder Method to estimate deaths not yet reported COVID-19: The Chain Ladder Method to estimate deaths not yet reported - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website COVID-19: The Chain Ladder Method to estimate deaths not yet reported May 6, 2020 Stavros Christofides, Jason Oke, Carl Heneghan NHS England releases daily, the number of deaths reported in Hospitals. Most (...) of these reported deaths occurred in the previous week but some occurred more than a week ago – in some cases a month can elapse before they are reported. This means that the counts of deaths are always an underestimate of the number of people who have died up to date of reporting. The difference between what the final estimate will be on any given date and the current figure can be defined as the deaths that have O ccurred but not yet Reported (OBNR). This could be a useful measure in monitoring the ongoing

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

26. BAME COVID-19 DEATHS – What do we know? Rapid Data & Evidence Review

Medicine, University of Leicester On behalf of the Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service Team Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences University of Oxford Editorial input from Professor Trisha Greenhalgh Correspondence to VERDICT Evidence indicates markedly higher mortality risk from COVID-19 among Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups, but deaths are not consistent across BAME groups. Similarly, adverse outcomes are seen for BAME patients (...) renal support in ICU, and there is a clear social gradient with those in IMD quintile 5 (most deprived) nearly twice as likely to require renal support as IMD quintile 1 (least deprived). The pattern of ICU outcomes by ethnic group broadly reflect the pattern of overall COVID-19 mortality by ethnic groups, suggesting that ICU deaths follow the overall death risk pattern for BAME communities. BAME Health and Care Worker Deaths Data published in the detail the disproportionately high rate of BAME

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

27. PHE data series on deaths in people with COVID-19: technical summary

PHE data series on deaths in people with COVID-19: technical summary PHE data series on deaths in people with COVID-19: technical summary - GOV.UK Tell us whether you accept cookies We use about how you use GOV.UK. We use this information to make the website work as well as possible and improve government services. Accept all cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Guidance and support Guidance PHE data series on deaths in people with COVID-19: technical summary (...) Summary of the PHE data series on deaths in people with COVID-19, outlining what the changes mean and how the data compare to other COVID-19 death data series. Published 29 April 2020 Last updated 23 June 2020 — From: Documents Ref: PHE publications gateway number: GW-1359 If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email . Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you

2020 Public Health England

28. COVID-10: Making Excess Death Comparisons

COVID-10: Making Excess Death Comparisons COVID-10: Making Excess Death Comparisons - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website COVID-10: Making Excess Death Comparisons May 22, 2020 Jason Oke, Carl Heneghan A lot of has been made of the excess mortality in the current COVID outbreak. To estimate the excess mortality, a count of deaths from all causes relative to what would normally be expected (...) is required. The usual way to create excess mortality is to compare with the five-year average. Another way is to compare with a year where excess deaths occurred. In there were 50,100 excess winter deaths compared with the five year average of the preceding years in England and Wales. The difference in all-cause deaths between 2017/18 and the five-year average might not look like much, but they have a dramatic effect on the excess difference. Comparing the number of deaths in the last year to the five

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

29. Dulaglutide (Trulicity) and type 2 diabetes. No reduction in all-cause mortality or cardiovascular mortality

Dulaglutide (Trulicity) and type 2 diabetes. No reduction in all-cause mortality or cardiovascular mortality Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight '' Dulaglutide (Trulicity) and type 2 diabetes. No reduction in all-cause mortality or cardiovascular mortality'', 1 May 2020 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > Dulaglutide (Trulicity) and type 2 diabetes. No reduction in all-cause mortality or cardiovascular mortality Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |    (...) |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  Spotlight In the May issue of Prescrire International: Dulaglutide (Trulicity°) and type 2 diabetes. No reduction in all-cause mortality or cardiovascular mortality FREE DOWNLOAD In patients with type 2 diabetes who had a modest elevation of HbA1c, a recent trial suggested that addition of dulaglutide to hypoglycaemic therapy slightly reduced the risk of stroke, but did not reduce either all-cause mortality

2020 Prescrire

30. PD-L1 (Programmed Death Ligand 1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing for access to atezolizumab as first line therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)

in group; OS = overall survival; PBO+nab-P = placebo + nab-paclitaxel; PD-L1 = programmed death ligand 1; PFS = progression-free survival; RD = risk difference a No formal testing of OS was performed in the PD-L1-positive population because the hierarchy design indicated formal testing could only occur if OS was first statistically significant in the ITT population, which it was not. Source: Table 2.5.1, Table 2.5.2, Table 2.5.3 and Table 2.5.4 of the MSAC_PBAC Combined Submission Table 11: Summary (...) PD-L1 (Programmed Death Ligand 1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing for access to atezolizumab as first line therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) 1 Public Summary Document Application No. 1570 – PD-L1 (Programmed Death Ligand 1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing for access to atezolizumab as first line therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) Applicant: Roche Products Pty Ltd Date

2020 Medical Services Advisory Committee

31. Declining COVID-19 Case Fatality Rates across all ages: analysis of German data

% in March/April falling to 2% in July August. More granular estimates of CFR trends that take account of the lag between cases and deaths provide similar patterns with a steep decline from early April and levelling off in the summer months. This analysis shows that the fatality rate from COVID-19 has declined in all age groups, and the older age groups drive the overall reduction. Given German CFRs were low to start within the older age groups, it is likely in countries with higher CFRs at the outset (...) Declining COVID-19 Case Fatality Rates across all ages: analysis of German data Declining COVID-19 Case Fatality Rates across all ages: analysis of German data - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website Declining COVID-19 Case Fatality Rates across all ages: analysis of German data September 9, 2020 Jason Oke, Daniel Howdon, Carl Heneghan, This analysis shows that the fatality rate from COVID-19

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

32. Public Health England has changed its definition of deaths: here’s what it means

Public Health England has changed its definition of deaths: here’s what it means Public Health England has changed its definition of deaths: here’s what it means - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website Public Health England has changed its definition of deaths: here’s what it means August 12, 2020 Carl Heneghan, Jason Oke Public Health England has changed its definition of deaths. is now death (...) in a person with a laboratory-confirmed positive COVID-19 test and died within (equal to or less than) 28 days of the first positive specimen date will now be reported can be accessed here. What this means is that England has had 36,695 deaths using this definition as opposed to the previous reported 42,072 – a difference of 5,377. When you observe this difference you can see it is more marked in June, July and August. For example, under the old PHE system, 2,086 deaths were reported in England in July

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

33. ONS Death Data update and Disparity with PHE

ONS Death Data update and Disparity with PHE ONS Death Data update and Disparity with PHE – - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website ONS Death Data update and Disparity with PHE – August 11, 2020 Jason Oke, Carl Heneghan The latest release from the (ONS) on deaths registered in England and Wales in the week ending 31st of July, 2020 (Week 31) shows that the number of deaths in which “novel (...) coronavirus (COVID-19)”, was mentioned on the death certificate continues to decline in England. In week 31 there were 8,946 deaths registered – 90 fewer than the five-year average – this is the seventh consecutive week that deaths have been below average. In the last seven weeks, there have been 1,503 fewer deaths than expected (62,208 versus 64,311 expected). In 2020 there have been 380,806 registered deaths; 52,927 more than the five year average of 327,169). For an understanding of excess deaths see

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

34. European Case-Fatality Rates beyond lockdown and the UK’s outlier status

European Case-Fatality Rates beyond lockdown and the UK’s outlier status European Case-Fatality Rates beyond lockdown and the UK’s outlier status - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website European Case-Fatality Rates beyond lockdown and the UK’s outlier status August 10, 2020 Jason Oke, Carl Heneghan Analysing deaths since mid-July the UK is a clear outlier with a Case Fatality Rate(CFR) of 6.57 (...) numbers to be revised this week to bring them, somewhat, in line with the rest of Europe. is reporting that may never be brought back. We’ll keep you posted. Our methods We downloaded COVID-19 data for European countries from the “Our World in Data” site ( ). We examined new cases for the period 1 st July 2020 and new deaths 14 th July 2020 to allow for the lag time between cases developing and death. The case-fatality rate (CFR) was calculated as the sum of new deaths divided by the sum of new cases

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

35. SAGE models overestimation of deaths

to, and so are approximations). The vertical line represents the 1st of November. The at the University of Cambridge produces weekly projections on COVID-19 mortality. Since the first autumn update on October 12, two subsequent updates have substantially revised down the estimated number of deaths. The October 12 update projected 588 deaths on October 30, and updates since have revised this down to 324 (October 21 for the 31st) and most recently 241 (October 28 for the 5 November). This most recent (...) SAGE models overestimation of deaths SAGE models overestimation of deaths - The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Evidence Service to support the COVID-19 response Navigate this website SAGE models overestimation of deaths November 2, 2020 Daniel Howdon, Carl Heneghan The slides to the BBC on estimated COVID-19 deaths, and presented at the government press conference on the 31st October, were based on different models from at least three weeks ago

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

36. PD-L1 (Programmed Death-Ligand 1) immunohistochemistry testing for access to pembrolizumab as first-line therapy for patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (co-dependent)

was proposed as the threshold for eligibility, as analysis of data from the phase 1b study KN012 demonstrated that the CPS scoring was more sensitive than TPS scoring and was more predictive of improved overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). 14 Table 4 OS results for ITT and subgroup by PD-L1 CPS status in KN048 Population Pembrolizumab Cetuximab + chemotherapy Hazard ratio (95%CI) P-value Test for interaction p-value (I 2 ) Deaths, n/N (%) Median OS (95% CI) Deaths, n/N (%) Median OS (...) (95% CI) Pembrolizumab monotherapy ITT 237/301 (78.7) 11.5 (10.3, 13.4) 264/300 (88.0) 10.7 (9.3, 11.7) 0.83 (0.70, 0.99) a 0.01985 b NA CPS HPV status- >PD-L1 status until event count in every stratum is =5 b p-value boundary for statistical significance was 0.0059 Text in bold indicates statistically significant results CPS = combined positive score, ITT = intention to treat, NA = not applicable, OS = overall survival, PD-L1 = programmed death ligand 1 Source: Table 1, p9; Table PBAC.9, p43

2020 Medical Services Advisory Committee

37. Determination of Brain Death/Death by Neurologic Criteria: The World Brain Death Project. (Abstract)

Determination of Brain Death/Death by Neurologic Criteria: The World Brain Death Project. There are inconsistencies in concept, criteria, practice, and documentation of brain death/death by neurologic criteria (BD/DNC) both internationally and within countries.To formulate a consensus statement of recommendations on determination of BD/DNC based on review of the literature and expert opinion of a large multidisciplinary, international panel.Relevant international professional societies were (...) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and for those receiving therapeutic hypothermia, as well as for factors such as religious, societal, and cultural perspectives; legal requirements; and resource availability.This report provides recommendations for the minimum clinical standards for determination of brain death/death by neurologic criteria in adults and children with clear guidance for various clinical circumstances. The recommendations have widespread international society endorsement and can serve

2020 JAMA

38. Medical treatment for early fetal death (less than 24 weeks). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Medical treatment for early fetal death (less than 24 weeks). In most pregnancies that miscarry, arrest of embryonic or fetal development occurs some time (often weeks) before the miscarriage occurs. Ultrasound examination can reveal abnormal findings during this phase by demonstrating anembryonic pregnancies or embryonic or fetal death. Treatment has traditionally been surgical but medical treatments may be effective, safe, and acceptable, as may be waiting for spontaneous miscarriage (...) of women were satisfied with the received intervention. Since the quality of evidence is low or very low for several comparisons, mainly because they included only one or two (small) trials; further research is necessary to assess the effectiveness, safety and side effects, optimal route of administration and dose of different medical treatments for early fetal death.

2019 Cochrane

39. Pregnancy and early life: reducing stillbirth and infant death

. It can be used to: model what effect an improvement to benchmarks would have on an area understand how factors could influence stillbirth and infant death locally prioritise services and address risk factors The tool is designed for planners and commissioners working in local government, clinical commissioning groups ( 9 July 2019 Added revised stillbirth and infant mortality tool. 3 July 2019 Added revised version of stillbirth and infant mortality tool. 2 April 2019 Added revised stillbirth (...) Pregnancy and early life: reducing stillbirth and infant death Pregnancy and early life: reducing stillbirth and infant death - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. Accept cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Guidance Pregnancy and early life: reducing stillbirth and infant death A planning tool to examine factors that influence stillbirth and infant death at the population level, rather than in individual clinical care. Published 12 March 2019

2019 Public Health England

40. The Reliability of Maternal Audit Instruments to Assign Cause of Death in Maternal Deaths Review Process: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ratnasari Dwi Cahyanti Faculty of Medicine, University of Diponegoro Widyawati Widyawati Universitas Gadjah Mada Corresponding Author ORCiD: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7923-1703 Mohammad Hakimi Universitas Gadjah Mada DOI: License: This work is licensed under a CC BY 4.0 License. Abstract Background: Maternal Death Reviews (MDR) can assist in formulating prevention strategies to reduce maternal mortality. To support MDR, an adequate MDR instrument is required to accurately identify the underlying (...) Metrics Metrics Comments : 0 PDF Downloads : ... HTML Views : ... Subject Areas Subject Areas DOI & PDF DOI: License License: This work is licensed under a CC BY 4.0 License. Declarations Abstract Background: Maternal Death Reviews (MDR) can assist in formulating prevention strategies to reduce maternal mortality. To support MDR, an adequate MDR instrument is required to accurately identify the underlying causes of maternal deaths. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine

2020 Research Square

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