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81. Evaluation of Allergy to Tacrolimus in Kidney Transplant Candidates and Recipients with a History of Macrolide Antibiotic Allergy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of Allergy to Tacrolimus in Kidney Transplant Candidates and Recipients with a History of Macrolide Antibiotic Allergy. 29673079 2018 07 06 1600-6143 18 7 2018 Jul American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons Am. J. Transplant. Evaluation of allergy to tacrolimus in kidney transplant candidates and recipients with a history of macrolide antibiotic allergy. 1831-1832 10.1111/ajt.14879

2018 American Journal of Transplantation

82. Use of Pristinamycin for Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma genitalium Infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of Pristinamycin for Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma genitalium Infection. High levels of macrolide resistance and increasing fluoroquinolone resistance are found in Mycoplasma genitalium in many countries. We evaluated pristinamycin for macrolide-resistant M. genitalium in a sexual health center in Australia. Microbiologic cure was determined by M. genitalium-specific 16S PCR 14-90 days after treatment began. Of 114 persons treated with pristinamycin, infection was cured in 85 (75 (...) %). This percentage did not change when pristinamycin was given at daily doses of 2 g or 4 g or at 3 g combined with 200 mg doxycycline. In infections with higher pretreatment bacterial load, treatment was twice as likely to fail for each 1 log10 increase in bacterial load. Gastrointestinal side effects occurred in 7% of patients. Pristinamycin at maximum oral dose, or combined with doxycycline, cured 75% of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium infections. Pristinamycin is well-tolerated and remains an option where

2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

83. Emergence of resistance to macrolides and rifampicin in clinical isolates of <i>Rhodococcus equi</i> from foals in central Kentucky, USA: 1995 to 2017. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emergence of resistance to macrolides and rifampicin in clinical isolates of Rhodococcus equi from foals in central Kentucky, USA: 1995 to 2017. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Rhodococcus equi strains resistant to macrolides and rifampin over time in clinical samples from foals submitted to diagnostic laboratories in central Kentucky. We performed a retrospective observational study of all clinical samples from foals that were submitted to veterinary (...) , or musculoskeletal infections. The considerable increase in the prevalence of isolates of R. equi resistant to macrolides and rifampin since 2007 is of concern for both human and animal health.Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

84. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium infections in Cuban patients: an underestimated health problem. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium infections in Cuban patients: an underestimated health problem. The increasing prevalence of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma genitalium is a major concern worldwide. In Cuba, several cases of clinical treatment failure with 1 g single dose and extended azithromycin regimen have been detected and the aim of the present investigation was to retrospectively determine the prevalence of macrolide-resistance mediating mutations (MRMM) in M. genitalium-positive (...) 2009 and 2013 but since 2014 a dramatic increase to 90% (95% CI, 76-96%) in 2016 was seen. Three new M. genitalium isolates were isolated in Vero cell cultures and confirmed phenotypic resistance to macrolides in a cell-culture assisted susceptibility test. Preliminary observations suggest that combination therapy with levofloxacin and doxycycline may represent an affordable option for treatment of macrolide resistant M. genitalium infections.This investigation showed the rapid emergence and high

2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

85. Combination of aspirin plus macrolides in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a hypothesis-generating study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Combination of aspirin plus macrolides in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a hypothesis-generating study. While the inflammatory response to severe pneumonia is paramount in limiting and resolving the infection, excessive inflammation can lead to deleterious effects. We theorized that patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who were treated with macrolides and aspirin would receive benefit beyond that of conventional antibiotic therapy. An observational study (...) was conducted with patients with severe CAP. All patients were admitted to 5 teaching hospitals (in Italy, the United States, Japan, and China), and data were gathered from their electronic medical records. Severe pneumonia was defined according to Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society criteria. Patients were divided into 4 groups, i.e., (i) the aspirin-only group (ASG), (ii) the macrolide-only group (MG), (iii) the aspirin plus macrolide group (ASMG), or (iv) the neither aspirin

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

87. Novel mechanism responsible for high-level macrolide resistance in Moraxella catarrhalis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Novel mechanism responsible for high-level macrolide resistance in Moraxella catarrhalis High-level macrolide-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis strains have been isolated; however, the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated. We investigated the role of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene and the L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins using spontaneous erythromycin-resistant mutants and transformants.The erythromycin-susceptible M. catarrhalis ATCC25238 and clinical isolate Mc19 were used as parental (...) and Insertion98SRADRIS in L22. S19-256-af10 exhibited three C2611T-mutated alleles in the 23S rRNA gene and G65A in L4. Transformants with single mutations identified in S25-32-af10 or S19-256-af10 showed higher erythromycin and azithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) than those of each parental strain. However, transformants with multiple mutations identified in S25-32-af10 or S19-256-af10 showed macrolide MICs similar to those of each parental strain.Our results provide the first evidence suggesting

2018 Infection and drug resistance

88. Development of macrolide resistance in Bordetella bronchiseptica is associated with the loss of virulence. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development of macrolide resistance in Bordetella bronchiseptica is associated with the loss of virulence. Why resistance to specific antibiotics emerges and spreads rapidly in some bacteria confronting these drugs but not others remains a mystery. Resistance to erythromycin in the respiratory pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae emerged rapidly and increased problematically. However, resistance is uncommon amongst the classic Bordetella species despite infections being (...) treated with this macrolide for decades.We examined whether the apparent progenitor of the classic Bordetella spp., Bordetella bronchiseptica, is able to rapidly generate de novo resistance to antibiotics and, if so, why such resistance might not persist and propagate.Independent strains of B. bronchiseptica resistant to erythromycin were generated in vitro by successively passaging them in increasing subinhibitory concentrations of this macrolide. Resistant mutants obtained were evaluated

2018 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

89. Azithromycin or erythromycin? Macrolides for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in adults: A systematic review and adjusted indirect treatment comparison. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Azithromycin or erythromycin? Macrolides for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in adults: A systematic review and adjusted indirect treatment comparison. Non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis is a condition characterized by an airway inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens. Frequent exacerbations have a major influence on the quality of life. Macrolide antibiotics have not only antibacterial but also immune-regulation effects. It is proved that macrolides have a benefit (...) in preventing exacerbations. However, it is still uncertain whether azithromycin or erythromycin is more effective and safe. The purpose of this study was to answer the following question: Which kind of macrolide antibiotic is more effective and safe in preventing non-CF bronchiectasis exacerbation? We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized clinical trials published up to May 2017 that reported on macrolides for non-CF bronchiectasis and an adjusted indirect treatment comparison (AITC) between

2018 Chronic respiratory disease

90. The effect of antibiotic selection pressure on the nasopharyngeal macrolide resistome: a cluster-randomized trial. (Abstract)

The effect of antibiotic selection pressure on the nasopharyngeal macrolide resistome: a cluster-randomized trial. Frequent use of antibiotics is thought to create selection pressure by clearing susceptible bacteria and allowing resistant bacteria to spread in a community. A cluster-randomized trial comparing 2 different frequencies of mass azithromycin distributions for trachoma provided a convenient experiment for determining the causal relationship between antibiotic consumption (...) and antibiotic resistance.Twenty-four communities were randomized to either annual or biannual mass azithromycin distributions for trachoma. Randomization was stratified on health catchment area and trachoma prevalence. Swabs were processed for the genetic macrolide resistance determinants ermB and mefA/E in a masked fashion from a random sample of 120 preschool children before treatment and another 120 children after 2 years of mass antibiotics.Macrolide resistance determinants were similar in the 12

2018 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

91. Development of Macrolide Resistance and Reinfection in Refractory Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease. (Abstract)

Development of Macrolide Resistance and Reinfection in Refractory Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease. Patients with refractory Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD) undergo long-term macrolide therapy, but macrolide resistance develops infrequently.The aim of this study was to determine whether reinfection was a factor in the low incidence of macrolide resistance in patients with refractory MAC-LD.Among 481 patients with treatment-naive MAC-LD who started antibiotic treatment (...) between January 2002 and December 2013, we identified 72 patients with refractory disease, characterized by persistently positive sputum cultures despite ≥12 months of treatment. Molecular analyses of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene responsible for macrolide resistance and serial mycobacterial genotyping were performed using stored MAC isolates.The median duration of treatment was 32 months (interquartile range, 24-41 mo) in 72 patients. After treatment for a median of 33 months (interquartile range, 21-44

2018 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

92. The Cardiovascular safety of Macrolides: A Systematic review, meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Cardiovascular safety of Macrolides: A Systematic review, meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. Studies reporting an increased risk for cardiac toxicities with macrolide antibiotics have raised concern regarding their cardiovascular safety. We sought to assess the cardiac safety of macrolide antibiotics as a class and of the individual agents by conducting a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to February 2018 (...) for studies reporting on cardiovascular outcomes with macrolides. We followed the PRISMA 2009 guidelines for data selection and extraction. Outcomes were pooled using random-effects models and odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for arrhythmia, cardiovascular death, and myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 33 studies and data on 22,601,032 subjects were retrieved and included in the current meta-analyses. Macrolide use was not associated with the risk of arrhythmia

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

93. Anti-inflammatory effects of adjunctive macrolide treatment in adults hospitalized with influenza: A randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Anti-inflammatory effects of adjunctive macrolide treatment in adults hospitalized with influenza: A randomized controlled trial. - Macrolides can ameliorate inflammation in respiratory diseases, providing clinical benefits. Data in influenza is lacking.- A randomized, open-label, multicenter trial among adults hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed influenza was conducted. Study treatments of oseltamivir and azithromycin (500 mg/day), or oseltamivir alone, both for 5 days, were allocated at 1:1 (...) unaffected. Additional ex vivo studies confirmed reduced induction of IL-6 (P = 0.017) and CXCL8/IL-8 (P = 0.005) with azithromycin.- We found significant anti-inflammatory effects with adjunctive macrolide treatment in adults with severe influenza infections. Virus control was unimpaired. Clinical benefits of a macrolide-containing regimen deserve further study. [ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01779570].Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2018 Antiviral research Controlled trial quality: predicted high

94. Adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates under conditions relevant to the host: relationship with macrolide resistance and clonal lineages. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates under conditions relevant to the host: relationship with macrolide resistance and clonal lineages. Staphylococcus aureus isolates, collected from various clinical samples, were analysed to evaluate the contribution of the genetic background of both erythromycin-resistant (ERSA) and -susceptible (ESSA) S. aureus strains to biofilm formation.A total of 66 ESSA and 43 ERSA clinical isolates were studied for adhesiveness (...) and biofilm formation under different atmospheres. All isolates were evaluated for phenotypic and genotypic macrolide resistance, and for clonal relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and by spa typing on representative isolates.A high genetic heterogeneity was encountered, although 10 major PFGE types accounted for 86 % with a few small spatially and temporally related clusters. Overall, biofilm formation under anoxia was significantly lower than under oxic and micro-aerophilic

2018 Journal of Medical Microbiology

95. Effect of the duration of antimicrobial exposure on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) for macrolide antibiotics: protocol for a systematic review with a network meta-analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of the duration of antimicrobial exposure on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) for macrolide antibiotics: protocol for a systematic review with a network meta-analysis. Antimicrobial resistance generates a huge health and economic burden and has the potential to become the leading cause of death globally, but its underlying drivers are yet to be fully described. The association between a microbe's exposure to antimicrobials and subsequent development of, or selection (...) for, resistance is well documented, as are the exacerbating microbial and human factors. However, the nature and extent of this risk, and how it varies by antimicrobial class and duration of treatment, is poorly defined. The goal of our systematic review and network meta-analysis is to determine the relationship between the duration of antimicrobial exposure and selection for resistance. We will use macrolides as the antimicrobial class of interest and Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage as an indicator

2018 Systematic reviews

96. Lanyamycin, a macrolide antibiotic from Sorangium cellulosum, strain Soce 481 (Myxobacteria) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lanyamycin, a macrolide antibiotic from Sorangium cellulosum, strain Soce 481 (Myxobacteria) Lanyamycin (1/2), a secondary metabolite occurring as two epimers, was isolated from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, strain Soce 481. The structures of both epimers were elucidated from HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR data and the relative configuration of their macrolactone ring was assigned based on NOE and vicinal 1H NMR coupling constants and by calculation of a 3D model. Lanyamycin inhibited HCV

2018 Beilstein journal of organic chemistry

97. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina: Frequent Nichols-like isolates and low levels of macrolide resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina: Frequent Nichols-like isolates and low levels of macrolide resistance. A total of 54 clinical samples, including genital lesion swabs, whole blood and cerebrospinal fluid from patients diagnosed with syphilis were collected in 2006 and in 2013 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Treponemal DNA was detected in 43 of the analyzed samples (79.6%) and further analyzed using Sequencing-based molecular typing (SBMT) and Enhanced

2017 PLoS ONE

98. Prevalence of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-mediating mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in five cities in Russia and Estonia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance-mediating mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in five cities in Russia and Estonia. Resistance in the sexually transmitted bacterium Mycoplasma genitalium to all recommended therapeutic antimicrobials have rapidly emerged. However, to date, internationally reported resistance surveillance data for M. genitalium strains circulating in Eastern Europe are entirely lacking. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of macrolide (...) and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations in M. genitalium in four cities in Russia and one in Estonia, 2013-2016.Consecutive urogenital samples found positive for M. genitalium during diagnostic testing were retrospectively analyzed for resistance-associated mutations in the 23S rRNA and parC genes using pyrosequencing and conventional Sanger sequencing, respectively.In total, 867 M. genitalium positive samples from 2013-2016 were analyzed. Macrolide resistance-associated mutations were detected in 4.6

2017 PLoS ONE

99. Treatment with macrolides and glucocorticosteroids in severe community-acquired pneumonia: A post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment with macrolides and glucocorticosteroids in severe community-acquired pneumonia: A post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Systemic corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory effects, whereas macrolides also have immunomodulatory activity in addition to their primary antimicrobial actions. We aimed to evaluate the potential interaction effect between corticosteroids and macrolides on the systemic inflammatory response in patients with severe community-acquired (...) discretion. One hundred and six patients were classified into four groups according to antimicrobial therapy combination (β-lactam plus macrolide or β-lactam plus fluoroquinolone) and corticosteroid arm (placebo or corticosteroids). The primary outcome was treatment failure (composite outcome of early treatment failure, or of late treatment failure, or of both early and late treatment failure).The methylprednisolone with β-lactam plus macrolide group had more elderly patients, with comorbidities

2017 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: predicted high

100. Cohort study: Balancing competing risks: perinatal exposure to macrolides increases the risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cohort study: Balancing competing risks: perinatal exposure to macrolides increases the risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis Balancing competing risks: perinatal exposure to macrolides increases the risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our (...) . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Balancing competing risks: perinatal exposure to macrolides increases the risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis Article

2014 Evidence-Based Medicine

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