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1. The Age-Well randomized controlled trial of the Medit-Ageing European project: Effect of meditation or foreign language training on brain and mental health in older adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Age-Well randomized controlled trial of the Medit-Ageing European project: Effect of meditation or foreign language training on brain and mental health in older adults. The Age-Well clinical trial is an ongoing monocentric, randomized, controlled trial aiming to assess an 18-month preventive meditation-based intervention directly targeting the attentional and emotional dimensions of aging to promote mental health and well-being in elderly people.One hundred thirty-seven cognitively (...) unimpaired older adults are randomized to either an 18-month meditation-based intervention, a structurally matched foreign language training, or a passive control arm. The impact of the intervention and underlying mechanisms are assessed with detailed cognitive, behavioral, biological, neuroimaging and sleep examinations.Recruitment began in late 2016 and ended in May 2018. The interventions are ongoing and will be completed by early 2020.This is the first trial addressing the emotional and cognitive

2018 Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2. Unpleasant meditation-related experiences in regular meditators: Prevalence, predictors, and conceptual considerations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Unpleasant meditation-related experiences in regular meditators: Prevalence, predictors, and conceptual considerations. So far, the large and expanding body of research on meditation has mostly focussed on the putative benefits of meditation on health and well-being. However, a growing number of reports indicate that psychologically unpleasant experiences can occur in the context of meditation practice. Very little is known about the prevalence and potential causes of these experiences. The aim (...) of this study was to report the prevalence of particularly unpleasant meditation-related experiences in a large international sample of regular meditators, and to explore the association of these experiences with demographic characteristics, meditation practice, repetitive negative thinking, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Using a cross-sectional online survey, 1,232 regular meditators with at least two months of meditation experience (mean age = 44.8 years ± 13.8, 53.6% female) responded to one question

2019 PLoS ONE

3. Effects of a 7-Day Meditation Retreat on the Brain Function of Meditators and Non-Meditators During an Attention Task Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of a 7-Day Meditation Retreat on the Brain Function of Meditators and Non-Meditators During an Attention Task Meditation as a cognitive enhancement technique is of growing interest in the field of health and research on brain function. The Stroop Word-Color Task (SWCT) has been adapted for neuroimaging studies as an interesting paradigm for the understanding of cognitive control mechanisms. Performance in the SWCT requires both attention and impulse control, which is trained (...) in meditation practices. We presented SWCT inside the MRI equipment to measure the performance of meditators compared with non-meditators before and after a meditation retreat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 7-day Zen intensive meditation training (a retreat) on meditators and non-meditators in this task on performance level and neural mechanisms. Nineteen meditators and 14 non-meditators were scanned before and after a 7-day Zen meditation retreat. No significant differences were

2018 Frontiers in human neuroscience

4. WITHDRAWN: Transcendental meditation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

WITHDRAWN: Transcendental meditation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. A major determinant in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is stress. As transcendental meditation (TM) is thought to help in lowering negative stress indicators, it may be a beneficial strategy for the primary prevention of CVD.To determine the effectiveness of TM for the primary prevention of CVD.We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013

2017 Cochrane

5. Still facial photographs of long-term meditators are perceived by naïve observers as less neurotic, more conscientious and more mindful than non-meditating controls. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Still facial photographs of long-term meditators are perceived by naïve observers as less neurotic, more conscientious and more mindful than non-meditating controls. The impact of meditation training on self-report psychological variables is well-established. Although meditation training is purported to have interpersonal impacts, whether naïve observers perceive differences associated with long- and short-term meditation training is largely unknown. The current study provided a stringent test (...) of this possibility through observer ratings of a very thin slice of expressive behavior: still photographs. Photographs were drawn from a larger study investigating differences between long-term meditators (LTM) and meditation naïve participants (MNP) who were exposed to one of three experimental conditions. Photographs of ninety-nine targets (16 LTMs, 83 MNPs) were taken at baseline, prior to the randomization of MNPs to an eight-week mindfulness meditation course (mindfulness-based stress reduction; n = 27

2019 PloS one Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6. A Double-Blind Study Exploring the Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to Potentially Enhance Mindfulness Meditation (E-Meditation). (Abstract)

A Double-Blind Study Exploring the Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to Potentially Enhance Mindfulness Meditation (E-Meditation). 27839723 2019 11 20 1876-4754 10 1 2017 Jan - Feb Brain stimulation Brain Stimul A Double-Blind Study Exploring the Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to Potentially Enhance Mindfulness Meditation (E-Meditation). 152-154 S1935-861X(16)30267-4 10.1016/j.brs.2016.09.009 Badran Bashar W BW Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Department

2019 Brain stimulation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7. Brain Plasticity and Neurophysiological Correlates of Meditation in Long-Term Meditators: A <sup>18</sup>Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Study Based on an Innovative Methodology. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brain Plasticity and Neurophysiological Correlates of Meditation in Long-Term Meditators: A 18Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Study Based on an Innovative Methodology. Objective: Previous studies evaluating neurophysiological correlates of long-term meditation are constrained by some methodological limitations. The objective of this study was to measure changes in the regional cerebral glucose metabolism during meditation using a novel methodological approach. Design (...) : The present study was a part of a larger, nonrandomized, single-center open-label study. Setting/location: The study was conducted at the Department of Physiology and Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography. A dedicated place was set up as a yoga room, away from the positron emission tomography (PET) scanning room in the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography, where meditators performed meditation in a peaceful environment in a sitting posture with eyes

2019 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

8. A reanalysis of a randomized trial on meditation for migraine headaches: Distraction is not enough but meditation takes time. (Abstract)

A reanalysis of a randomized trial on meditation for migraine headaches: Distraction is not enough but meditation takes time. Migraine headaches affect about approximately 15% of the population and some notable efforts have been made to develop meditation interventions to address pain and mood among this population. However, key active ingredients and the necessary duration of meditation interventions to produce an effect are still unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess key meditation (...) ingredients that positively impact mood and headache factors across different meditation techniques and to establish an initial time or" dose" needed to reach proactive treatment efficacy.In this longitudinal study, three active management forms of meditation were compared to a cognitive distraction meditation to assess the effects on migraine headaches and emotions over a 30 day period when practiced 20 min per day.The active group showed significant decreases in anger (p = .005) and migraine pain (p 

2019 Complementary Therapies In Medicine

9. Brief, daily meditation enhances attention, memory, mood, and emotional regulation in non-experienced meditators. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brief, daily meditation enhances attention, memory, mood, and emotional regulation in non-experienced meditators. Meditation is an ancient practice that cultivates a calm yet focused mind; however, little is known about how short, practical meditation practices affect cognitive functioning in meditation-naïve populations. To address this question, we randomized subjects (ages of 18-45) who were non-experienced meditators into either a 13-min daily guided meditation session or a 13-min daily (...) podcast listening session (control group) for a total duration of 8 weeks. We examined the effects of the daily meditation practice relative to podcast listening on mood, prefrontal and hippocampal functioning, baseline cortisol levels, and emotional regulation using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Compared to our control group, we found that 8 but not 4 weeks of brief, daily meditation decreased negative mood state and enhanced attention, working memory, and recognition memory as well

2019 Behavioural brain research

10. Positive Emotion Correlates of Meditation Practice: A Comparison of Mindfulness Meditation and Loving-kindness Meditation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Positive Emotion Correlates of Meditation Practice: A Comparison of Mindfulness Meditation and Loving-kindness Meditation The purpose of this study was to uncover the day-to-day emotional profiles and dose-response relations, both within-persons and between-persons, associated with initiating one of two meditation practices, either mindfulness meditation or loving-kindness meditation. Data were pooled across two studies of midlife adults (N = 339) who were randomized to learn either mindfulness (...) meditation or loving-kindness meditation in a six-week workshop. The duration and frequency of meditation practice was measured daily for nine weeks, commencing with the first workshop session. Likewise, positive and negative emotions were also measured daily, using the modified Differential Emotions Scale (Fredrickson, 2013). Analysis of daily emotion reports over the targeted nine-week period showed significant gains in positive emotions and no change in negative emotions, regardless of meditation type

2017 Mindfulness Controlled trial quality: uncertain

11. Affective Responses to Acute Bouts of Aerobic Exercise, Mindfulness Meditation, and Combinations of Exercise and Meditation: A Randomized Controlled Intervention. (Abstract)

Affective Responses to Acute Bouts of Aerobic Exercise, Mindfulness Meditation, and Combinations of Exercise and Meditation: A Randomized Controlled Intervention. Single bouts of aerobic exercise and meditation have been shown to induce positive affect. In a novel experimental paradigm, we sought to examine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise and meditation, as well as exercise and meditation combined on affect among young adults. Participants ( N = 110, mean age = 21.4 years) were (...) randomly assigned to walk, meditate, walk then meditate, meditate then walk, or to sit (inactive control). All walking and meditation bouts were 10 minutes in duration. Participants' affect was monitored before and after the intervention using the Exercise Induced Feelings Inventory. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed for three Exercise Induced Feelings Inventory subscales, including revitalization ( p < .001), tranquility ( p = .02), and exhaustion ( p = .03); the group × time

2018 Psychological reports Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12. Differential Experimental Effects of a Short Bout of Walking, Meditation, or Combination of Walking and Meditation on State Anxiety Among Young Adults. (Abstract)

Differential Experimental Effects of a Short Bout of Walking, Meditation, or Combination of Walking and Meditation on State Anxiety Among Young Adults. Single bouts of aerobic exercise and meditation have been shown to improve anxiety states. Yet to be evaluated in the literature, we sought to examine the effects of a single, short bout of aerobic exercise or meditation, as well as exercise and meditation combined on state anxiety among young adults.Randomized controlled (...) trial.University.Participants (N = 110, mean age = 21.4 years) were randomly assigned to walk, meditate, walk then meditate, meditate then walk, or to sit (inactive control).All walking and meditation bouts were 10 minutes in duration. Participants' state anxiety was monitored before and after the intervention using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire.Significant group × time interaction effects were observed ( P = .01). Post hoc paired t tests revealed that state anxiety significantly decreased from baseline

2018 American journal of health promotion : AJHP Controlled trial quality: uncertain

13. Enhancement of Meditation Analgesia by Opioid Antagonist in Experienced Meditators. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enhancement of Meditation Analgesia by Opioid Antagonist in Experienced Meditators. Studies have consistently shown that long-term meditation practice is associated with reduced pain, but the neural mechanisms by which long-term meditation practice reduces pain remain unclear. This study tested endogenous opioid involvement in meditation analgesia associated with long-term meditation practice.Electrical pain was induced with randomized, double-blind, cross-over administration of the opioid (...) antagonist naloxone (0.15-mg/kg bolus dose, then 0.2-mg/kg per hour infusion dose) with 32 healthy, experienced meditation practitioners and a standardized open monitoring meditation.Under saline, pain ratings were significantly lower during meditation (pain intensity: 6.41 ± 1.32; pain unpleasantness: 3.98 ± 2.17) than at baseline (pain intensity: 6.86 ±1.04, t(31) = 2.476, p = .019, Cohen's d = 0.46; pain unpleasantness: 4.96 ±1.75, t(31) = 3.746, p = .001, Cohen's d = 0.68), confirming the presence

2018 Psychosomatic Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

14. Pilot study of a compassion meditation intervention in chronic pain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pilot study of a compassion meditation intervention in chronic pain. The emergence of anger as an important predictor of chronic pain outcomes suggests that treatments that target anger may be particularly useful within the context of chronic pain. Eastern traditions prescribe compassion cultivation to treat persistent anger. Compassion cultivation has been shown to influence emotional processing and reduce negativity bias in the contexts of emotional and physical discomfort, thus suggesting (...) in pain severity and anger.Compassion meditation may be a useful adjunctive treatment for reducing pain severity and anger, and for increasing chronic pain acceptance. Patient reported reductions in anger were corroborated by their significant others. The significant other corroborations offer a novel contribution to the literature and highlight the observable emotional and behavioral changes in the patient participants that occurred following the compassion intervention. Future studies may further

2019 Journal of compassionate health care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15. Meditation for adults with haematological malignancies. (Abstract)

Meditation for adults with haematological malignancies. Malignant neoplasms of the lymphoid or myeloid cell lines including lymphoma, leukaemia and myeloma are referred to as haematological malignancies. Complementary and alternative treatment options such as meditation practice or yoga are becoming popular by treating all aspects of the disease including physical and psychological symptoms. However, there is still unclear evidence about meditation's effectiveness, and how its practice affects (...) the lives of haematologically-diseased patients.This review aims to assess the benefits and harms of meditation practice as an additional treatment to standard care for adults with haematological malignancies.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 8, 2015), MEDLINE (1950 to August 2015), databases of ongoing trials, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/), conference proceedings of annual meetings of: the American

2016 Cochrane

16. Effects of Sahaj Samadhi meditation on heart rate variability and depressive symptoms in patients with late-life depression (Abstract)

Effects of Sahaj Samadhi meditation on heart rate variability and depressive symptoms in patients with late-life depression Late-life depression (LLD) is a disabling disorder and antidepressants are ineffective in as many as 60% of cases. Converging evidence shows a strong correlation between LLD and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for new, well-tolerated, non-pharmacological augmentation interventions that can treat depressive symptoms as well as improve heart rate (...) variability (HRV), an important prognostic marker for development of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Meditation-based techniques are of interest based on positive findings in other samples.AimsWe aimed to assess the efficacy of Sahaj Samadhi meditation (SSM), an underevaluated, standardised and manualised meditation intervention, on HRV and depressive symptoms.Eighty-three men and women aged 60-85 years, with mild to moderate depression and receiving treatment as usual (TAU) were randomised to either

2019 EvidenceUpdates

17. Internet Mindfulness Meditation Intervention (IMMI) Improves Depression Symptoms in Older Adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Internet Mindfulness Meditation Intervention (IMMI) Improves Depression Symptoms in Older Adults. Background: Older adults have fewer physiological reserves and are more likely to be affected by stress. Mindfulness meditation has the potential to be an effective treatment for depression, but little research has been conducted on older adults. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate depression symptom changes in older adults (55⁻80 years old) taking an Internet Mindfulness Meditation (...) Intervention (IMMI) compared to a waitlist control. The secondary aims were to collect data on pain, perceived stress, resilience, mindfulness, sleep quality, and spirituality. Methods: Fifty older adults were randomized to either the Internet Mindfulness Meditation Intervention, a six-week online intervention with daily home practice, or a waitlist control. Measures were collected at baseline, after the six-week intervention period, and again six weeks later after the waitlist participants completed IMMI

2018 Medicines (Basel, Switzerland) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

18. Yoga, Meditation and Mind-Body Health: Increased BDNF, Cortisol Awakening Response, and Altered Inflammatory Marker Expression after a 3-Month Yoga and Meditation Retreat Full Text available with Trip Pro

Yoga, Meditation and Mind-Body Health: Increased BDNF, Cortisol Awakening Response, and Altered Inflammatory Marker Expression after a 3-Month Yoga and Meditation Retreat Thirty-eight individuals (mean age: 34.8 years old) participating in a 3-month yoga and meditation retreat were assessed before and after the intervention for psychometric measures, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), circadian salivary cortisol levels, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Participation (...) to exhibit smaller pre- to post-retreat increases in plasma BDNF levels. In line with a hypothesized decrease in inflammatory processes resulting from the yoga and meditation practices, we found that the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-10 was increased and the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-12 was reduced after the retreat. Contrary to our initial hypotheses, plasma levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, including Interferon Gamma (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF

2017 Frontiers in human neuroscience

19. Spontaneous eye movements during focused-attention mindfulness meditation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Spontaneous eye movements during focused-attention mindfulness meditation. Oculometric measures have been proven to be useful markers of mind-wandering during visual tasks such as reading. However, little is known about ocular activity during mindfulness meditation, a mental practice naturally involving mind-wandering episodes. In order to explore this issue, we extracted closed-eyes ocular movement measurements via a covert technique (EEG recordings) from expert meditators during two (...) repetitions of a 7-minute mindfulness meditation session, focusing on the breath, and two repetitions of a 7-minute instructed mind-wandering task. Power spectral density was estimated on both the vertical and horizontal components of eye movements. The results show a significantly smaller average amplitude of eye movements in the delta band (1-4 Hz) during mindfulness meditation than instructed mind-wandering. Moreover, participants' meditation expertise correlated significantly with this average

2019 PLoS ONE

20. Transcendental meditation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. (Abstract)

Transcendental meditation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. A major determinant in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is stress. As transcendental meditation (TM) is thought to help in lowering negative stress indicators, it may be a beneficial strategy for the primary prevention of CVD.To determine the effectiveness of TM for the primary prevention of CVD.We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 10

2014 Cochrane

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