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101. In Vitro Activity of Lefamulin and Other Antimicrobial Agents Against Macrolide-Susceptible and Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae from the United States, Europe, and China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vitro Activity of Lefamulin and Other Antimicrobial Agents Against Macrolide-Susceptible and Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae from the United States, Europe, and China. Lefamulin, an investigational pleuromutilin, was tested against a collection of 18 macrolide-susceptible and 42 macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains, and the results were compared with those of azithromycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline, and moxifloxacin testing. Lefamulin was highly active (...) against all strains tested, with all MICs at ≤0.008 μg/ml. The lefamulin MIC90 (0.002 μg/ml) for macrolide-resistant strains was the lowest among all drugs tested. Minimum bactericidal concentrations were within 2 dilutions of the MIC values, indicating a bactericidal effect.Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

2016 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

102. Macrolide resistance in Legionella pneumophila: the role of LpeAB efflux pump. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrolide resistance in Legionella pneumophila: the role of LpeAB efflux pump. A previous study on 12 in vitro -selected azithromycin-resistant Legionella pneumophila lineages showed that ribosomal mutations were major macrolide resistance determinants. In addition to these mechanisms that have been well described in many species, mutations upstream of lpeAB operon, homologous to acrAB in Escherichia coli , were identified in two lineages. In this study, we investigated the role of LpeAB (...) and of these mutations in macrolide resistance of L. pneumophila .The role of LpeAB was studied by testing the antibiotic susceptibility of WT, deleted and complemented L. pneumophila Paris strains. Translational fusion experiments using GFP as a reporter were conducted to investigate the consequences of the mutations observed in the upstream sequence of lpeAB operon.We demonstrated the involvement of LpeAB in an efflux pump responsible for a macrolide-specific reduced susceptibility of L. pneumophila Paris strain

2017 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

104. Kinetics of drug–ribosome interactions defines the cidality of macrolide antibiotics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Kinetics of drug–ribosome interactions defines the cidality of macrolide antibiotics Antibiotics can cause dormancy (bacteriostasis) or induce death (cidality) of the targeted bacteria. The bactericidal capacity is one of the most important properties of antibacterial agents. However, the understanding of the fundamental differences in the mode of action of bacteriostatic or bactericidal antibiotics, especially those belonging to the same chemical class, is very rudimentary. Here (...) , by examining the activity and binding properties of chemically distinct macrolide inhibitors of translation, we have identified a key difference in their interaction with the ribosome, which correlates with their ability to cause cell death. While bacteriostatic and bactericidal macrolides bind in the nascent peptide exit tunnel of the large ribosomal subunit with comparable affinities, the bactericidal antibiotics dissociate from the ribosome with significantly slower rates. The sluggish dissociation

2017 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

105. A Case of Macrolide-Refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Pregnancy Treated with Garenoxacin Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Case of Macrolide-Refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Pregnancy Treated with Garenoxacin Pneumonia in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and foetal outcomes, and intensive treatment with appropriate antibiotics is essential. However, cases caused by pathogens that are resistant to antibiotics suitable for the developing foetus are challenging. We herein report a case of macrolide-refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in pregnancy. A 40-year-old multigravida with twin (...) pregnancy complained of cough and fever at 13 weeks of gestation and was diagnosed with pneumonia. Even though empiric treatment with ceftriaxone and oral azithromycin was started, her condition deteriorated rapidly. The findings of chest computed tomography suggested Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Since azithromycin did not work, this strain was considered to be macrolide-refractory. Garenoxacin, an oral quinolone, was selected and was dramatically effective. The use of quinolone could be justified

2017 Case reports in obstetrics and gynecology

106. Effects of Macrolide and Corticosteroid in Neutrophilic Asthma Mouse Model Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Macrolide and Corticosteroid in Neutrophilic Asthma Mouse Model Asthma is a disease of chronic airway inflammation with heterogeneous features. Neutrophilic asthma is corticosteroid-insensitive asthma related to absence or suppression of TH2 process and increased TH1 and/or TH17 process. Macrolides are immunomodulatory drug that reduce airway inflammation, but their role in asthma is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of macrolides in neutrophilic (...) group (p<0.05).Decreased IL-17 and recovered relative HDAC2 activity correlated with airway resistance and inflammation in a neutrophilic asthma mouse model. This result suggests macrolides as a potential corticosteroid-sparing agent in neutrophilic asthma.Copyright©2018. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

2017 Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases

107. Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection, Japan, 2008-2015. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection, Japan, 2008-2015. We evaluated isolates obtained from children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection throughout Japan during 2008-2015. The highest prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae was 81.6% in 2012, followed by 59.3% in 2014 and 43.6% in 2015. The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae among children in Japan has decreased.

2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

108. Expression of acquired macrolide resistance genes in Haemophilus influenzae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Expression of acquired macrolide resistance genes in Haemophilus influenzae. To investigate the phenotypic effect of expression of selected acquired macrolide resistance genes (AMRGs) in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi).The AMRGs erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C) were cloned into Escherichia coli JM109 using the shuttle vector pLS88; constructed plasmids extracted from suitable clones were used to transform H. influenzae Rd by electroporation. Erythromycin and azithromycin MICs for suitable (...) populations of NTHi remains contentious, H. influenzae is capable of expression of erm. Expression may be associated with a subsequent decreased susceptibility to macrolides in isolates and future monitoring of these genes in NTHi isolates is warranted.© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

2017 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

109. Macrolide-associated sensorineural hearing loss: A systemic review. (Abstract)

Macrolide-associated sensorineural hearing loss: A systemic review. To investigate the potential association of macrolide antibiotics with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and which agents and dosage may be related. To evaluate whether an optimal treatment exists for reversing SNHL that occurs after macrolide therapy.Systematic review of the literature.Computerized (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library) and manual searches were performed to identify human studies of all ages (patients) who (...) received macrolides (intervention, with or without control) and documented SNHL (outcome). All study designs were assessed. Extracted data included macrolide regimen details, as well as the timing, severity, and reversibility of SNHL with drug cessation alone or with additional medical intervention. Study designs and the associated risk of bias were assessed.The 44 publications (3 prospective, 41 retrospective) that met these criteria described 78 cases of audiometrically confirmed SNHL. SNHL

2017 Laryngoscope

110. High levels of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in Queensland, Australia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High levels of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in Queensland, Australia. The macrolide azithromycin is recommended for treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection; however, M. genitalium strains possessing macrolide resistance-mediating mutations (MRMMs) are increasingly being reported. Here, we used the SpeeDx ResistancePlus MG kit, which provides simultaneous detection of M. genitalium and MRMMs, to assess MRMM carriage among M. genitalium infections in Queensland, Australia (...) levels of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium raise further concerns over future use of azithromycin for treatment of M. genitalium infection.

2017 Journal of Medical Microbiology

111. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Acquired Macrolide-resistant <i>Mycobacterium abscessus</i> Lung Disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Acquired Macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus Lung Disease. Macrolide antibiotics are mainstays in the treatment of lung disease due to the Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Although previous studies have reported development of acquired macrolide resistance in this species, limited data are available on the outcomes of lung disease due to macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus This study (...) evaluated the clinical features, treatment outcomes, and molecular characteristics of macrolide-resistant isolates of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus We performed a retrospective review of medical records and genetic analysis of clinical isolates from 13 patients who had acquired macrolide-resistant M. abscessus subsp. abscessus lung disease between November 2006 and March 2016. Eleven (85%) patients had the nodular bronchiectatic form of the disease, and two (15%) patients had the fibrocavitary form

2017 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

112. Mortality in patients with community-onset pneumonia at low risk of drug-resistant pathogens: Impact of β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mortality in patients with community-onset pneumonia at low risk of drug-resistant pathogens: Impact of β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy. Drug-resistant pathogen (DRP) risk stratification is important for choosing a treatment strategy for community-onset pneumonia. Evidence for benefits of non-antipseudomonal β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy (BLM) on mortality is limited in patients at low DRP risk. Risk factors for mortality remain to be clarified.Post hoc analysis using

2017 Respirology

113. Pertussis Outbreak in a Primary School in China: Infection and Transmission of the Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis. (Abstract)

Pertussis Outbreak in a Primary School in China: Infection and Transmission of the Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis. A pertussis outbreak was studied in a primary school in Xi'an, China, in March 2016. The school consisted of 536 pupils 6-12 years of age who were divided into 12 classes of 6 grades (2 classes for each grade). The identified index case was an 11-year-old girl at class 2 of grade 5.Interview was conducted and nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from all pupils (N = 94 (...) ) in the 2 classes of grade 5. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Four culture- and 17 PCR-positive cases were identified in 94 pupils. Infection rate was significantly higher in class 2 compared with that in class 1 [37.0% (17/46) vs. 14.6% (7/48), χ(2) = 4.26, P < 0.05]. All Bordetella pertussis isolates were macrolide-resistant, harbored prn1/ptxP1/fim3-1 as previously reported and belonged to multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis type MLVA 195

2017 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

114. Effectiveness of β-Lactam Monotherapy vs Macrolide Combination Therapy for Children Hospitalized With Pneumonia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effectiveness of β-Lactam Monotherapy vs Macrolide Combination Therapy for Children Hospitalized With Pneumonia. β-Lactam monotherapy and β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy are both common empirical treatment strategies for children hospitalized with pneumonia, but few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of these 2 treatment approaches.To compare the effectiveness of β-lactam monotherapy vs β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy among a cohort of children hospitalized (...) macrolide combination therapy. Data analysis was completed in April 2017.We defined the referent as β-lactam monotherapy, including exclusive use of an oral or parenteral second- or third-generation cephalosporin, penicillin, ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanate. Use of a β-lactam plus an oral or parenteral macrolide (azithromycin or clarithromycin) served as the comparison group. We modeled the association between these groups and patients' length of stay using

2017 JAMA pediatrics

115. Macrolides Blunt Aldosterone Biosynthesis: A Proof-of-Concept Study in <i>KCNJ5</i> Mutated Adenoma Cells Ex Vivo. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrolides Blunt Aldosterone Biosynthesis: A Proof-of-Concept Study in KCNJ5 Mutated Adenoma Cells Ex Vivo. Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), a major subtype of primary hyperaldosteronism, the main curable cause of human endocrine hypertension, involves somatic mutations in the potassium channel Kir3.4 (KCNJ5) in 30% to 70% of cases, typically the more florid phenotypes. Because KCNJ5 mutated channels were reported to be specifically sensitive to inhibition by macrolide antibiotics

2017 Hypertension

116. Comparison of efficacy of antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Japan during large epidemics of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infections: A nationwide observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of efficacy of antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Japan during large epidemics of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infections: A nationwide observational study. Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains with resistance to macrolides have been spreading worldwide. Here, we aimed to clarify which antimicrobial agent is a better treatment for patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia in a setting with large epidemics of macrolide resistance.Adult (...) patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed M. pneumoniae pneumonia from 2010 to 2013 were identified from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination national database. Drug switching, length of stay (LOS), 30-day mortality, and total costs for patients who underwent macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline therapy were compared using propensity score analyses.Eligible patients (N = 1650) from 602 hospitals were divided into the macrolide group (n = 508), quinolone group (n = 569), or tetracycline

2017 Clinical Infectious Diseases

117. Macrolides for KCNJ5

Macrolides for KCNJ5 Macrolides for KCNJ5 - Mutated Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma (MAPA) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Macrolides for KCNJ5 - Mutated Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma (MAPA (...) or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Hyperaldosteronism Drug: Clarithromycin Not Applicable Detailed Description: Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) cause primary aldosteronism (PA), the main curable cause of endocrine hypertension, is in up to 66% of all cases investigated with adrenal vein sampling (AVS). Mutations in the KCNJ5 potassium channel involve up to 70% of APA and cause the most florid PA phenotypes. The recent finding that macrolide antibiotics specifically inhibit in vitro the altered

2017 Clinical Trials

118. Risk of a biased assessment of the evidence when limiting literature searches to the English language: macrolides in asthma as an illustrative example. (Abstract)

Risk of a biased assessment of the evidence when limiting literature searches to the English language: macrolides in asthma as an illustrative example. 25271051 2016 01 21 2017 11 16 1522-9629 31 2015 Apr Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics Pulm Pharmacol Ther Risk of a biased assessment of the evidence when limiting literature searches to the English language: macrolides in asthma as an illustrative example. 109-10 10.1016/j.pupt.2014.09.006 S1094-5539(14)00115-1 Brusselle Guy G GG (...) Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; Departments of Epidemiology and Respiratory Medicine, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, CA 3000 Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: guy.brusselle@ugent.be. Blasi Francesco F Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Cà Granda Milan, Italy. eng Letter 2014 09 28 England Pulm Pharmacol Ther 9715279 1094-5539 0 Macrolides IM Asthma

2017 Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

119. Moraxella catarrhalis Macrolide-Resistant Isolates Are Highly Concentrated in Two MLST Clonal Complexes -CCN10 and CC363 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Moraxella catarrhalis Macrolide-Resistant Isolates Are Highly Concentrated in Two MLST Clonal Complexes -CCN10 and CC363 To gain some insights into the molecular evolution of Moraxella catarrhalis macrolide resistance, PCR and sequencing analysis of the 23S rRNA gene, copB typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on 181 M. catarrhalis isolates. The isolates were obtained from children (n = 47) and adults (n = 134) presenting with respiratory disease in the years 2010-2014 (...) . Macrolide resistance was highly age-related, and nucleotide position alterations at A2330T could be detected in all macrolide-resistant isolates. copB 0 and copB NT (non-typable) were only found in macrolide-susceptible isolates from adults. Furthermore, copB I/III was the main type in adult or macrolide-susceptible isolates, while copB II was the most common type in children or macrolide-resistant isolates. Twenty-two different MLST clusters (sharing 7 of the 8 identical loci) were detected and only

2017 Frontiers in microbiology

120. Evaluation of a Commercial Multiplex Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance-Associated Mutations in Clinical Specimens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of a Commercial Multiplex Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance-Associated Mutations in Clinical Specimens 28031435 2018 07 24 2018 11 13 1098-660X 55 3 2017 03 Journal of clinical microbiology J. Clin. Microbiol. Evaluation of a Commercial Multiplex Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Macrolide Resistance-Associated Mutations in Clinical Specimens. 978-979 10.1128 (...) , France. eng Evaluation Studies Letter Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 2016 12 28 United States J Clin Microbiol 7505564 0095-1137 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents 0 Macrolides IM Anti-Bacterial Agents pharmacology Drug Resistance, Bacterial Female Genotyping Techniques methods Humans Macrolides pharmacology Male Microbial Sensitivity Tests methods Molecular Diagnostic Techniques methods Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction methods Mutation Mycoplasma Infections diagnosis microbiology Mycoplasma genitalium

2017 Journal of clinical microbiology

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